Hormone tests are the basis of gynecological diagnosis.
Hormone (ancient-Greek. Άρμάω - excite, impel) - organic compounds that produce our glands. By entering the blood, they form bonds with the receptors, thereby regulating the physiology and metabolism in the body.
The concentration of hormones in the body is called hormonal background. Hormonal background may change several times over a short period of time, during the period of the menstrual cycle and during the child's bearing.
It is extremely important to quickly respond to changes in hormonal levels, timely determine abnormalities in the concentration of hormones in order to protect the future mother and child from undesirable consequences. To do this, pregnant women need to be tested.
Sex hormones - a group of hormones that are responsible for the performance of systems and organs that affect the production of offspring, and regulate the overall balance of hormones (hormones) in the female body. What are the sex hormones:
- Androgenic (a group of male hormones),
- Estrogenic (group of female hormones),
- Progestin (formed during pregnancy).
What tests need to pass on hormones?
In a normal state, a healthy body produces both male and female hormones with different levels of intensity. It is logical that the woman's body synthesizes mainly estrogens, while in the male body a small amount of estrogen is synthesized, but a lot of testosterone is produced. When the normal ratio of androgens and estrogens is disturbed, the body is at risk of the appearance of various pathologies. For example, an overestimated level of testosterone concentration in a woman’s body leads to the appearance of secondary male signs (alopecia, or vice versa, the intensity of hair growth on the face and body).
Follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones
FSH and LH - a pair of sex hormones that affect sexual needs, regulate the body's ovulatory function. Synthesis of FGS and LH occurs in the pituitary gland.
A small proportion of estrogen is synthesized by the adrenal glands, the main part is produced in the ovaries. Estrogens make it possible for a girl to become a girl and control the body's ability to bear children. The estrogen group includes estradiol, a hormone responsible for the cyclical nature of menstruation and controlling the functions of the circulatory system. Low estradiol can cause osteoporosis.
During pregnancy, progesterone is formed in the placenta, as its content in the body is necessary for the safe course of pregnancy. Reduced progesterone can cause any complications up to the spontaneous termination of pregnancy. In women who do not plan to have a baby, progesterone is synthesized in the ovaries and adrenal glands.
Like some other sex hormones, the pituitary gland also produces prolactin, a hormone that causes the appearance of breasts during a transitional period in adolescent girls. When a woman has a baby, it is prolactin that makes breastfeeding possible, regulating the work of the mammary glands.
Need to know!
Prolactin and FGS - conflicting hormones. The increased concentration of prolactin blocks the production of FGS, which is responsible for the possibility of fertilization of the egg. Because of this, if a woman is breastfeeding, the possibility of becoming pregnant during this period of time is extremely small.
Testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
Testosterone and DHEA are considered male sex hormones, but in the female body they are also produced, albeit in much lower concentrations. Testosterone controls sexual needs. If a woman has a low level of testosterone, at that time she will not have an active sex life. With a high concentration of testosterone in the body of a woman, the secondary symptoms of the male sex prevail (stubble, mustache appear, hair falls out on the head).
Analysis of hormones in women How to pass? How to prepare?
You need to correctly calculate the date before the study, using the calendar of your own menstrual cycle. It is necessary to prepare so that at the time of the analysis the woman has the correct hormonal background. Any altered hormonal background will produce distorted results that the doctor will rely on when a patient’s diagnosis is made.
What are the dates and how are hormones tested?
The doctor himself will indicate to the patient the correctly calculated day before the analysis, guided by the following principles:
- The analysis for FSH and LH is taken on the fourth day of the menstrual cycle,
- Estradiol and progesterone should be tested at the end of the third week of the cycle, plus or minus one day or the seventh day after ovulation.
- A study of the content of DHEA and testosterone is properly carried out on the 4th or 9th day of the cycle.
- To determine the correct diagnosis, the doctor sometimes take several tests for hormones in one month.
How to prepare for the delivery of the analysis of hormones?
The hormonal system works in conjunction with all the internal organs and systems of the body, therefore, to obtain reliable results on hormone tests, you need to properly prepare for the test:
- You can not eat just before the analysis,
- For some time before passing the analysis it is necessary to refrain from physical exertion,
- A few days before the analysis, eliminate unhealthy foods from the diet. Do not drink alcohol, do not smoke,
- Clearly comply with the advice of your doctor.
What is the process of taking a test for hormones?
In the laboratory, a blood sample is taken from the patient's elbow vein using sterile medical instruments. Then the sample taken is placed in some special sealed vessel and transported for microscopic examination. The result of the analysis is usually obtained the next day after delivery.
What is the result of the analysis considered normal?
It is better to entrust the decoding of the results of the analysis to an experienced medical specialist of the respective profile, because in order to make a correct diagnosis it is important to have a general picture of the patient's state of health.
What are the normal levels of hormones:
- The rate of LH depends on what day of the cycle the biomaterial was collected. If on the day of the initial stage, the concentration should be in the range of 1.1 - 8.7 mIU / ml. If on the day of ovulation - from 13.2 to 72 mIU / ml. On the day of the last stage - 0.9 - 14.4 mIU / ml.
- The analysis for FSH at the beginning of the cycle should be within the range of 1.8 to 11.4 mIU / ml.
- The norm of estradiol is from 13 to 191 mg / ml.
- The rate of progesterone in women is from 7 to 468 nmol / l, and during childbirth, progesterone levels increase significantly.
- Prolactin. Its concentration should be 67 - 726 mIU / ml.
Need to know!
Normal levels of sex hormones in the body change during the period of maturation, that is, one woman has different hormone levels at different periods of life.
Hormonal tests: when and why are they prescribed?
The level of hormones is most often determined in the blood, less often - in the urine. Studies on hormones can be prescribed, for example, in the following cases:
- violations in the development of certain organs,
- pregnancy diagnosis,
- pregnancy threatened with miscarriage
- kidney dysfunction
- metabolic disorders
- problems with hair, nails and skin,
- depressive states and other mental problems
- tumor diseases.
The pediatrician, therapeutist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, gastroenterologist, psychiatrist can give a referral for analysis.
Preparation for testing for hormones
What rules should be followed when giving blood for hormone level analysis so that the results are as accurate as possible? It is necessary to refrain from eating food for 7-12 hours before blood collection. During the day prior to the study, alcohol, coffee, physical exertion, stress, sexual contacts should be excluded. The possibility of taking medication during this period should be discussed with your doctor. In the study of the hormonal status of women it is important to know which day of the cycle should be tested. So, blood for follicle-stimulating, luteinizing hormones and prolactin is given for 3-5 days of the cycle, for testosterone - for 8-10, and for progesterone and estradiol - for 21-22 days.
If you donate daily urine, you should strictly adhere to the scheme of its collection and comply with storage conditions.
Laboratory Diagnostic Methods
It is only a specialist (endocrinologist, gynecologist, general practitioner, gastroenterologist, etc.) who can decide what tests should be taken for hormones based on the results of the examination. Moreover, the number of analyzes is commensurate with the number of hormones, and there are more than 100 of them in the body. In the article we consider only the most common types of research.
Evaluation of the pituitary somatotropic function necessary for people who have gigantism, acromegaly (increase in the skull, hands and feet) or dwarfism. The normal content of somatotropic hormone in the blood is 0.2–13 mU / l, somatomedin-C - 220–996 ng / ml at the age of 14–16 years, 66–166 ng / ml - after 80 years.
Pathology of the pituitary-adrenal system manifested in the violation of the homeostasis of the body: increased blood clotting, increased synthesis of carbohydrates, reduced protein and mineral metabolism. To diagnose such pathological conditions, it is necessary to determine the content of the following hormones in the body:
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone is responsible for skin pigmentation and fat splitting, the norm is less than 22 pmol / l in the first half of the day and not more than 6 pmol / l in the second.
- Cortisol regulates metabolism, the norm is 250–720 nmol / l in the first half of the day and 50–250 nmol / l in the second half (the concentration difference should be at least 100 nmol / l).
- Free cortisol - surrenders if Itsenko-Cushing's disease is suspected. The amount of hormone in the urine is 138–524 nmol / day.
These tests are often prescribed by endocrinologists for obesity or lack of weight, they are handed over to determine if there are serious hormonal failures and which ones.
Thyroid gland malfunction manifested by increased irritability, changes in body weight, increased blood pressure, fraught with gynecological diseases and infertility. What tests should be taken for thyroid hormones, if at least a few of the above symptoms are detected? First of all, it concerns the study of the level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulate metabolic processes, mental activity, as well as the functions of the cardiovascular, sexual and digestive systems. Normal hormone levels look like this:
- T3 is common - 1.1–3.15 pmol / l, free - 2.6–5.7 pmol / l.
- T4 total - 60–140 nmol / l, free - 100–120 nmol / l.
- TSH - 0.2–4.2 mIU / L.
- Antibodies to thyroglobulin - up to 115 IU / ml.
- Antibodies to thyroperoxidase - 35 IU / ml.
- T-Uptake - 0.32–0.48 units.
- Tireoglobulin - up to 55 ng / ml.
- Antibodies to thyrocyte microsomal antigen - less than 1.0 U / l.
- Autoantibodies to thyroid stimulating hormone receptors - 0–0.99 IU / L.
Malfunctions in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism lead to osteoporosis or increased bone mineralization. Parathyroid hormone promotes calcium absorption in the intestinal tract, as well as reabsorption in the kidneys. The content of parathyroid hormone in the blood of an adult - 8-24 ng / l. Calcitonin contributes to the deposition of calcium in the bones, slowing its absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and increasing excretion in the kidneys. The standard content of calcitonin in the blood is 5.5–28 pMmole / l. It is recommended to donate blood for analyzes of this type when the menopause starts, because women during this period are most susceptible to osteoporosis.
In the body of any person, both male and female hormones are produced. Their correct balance ensures the stability of the reproductive system, normal secondary sexual characteristics, an even mental state. The development of certain sex hormones can be disrupted due to age, bad habits, heredity, endocrine diseases.
Reproductive dysfunctioncaused by hormonal disruptions, lead to male and female infertility, as well as provoke miscarriages in pregnant women. In the presence of such problems, blood is tested for the analysis of female hormones, such as:
- Macroprolactin is the norm for men: 44.5–375 µIU / ml, for women: 59–619 µIU / ml.
- Prolactin - the rate is 40 to 600 mU / l.
- Pituitary gonadotropic hormones and prolactin - before menopause, the ratio is 1.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone: its content in the follicular phase normally amounts to 4–10 U / l, during ovulation - 10–25 U / l, and during the luteal phase - 2–8 U / l.
- Estrogens (the norm in the follicular phase is 5–53 pg / ml, during the ovulation period 90–299 pg / ml and 11–116 pg / ml during the luteal phase) and progestin.
- Luteinizing hormone - the norm in the follicular phase - 1–20 U / l, in the period of ovulation - 26–94 U / l, during the luteal phase –0.61–16.3 U / l.
- Estradiol - the norm in the follicular phase - 68–1269 nmol / l, the ovulation period - 131–1655 nmol / l, during the luteal phase - 91–861 nmol / l.
- Progesterone - the norm in the follicular phase - 0.3-0.7 μg / l, the ovulation period - 0.7–1.6 μg / l, during the luteal phase 4.7–8.0 μg / l.
Evaluation of androgenic function produced with infertility, obesity, high cholesterol, hair loss, youthful acne, and reduced potency. So:
- Testosterone - the normal content for men is 12–33, for women - 0.31–3.78 nmol / l (hereinafter, the first indicator is the norm for men, the second for women).
- Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate - 10–20 and 3.5–10 mg / day.
- Sex hormone binding globulin –13–71 and 28–112 nmol / l.
- 17-hydroxyprogesterone - 0.3–2.0 and 0.07–2.9 ng / ml.
- 17-ketosteroids: 10.0–25.0 and 7–20 mg / day.
- Dihydrotestosterone - 250–990 and 24–450 ng / l.
- Free testosterone - 5.5–42 and 4.1 pg / ml.
- Androstenedione - 75–205 and 85–275 ng / 100 ml.
- Androstenediol glucuronide - 3.4–22 and 0.5–5.4 ng / ml.
- Anti-Muller hormone - 1.3–14.8 and 1.0–10.6 ng / ml.
- Inhibin B - 147–364 and 40–100 pg / ml.
Diagnosis of diabetes and evaluation of the endocrine function of the pancreas necessary for abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight gain, dry mouth, skin itching, edema. Below are the names and regulatory indicators of pancreatic hormones:
- C-peptide - 0.78-1.89 ng / ml.
- Insulin - 3.0–25.0 µED / ml.
- Insulin Resistance Rating Index (HOMA-IR) is less than 2.77.
- Proinsulin - 0.5–3.2 pmol / l.
Pregnancy monitoring is carried out in order to prevent pathology of development and death of the fetus. In the antenatal clinic, when registering, they tell in detail what hormone tests should be performed and why they should donate blood for the analysis of hormones during pregnancy. In the general case are investigated:
- Chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) - its concentration depends on the gestational age: from 25–200 mU / ml at 1–2 weeks to 21,000–300,000 mU / ml at 7–11 weeks.
- Free b-hCG - from 25–300 mU / ml at 1–2 weeks of gestation to 10,000–60,000 mU / ml at 26–37 weeks.
- Estriol free (E3) - from 0.6–2.5 nmol / l at 6–7 weeks to 35.0–111.0 nmol / l at 39–40 weeks.
- Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) —the test is done from week 7 to week 14, the norm is from 0.17–1.54 mU / ml at 8–9 weeks to 1.47–8.54 honey / ml for 13–14 weeks.
- Placental lactogen - from 0.05–1.7 mg / l at 10–14 weeks to 4.4–11.7 mg / l at week 38.
- Prenatal screening for trisomy 1 trimester (PRISCA-1) and 2 trimester of pregnancy (PRISCA-2).
Disruptions in the sympathoadrenal system should be sought in the presence of panic attacks and other autonomic disorders. To do this, you need to donate blood for analysis and check which hormones from the list are out of the normal range:
- Adrenaline (112–658 pg / ml).
- Noradrenaline (less than 10 pg / ml).
- Metanephrine (less than 320 mcg / day).
- Dopamine (10–100 pg / ml).
- Homovanilic acid (1.4–8.8 mg / day).
- Normetanephrine (less than 390 mcg / day).
- Vanillimyl acid (2.1–7.6 mg / day).
- 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (3.0–15.0 mg / day).
- Plasma histamine (less than 9.3 nmol / l).
- Serotonin serum (40–80 µg / l).
The state of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systemwhich is responsible for maintaining the circulating blood volume, allows to evaluate hormones such as aldosterone (in the blood) - 30–355 pg / ml and renin (in plasma) - 2.8–39.9 µIU / ml in the lying position and 4 , 4–46.1 µMU / ml - standing.
Regulation of appetite and fat metabolism This is done with the help of the hormone leptin, whose concentration in the blood normally reaches 1.1–27.6 ng / ml in men and 0.5–13.8 ng / ml in women.
Evaluation of the status of gastrointestinal endocrine function performed by determining the level of gastrin (less than 10–125 pg / ml) and gastrin-17 stimulated (less than 2.5 pmol / l)
Evaluation of hormonal regulation of erythropoiesis (formation of red blood cells) is made on the basis of data on the amount of erythropoietin in the blood (5.6–28.9 IU / l in men and 8–30 IU / l in women).
The decision on which tests must be taken for hormones should be made on the basis of the existing symptoms and preliminary diagnosis, as well as taking into account associated diseases.
Where can I donate blood for the analysis of hormones?
Get direction on the analysis of hormone levels can be in any public or private clinics, hospitals, antenatal clinics.The number of modern laboratories, however, is small, and the best of them are often overloaded, especially when it comes to free analysis. An effective solution that many patients choose is to contact a networked private laboratory, finding a medical office near their home or work and signing up for a convenient date.
For example, in the independent laboratories "INVITRO" the main analyzes of hormones in the blood are carried out. The results can be obtained by hand or by e-mail as soon as possible. The cost of one analysis ranges from 500–2700 rubles. These are market average values. In addition, invitro cards can receive tangible discounts.
Why do I need a blood test for hormones
Normal are hormonal disorders before and after childbirth or during menopause, but even then the level of these substances in the body should be kept under control, because even the slightest deviations indicate problems in the body. The procedure for taking samples for hormones is not included in the routine examinations and is prescribed to check the patient for endocrine system pathology, gynecological disease or in other necessary cases:
- overweight, indicating a change in hormonal levels,
- failure of menstruation, not having a good reason,
- problems with conceiving a child, i.e. infertility,
- suspicions in pregnant fetal development disorders,
- planning pregnancy, when you need to prepare for conception,
- benign breast neoplasms, such as fibrocystic mastopathy,
- decrease in sexual desire
- sexual infantilism,
- propensity to hereditary diseases,
- deterioration of hair or skin,
- blood pressure surges,
- severe premenstrual syndrome
- disorders of the digestive system
- the presence of ovarian or uterine tumors,
- establishing pregnancy
- excessive hairiness on the body.
Hormones are secreted by the endocrine glands, then, after being absorbed into the blood, they begin to regulate the metabolism in the body of beneficial substances, which include salts and proteins with fats and carbohydrates. After that, they are destroyed by special enzymes. The continuity of such a cycle ensures the continuous functioning of biochemical processes. Analyzes of hormones in women make it possible to timely detect an imbalance in order to begin treatment and restore, i.e. lower or raise their level.
Tests for hormones: female and male
In the female body produces different types of hormones. The level of traditionally masculine - testosterone and androgens, is also of great importance for health and conception.
The pituitary, adrenal glands, ovaries and placenta are involved in the production (during pregnancy).
To determine the level of these biologically active substances need to pass the analysis of female hormones. The rate depends on the age, phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy.
Also, the result is influenced by external factors (stress, diet, bad habits), taking certain medications and diseases of the internal organs and the endocrine system.
About the rules of preparation for the delivery of hormones is written in the article.
What tests need to pass on female hormones
Consider the main types of hormones and the rules of their delivery.
The main representative of this group of hormones is estradiol. That it affects:
- The development of the female body.
- The maturation of the egg.
- Vaginal lubrication.
- Regular periods.
- The formation of figures on the female type.
Its lack of performance leads to disruption of the menstrual cycle, tearfulness, swelling and deterioration of appearance. Excess leads to fat deposition and the formation of ovarian neoplasms. Usually, blood from a vein is taken on days 21-22 of the menstrual cycle, unless the doctor prescribes a different time.
Another member of this hormone group is estriol. It is necessary for the normal course of pregnancy, contributes to the formation of the ducts of the mammary glands. Placenta and fetal liver are involved in the performance of estriol. The level of this substance is necessary to determine the work of the fetoplasty system and intrauterine pathologies.
Conduct a study from 14 to 20 weeks of pregnancy, unless otherwise indicated by a doctor.
Luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone
These hormones are produced by the pituitary gland and cause ovulation. FSH promotes egg maturation and follicle formation. Affects the synthesis of estrogen. LH promotes the formation of the corpus luteum and stimulates the secretion of progesterone. Their indicators are important for determining the ability of a woman's body to fertilize and maintain pregnancy.
The analysis can be taken in the first week of the cycle or at 19-21 days.
Blood test for hormones for women with menopause
Natural menopause occurs between the ages of 45-55 years. This period is characterized by a rearrangement of the hormonal background of a woman and the extinction of childbearing functions. The concentration of estrogen decreases, the blood level of follicle-stimulating hormone rises.
Since the corpus luteum is not produced in menopause, the content of progesterone is reduced to a minimum. It is the results of these studies, together with the cessation of menstruation, speak of the coming climax.
In cases of genital diseases and problems with conception, the doctor may prescribe an analysis of female hormones. Decoding the results gives an idea about the problems of gynecological nature and ways to solve them.
Addressing a specialist in a timely manner will help improve well-being and will give a chance for healthy offspring to appear.
Reasons for taking gynecological tests for hormones
The analysis should be taken at a certain phase or day of the cycle and be prepared for it in a special way in order to get the most reliable results.
Control of hormonal balance in gynecology should be done not only as a preventive measure. It helps to monitor the development of genital organs, age-related changes in the ovaries. Monitor the condition of women during pregnancy and after childbirth.
Violation of the concentration of hormones has causes and symptoms of deviation. Disruptions in the endocrine system must be promptly identified and treated, they cause serious diseases, which is an impressive list.
What hormones are being studied
The work of the endocrine glands is influenced by numerous external factors - nutrition, exercise, overwork, daily regimen, stress, alcohol, smoking.
It is impossible not to take into account abortions, venereal diseases, low immunity, frequent sore throats, acute viral respiratory infections, endocrine system pathologies.
Given the lifestyle of the patient, internal factors, the gynecologist may appoint to take tests for hormones, to determine the state of the organs of the reproductive system and adjust their functionality.
Most reproductive health problems in women are related hormonal imbalanceIn this case, the analysis of hormones in gynecology will give an exhaustive answer. The main group of active substances that are being studied are thyrotropic and other pituitary hormones, sex hormones:
- luteinizing hormone (LH),
- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),
- chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
Features of the analysis and preparation for laboratory research
The doctor sends to determine the concentration of a specific sex hormone, taking into account the day of the cycle, the date of onset of ovulation.
Before sending to the analysis, the gynecologist conducts a thorough examination of the patient, talks with her, then decides whether it is necessary to determine the concentration of one or another active substance:
Hormones are tested in a specialized laboratory. Preparation for gynecological tests for hormones involves the implementation of the rules:
- Venous blood sampling for gynecological hormone tests is done on an empty stomach.
- Donate blood for analysis is necessary in the morning. The level of active substances varies throughout the day, the "morning" value of the active substances is considered the most accurate.
- Be sure to consider the doctor's recommendation on which day of the cycle to take the analysis.
- Before the study, exclude active loads.
- The day before the blood sampling is unacceptable to smoke and drink alcohol.
- Check with your doctor for how many days you must refrain from intimacy.
- A week before the tests, stop using hormonal drugs.
Deviation from the norm
Deciphering gynecological hormone tests should be done by a doctorwho directed on laboratory research. The deviation of the concentration of a substance indicates certain pathologies:
- LH ensures the normal functioning of the female genital system. Its high content is associated with hypofunction or polycystic ovary, early menopause. Injuries, tumors, unbalanced nutrition, physical overloads cause a decrease in the amount of the substance.
- FSH is responsible for the secretion of estrogen, the health of the ovaries. Delayed puberty, inflammatory processes in the genitals, frigidity, sterility, indicate a lack of this hormone.
- Estradiol - the main sex hormone in women. During menopause, with menopause, its number decreases sharply. The lack of this substance in women of childbearing age causes violations of the uterine cycle, dysfunction of the uterus, fallopian tubes, abnormalities in the development of the genital organs.
- Prolactin is responsible for the functioning of the mammary glands, ensures their formation and growth in girls, stimulates lactation in women in labor. The high content of this substance indicates ovarian dysfunction, autoimmune pathology, thyroid pathology.
Increased prolactin levels are associated with stress, chest injuries, vitamin deficiencies, and kidney failure. Prolactin increases after abortion. Excess substance provokes malfunction of the uterine cycle, infertility, the formation of cysts, malignant tumors in the mammary glands, frigidity.
A reduced level of prolactin is recorded during a post-term pregnancy, due to the intake of certain pharmaceutical preparations.
- High levels of testosterone (the main sex hormone in men) cause skin problems. The norm for women of childbearing age is only 0.290-1.67 nmol / l. But to study the hormonal status, testosterone concentration is determined necessarily. Deviations from normal values may be the cause of impaired reproductive function in women.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland and is responsible for the full functioning of the thyroid gland. The amount of this substance depends on the level of sex hormones. The metabolic processes in the body of a woman, which are controlled by the thyroid gland, provide the possibility of conceiving and carrying a child.
- Progesterone is a pregnancy hormone, its normal course depends on it. In non-pregnant women, its high content provokes excess weight.
There are many gynecological hormone tests. It is not always necessary to assign everything. The doctor, after clarifying the clinical picture, makes a referral. To obtain reliable results, it is important to adhere to the rules of preparation for laboratory research. For the appointment and interpretation of the analyzes, contact only qualified specialists.
DHEA and testosterone
These are male hormones and are normally practically not synthesized in the female body. However, these substances are very important for the proper operation of all systems. In addition, testosterone affects the level of sexual desire, if it is too low, the woman's libido will be reduced. However, when too much of this hormone is of no use to the body, the body begins to form according to the male principle.
Check yourself on the state of DHEA and testosterone need for the following symptoms:
- excess hair on the body,
- lost cycle
- regular miscarriages
- appearance of myomas
- chest tumors.
What to check during pregnancy?
Since pregnant women hormonal changes greatly, hormones should be monitored more carefully. One of the main markers of pregnancy is hCG, it is produced by the cells from which the placenta will later be formed. The analysis of hCG allows to determine the presence of pregnancy as early as the second week since fertilization.
Important! If the condition of the future mother and fetus is normal, HCG will increase at a tremendous rate exponentially until the second month of pregnancy. But at a period of 10-11 weeks, the synthesis of hCG stops and it gradually begins to return to normal.
Pregnant women, it is important to monitor the amount of progesterone, it is the most important substance responsible for the preservation of the fetus. It is due to progesterone that the uterus increases, muscles relax, and the breast grows. A disruption in the synthesis of estrogen can be a sign of the presence of abnormalities in the fetus or provoke a miscarriage. And the level of lactogen can be traced back to normal if the development of the child and the placenta.
The problems with the reproductive system say:
- violation of the cycle or the complete absence of ovulation
- for a long time it is impossible to conceive a child
- in case of successful conception, pregnancy is not systematically preserved,
If you can’t get pregnant for a long time, your progesterone, estrogen or prolactin levels may be too high or low. Before taking tests on these hormones, it is always necessary to inform the doctor whether the medication has been taken and which ones, especially for various hormonal drugs.
What hormones you need to watch for menopause
When ovulation stops, hormones change a lot, as a result headaches, mood swings, irritability, depressions, a violation of the body thermoregulation appear. However, if you monitor the level of hormones, the negative side effects of menopause can be avoided or at least minimize all risks. To mentally and physically prepare for the period of menopause, it is necessary to pass tests for the following hormones:
- FSH. The level of this substance in the blood indicates the presence of estrogen. The higher the level of FSH, the less estrogen and vice versa.
- Estradiol. As soon as its concentration in the blood drops below 35 units, this is a sure sign of the onset of menopause. However, along with a decrease in the amount of estradiol increases the risk of atherosclerosis, and the bones become more fragile.
- Progesterone. When menopause in a healthy woman is completely absent.
- Luteinizing hormone. During menopause, its amount always increases, significantly exceeding the norm.
When to take?
The exact timing of tests for hormones should be established by a doctor. However, the correctness of the testimony is strongly influenced by the menstrual cycle, so you need to follow it very carefully, and ideally keep a calendar on paper or in electronic form, for example, through a mobile application. The accuracy of diagnosis depends on the time of testing for female hormones.
- FSH and LH is desirable to check for 3-5 days of the cycle,
- estradiol and progesterone are given for 21-22 days, or one week after ovulation (the exact period of ovulation can be determined by regularly passing tests within a month),
- DHEA and testosterone are checked for 8-10 days, sometimes earlier for 3-5 days.
If the woman's menstrual cycle is irregular, it is necessary to be tested for hormones several times a month.
The hormonal background is something that every woman must carefully watch out for. Deviation in the level of a hormone leads to health problems, it is the reproductive system of the body that is most at risk. To prevent a number of diseases, you should be regularly examined for hormone levels.
The cycle is an important component.
The first nuance that is important for every girl to understand is the concept of a monthly cycle. What it is? This component will help to figure out on what day to take hormones (female).
Monthly cycle is the period between the onset of two critical days. That is, this time, which begins with the first day of menstruation for a woman. It ends with the first day of the next critical days. A kind of guideline by which a woman can understand how much is left until the next menstruation.
From a biological point of view, the monthly cycle is the period of maturation, life and death of the follicle. In the body of a woman after the same (or similar in value) periods of time certain changes occur.
It is on the menstrual cycle will be guided when taking tests for female hormones. When to take them? What research is to be done in this or that case? All this further.
Indications for delivery
It is worth paying attention to the fact that any analyzes pass for one reason or another. Just so you should not once again think about this issue. What female hormones need to pass under certain circumstances? The first thing you need to understand in what situations should think about this issue.
To date, tests for female hormones pass when:
- problems with weight (decrease or set),
- skin problems (acne, acne),
- irregular monthly cycle
- heavy and painful menstruation,
- planning a pregnancy
- uterine bleeding,
- reducing sexual desire
- sexual development,
- growth retardation
- polycystic ovary syndrome,
- the presence of diseases of the female genital organs (not always),
- pregnancy (already occurring),
- иных заболеваниях (врачи сами назначат исследования, если они нужны).
Соответственно, поводов для сдачи женских гормонов очень много. Анализов тоже достаточно. And for all, as already mentioned, you will have to memorize your rules and dates. What female hormones need to pass in one way or another?
To understand this, you need to carefully examine the full list of hormones. Not all of them are required to pass in one way or another. Sometimes just a few studies are enough. What female hormones are there?
Among them are:
- luteinizing hormone (LH),
- FSH (follicle-stimulating),
- Deja sulfate,
- TSH (total and free thyroxin),
- antibodies to TSH.
All these hormones that have to pass in certain situations. It can be said basic. What and in what situations need to be checked? What hormones do women take for certain diseases? For example, with weight problems or during pregnancy planning.
Metabolic disorders in humans are very common. If you conduct a thorough study of the body, it turns out that the whole thing (mostly) in hormones. That is why it is important to understand what tests to pass to girls suffering from dystrophy, for example. In reality, things are not as difficult as they seem. What hormones (female) donate with weight gain or a sharp decrease?
Currently advised to conduct the following studies:
For the initial diagnosis is enough of the first two tests. Additionally required to take hormones of the thyroid gland. Testosterone and LH are usually prescribed to men. But for more information about the origins of problems with the weight of a woman, too, can pass them.
What to do if you want to cure infertility? Then you have to go through a long way of analysis, treatment, diagnosis and medical consultation. What female hormones to pass when planning pregnancy or problems with conception?
Here it is best to conduct a complete diagnosis of the body. Therefore, all previously listed hormones will have to pass. In addition to them, an additional test is prescribed for 17-ketosteroids. This is another type of female hormone that plays a very important role.
Accordingly, it is better to think about exactly how tests are done. What hormones to investigate in this or that case is not so important. After all, with real health problems, the patient will still eventually bring the results of all the research. What you need to know about in what periods to take these or other tests?
FSH is a hormone that is found in both men and women. The beautiful half with the help of it gets the production of estrogen in the body, and also thanks to it, the growth and development of the follicle occurs. In fact, FSH is responsible for ovulation. In men, this hormone is used for the growth of sperm. A strong half of society can not think about the day of delivery of the analysis. His men are able to spend at any time.
Does a girl need to be tested for female hormones? When to donate blood to get results on the content of FSH in the blood? Here are several options for developments. It is best to specify the time at the attending physician. But, as a rule, you can be tested for FSH:
- from 3 to 8 day of the cycle,
- from 19 to 21 day of the menstrual period.
Blood is given on an empty stomach. The presence of discharge during the period of testing for FSH is normal. Although some doctors advise to wait for the end of critical days. Problems with blood donation on FSH can occur in women with an irregular cycle. They are offered a survey of 3-8 days.
LH is a special substance that is produced in the body through the pituitary gland. In women, it provides ovulation. Due to this hormone, the follicle matures and is fully prepared for fertilization. As a rule, its maximum content in the blood is observed directly during ovulation.
It is clear what hormones for women's health should be donated, more precisely, to find out the causes of certain problems. But in what periods to consult a doctor? LH in the blood is best determined during the same periods as FSH. That is, an appropriate analysis is given either at the beginning of the cycle (3-8 days), or towards the end (19-21 days inclusive). At other times, the information content of the study may not be as accurate as required.
If we talk about men, they, as in the past case, can donate blood for analysis of the content of LH in the blood at any time. The main condition here is the delivery of biological material on an empty stomach.
What's next? The next hormone is prolactin. It is extremely important when planning a pregnancy. It promotes ovulation. Prolactin also provides milk production in a nursing woman. Accordingly, if the newly-minted mommy worries that she does not have enough milk, it is possible to conduct this study.
The basic rule that you need to remember - you need to take the female hormones on an empty stomach. In the case of prolactin, another important condition is added. Which one exactly? A person should be calm. It is recommended to be at rest for at least 30 minutes before they take blood for analysis. That is, to get the most accurate result, you must be rested.
On which day to take female hormones, namely, the content of prolactin? The exact date is not set, as is the case with LH or FSH. But there are some limitations. The thing is that the analysis for prolactin is required to pass exclusively in phase 1 and 2 of the menstrual cycle. This is approximately no later than 14 days after the start of menstruation. At the last stage of the cycle, the test is not informative.
It is clear what you need to take female hormones in one way or another. As already emphasized, it is required for the most complete picture of the state of health to be tested for all hormones. The following analysis is the estradiol content.
In girls, it is this substance that is produced at the time of maturation, or rather, during the period when the follicle is in the body. A peculiar signal of the onset of ovulation.
On which day to take female hormones of this type? Doctors take a similar analysis throughout the entire monthly cycle. When planning a pregnancy or treating infertility, it is recommended to pay special attention to tests for the 12-15 day of the menstrual cycle. The thing is that ovulation occurs approximately a day after estradiol reaches its peak. In some cases, you will have to wait 36 hours. Estradiol is female hormones. What tests to take in addition to all previously listed? And at what time period? To understand this will help an experienced doctor. Independently it is better not to experiment.
The following study also occurs in men and women. The thing is that DEA sulfate is produced by the adrenal glands. As in the past case, these are not female hormones. When to take the analysis on the content of deja-sulfate?
There is no exact time limit. A girl can donate blood for analysis at any time during the cycle. But it is recommended not to consult a doctor during menstruation. So it will be possible to avoid errors in the data obtained. Male and female hormones which to pass for a full diagnosis of the body? A list of studies was presented earlier.
By the way, too much concentration of this hormone in a girl is a clear cause of infertility and ovarian disruption. Accordingly, in case of problems with conception, it is recommended to start testing exactly from this hormone.
T3-free is produced under the influence of TSH. It is produced by the cells of the thyroid gland. There are both men and women. Prevents hypoxia in the future baby. When planning a pregnancy or its occurrence, it is recommended to find out the levels of T3 and T4 in both parents.
On which day of the cycle is this analysis submitted? There are no direct instructions on this. So, you can apply for research any day. It is best to calm down and rest for some time before taking the analysis. The rest period, as a rule, should last at least half an hour. It is best to conduct research at the beginning of the cycle.
The next hormone is T4. Like T3-generic, produced under the influence of TSH. It is noted that initially the concentration of this substance in the blood of a healthy person is higher than T3. It is responsible for heat exchange, absorption of oxygen by the skin, and also increases the metabolic rate in the body.
Rent at any time. There are 2 conditions - this is a preliminary stay at rest for some time, as well as a hunger strike for at least 8 hours before taking biological material for further research. Accordingly, if a person is interested in when it is better to take female hormones (tests), then it is recommended to contact the laboratory in the morning. And start the analysis in the first phase of the menstrual cycle.
TSH is an extremely important hormone. Along with T4 and T3, it helps prevent hypoxia in a future baby. It is a component of the female body, and male. Helps eliminate anemia in both mother and fetus.
Before you take the test for this hormone, it is recommended to limit the intake of drugs. You should also contact the laboratory only after the hunger strike.
The main female hormones that need to be tested in certain cases are already known. But the periods of change in all studies are different. TTG can be taken at any time. As in all other cases, during the period of the onset of critical days, it is recommended to refrain from research. The exact time of blood donation on the TSH is determined by the attending physician. Sometimes the concentration of this substance is observed in the dynamics. The most common analysis for TSH is taken on the 5-6 day of the cycle, after the end of the critical days.
Before planning a pregnancy or treating certain diseases (they were listed earlier), you need to take the female hormones. Or rather, the blood on the concentration of certain hormonal components of the girl in the body. There is a hormone like cortisol. It takes place in both men and women. Produced by the adrenal cortex during stress. Promotes stimulation of the brain. Thanks to cortisol, the body copes with this or that stress.
When do they test this hormone? All this is solved individually. But most often, girls are assigned to a study on the content of cortisol in the first half of the menstrual cycle. You can take for 3-5 days, as well as 7-9. Although the second option is best. The doctor may offer an analysis at a different time of the menstrual cycle. Abandon it is not worth it. If you want to bypass a medical consultation, it is best to independently contact the laboratory for blood donation up to 9 days of the new cycle, inclusive.
17-keteosteroids are a product of the exchange of male hormones. Allows you to assess the state of the adrenal glands. For pregnancy is an extremely important component. In men, the study is conducted at any time. And in women?
It should be clear for yourself that special rules apply to 17-ketosteroids. The thing is that women will have to think carefully about when to take this analysis. Why?
Unlike all previously listed studies, 17-ketosteroids are determined by urinalysis. Accordingly, the girl should take care that there is no impurity in the urine. You can not take the analysis in the period of menstruation. For the rest, there are no restrictions. It is advisable to contact the laboratory on the 5-7 day of the cycle. Urine must be morning.
In order for the analysis on 17-keterosteroids to give the most accurate result, it is recommended to limit it a few weeks before it is held, and it is better to completely eliminate the intake of medicines and drugs. And give up bad habits, namely, do not smoke and do not drink alcohol at least 3-4 days before the test. This will help improve the accuracy of the results. When is it best to be tested for female and male hormones in one way or another? It all depends on the specific study.
DHA-S is a thyroid hormone. Not too important for problems with skin or with weight, but for pregnancy and its planning is an extremely serious study. These are not only female hormones. What day do you need to pass the analysis on DGA-S?
It is recommended to take it along with the rest of the thyroid hormones. Namely, from 3 to 5 day of the menstrual cycle. Men do not care at what time period to take this hormone. It is important to remember.
Antibodies to TSH
Female sex hormones when to donate? If we are talking about antibodies to TSH, it is recommended to contact the laboratory for delivery of biological material (blood) at any time of the menstrual cycle. After all, this component is responsible for the work of the thyroid gland. It is not really a "sex" hormone, but it is extremely important for pregnancy planning, treatment of infertility and other diseases.
As practice shows, usually antibodies to TSH are observed in dynamics. It is recommended to take hormones at the beginning of the cycle (2-5 days), in the middle (12-14) and at the end (21-22 days of the cycle).
Now it is clear what can be male and female hormones. When to hand them in one way or another, is also no longer a mystery. It is worth paying attention to the fact that girls can prepare a small memo for themselves. It will help orient in the timing of testing.
From the above, it can be understood that the biological material for the presence of one or another concentration of hormones should be taken in the following periods:
- the beginning of the menstrual cycle (up to 5 days): FSH, TSH, T3, T4, LH,
- mid-month (from 7 to 9 day): cortisol, testosterone, DEA-S, ACTH, 17-SNP,
- end of cycle (from 19 to 26 day): estradiol, progesterone.
In any case, it is best to go to a doctor before taking any tests. Only an experienced specialist will be able to accurately assign the date of blood or urine for the presence and concentration of female and male sex hormones. Independently such issues are not recommended.
Memo will help to approximately navigate the timing of tests for male and female hormones in the body. Not only during pregnancy, but in all other cases. It is better to be tested for female hormones in the morning.
Formed by the pituitary gland and is responsible for regulating the activity of the sex glands.
Impact occurs in part:
- promoting the emergence of mature genital cells,
- the process of creating estrogen,
- taking an active role in the ovulation process,
- participation creating follicles.
High levels of the hormone in the body are often observed in inflammatory reactions in the sexual glands, as well as bleeding in the uterus.
Low content often occurs due to polycystic or overweight weight of the human body.
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It refers to the hormones formed by the pituitary gland.
He is responsible for:
- progesterone production
- increased estrogen production
- participation in the creation of the body of the yellow type.
A huge amount of the hormone can be with the ovulation process (norm) or with neoplasms in the brain, prolonged withdrawal from food, emotional stress, as well as ovarian exhaustion syndrome.
They are male-type hormones, but they are also produced in women.
They stimulate the development of hair on the pubic part, in the armpits, stimulate growth in the part of the labia majora and the clitoris.
With a high degree of androgens in the female, secondary signs of the sexual type of men are formed. Because of this, sometimes women have baldness and coarseness of voice.
In this case, female-type hormones are formed in smaller quantities, there is no development of the egg. Such symptoms can lead to loss of reproductive function.
Why test for hormones?
This type of analysis is able to identify the key points of what effects come from hormones on the state of the skin and hair of a person, his weight characteristics.
Often, if there are problems in these parts, the person has problems with hormones and if they are resolved, then there will be an improvement.
A blood test, for example, is determined by medical specialists to determine the state of affairs in honor of the thyroid, pituitary, and other essential elements of the body.
In the presence of pregnancy, this process is mandatory, as it allows to diagnose potential diseases in the unborn child.
This type of analysis is one of a variety of methods designed to diagnose various diseases in the human body.
In the presence of pregnancy, this analysis is extremely necessary, as it largely allows you to say whether the well-being of the female representative and her unborn child is safe.
Hormones are responsible for controlling a variety of human processes - general development, growth, metabolic processes, reproduction.
For the female body to function correctly, the ratio of hormones should coincide with the normalized values, only then she will have no health problems.
Гормональный уровень у женщин зависит не только от возрастных характеристик, но и ряда других факторов. Наличие или отсутствие беременности является одним из них. При этом происходят скачки гормонов от нормированных значений в сторону повышения либо понижения.
To understand the changes in hormone levels and detect the disease allows the analysis of the laboratory type. Subsequently, a medical specialist versed in gynecology will be able to issue an appropriate opinion on the results of this analysis. If necessary, the desired treatment will be prescribed.
Most often, in the presence of pregnancy, the following hormones are analyzed:
- pituitary gland - prolactin, FSH, TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), LH,
- sexual type - testosterone, estriol, estradiol,
- thyroid gland - T3 and T3 free, T4 and T4 free,
- adrenal glands - cortisol, DHEA sulfate, progesterone, ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone),
- antibodies to thyroperoxidase, thyreoglobulin.
Screening of the prenatal type is an extremely important procedure in the presence of pregnancy and testing is largely assigned to it.
Delivery of tests is required to determine the cessation of menstruation, this occurs with a decrease in the active activity of the ovaries. Most often, such a process begins at the age of forty-five.
Upon reaching this age, the formation of the necessary elements that are necessary for the proper flow of menstruation does not occur.
This is a normal phenomenon, but sometimes the stop of menstruation is associated with pathologies and analyzes allow us to determine for sure.
If this is a pathological process, then passing the tests will allow you to determine the key causes of the pathological process and select the necessary medical treatment.
Estrogens are responsible for the development of the physiological structure of the woman, in particular, they contribute to the development of the uterine lining.
Progestins are responsible for sealing the endometrium in the middle of the cycle, updating it in the final part of the cycle.
These hormones are formed by the pituitary gland due to the synthesis of FSH and LH during its work. Their volumes are interdependent on the number of female sex hormones. During climax, their level changes. Delivery of tests for hormones can determine the presence of the onset of a natural menopause in a woman or a pathological process.
When passing tests, the following is established:
- estradiol level
- amount of FSH and LH.
This is the best information for establishing the diagnosis of "menopause", as well as the appointment, if necessary, hormone replacement therapy.
If you have problems with the reproductive system
If you have such problems, you should contact the appropriate medical specialist, who, after interviewing and analyzing, will be able to prescribe tests to determine hormones of one of the following types:
- Sex hormones
- Thyroid hormones,
- Pituitary hormones.
In violation of androgenic function
The androgenic function of the body is responsible for the male sexual characteristics of the primary and secondary types. Testosterone plays a key role for such signs. A woman's body also produces this hormone, but to a lesser extent.
With increased hormone production in a woman, there may be a loss of reproductive capacity, infertility.
Normalized hormone levels:
- for men - 12–33 nmol / l,
- for women - 0.26–1.30 ng / ml.
The decrease in the content of the hormone in the body leads to a decrease in the libidinal index, the strength characteristics of the muscles, as well as to the occurrence of excess weight.
When taking tests for testosterone, it is necessary not to consume food products for at least eight hours prior to immediate delivery. The very change to perform in the morning.
Leptin is responsible for the human appetite, and he also gives the brain an impulse that the body has reached saturation and food intake should be stopped.
When an incorrect production of this hormone, there are various problems with weight (the formation of excess or, on the contrary, its sharp loss).
- for men - 0.5–13.8 ng / ml,
- for women - 1.1–27.6 ng / ml.
With a decrease in the hormone content in the body, a person greatly increases the feeling of hunger.
Other hormones responsible for the weight characteristics of the body: cortisol and adrenaline, they are actively involved in metabolism.
Before donating blood for analysis on the content of leptin, one should not eat food for about 8 hours, and one day before the procedure one should not “overload” the stomach with an abundance of food.
Diabetes- This is a disease that is associated with an imbalance of the hormonal system. In particular, with insufficient levels of the hormone that synthesizes the pancreas - insulin.
If this substance is not produced, then the conversion of glucose into energy does not occur and sugar accumulates in the body.
Normalized insulin average for humans: 2.7–10.4 MCU / ml.
To analyze and determine the amount of hormone it will be necessary to donate blood from a vein. Eight hours before this, you should abandon the use of food and liquid substances.
Problems with hormones often lead to the appearance of skin rashes.
Most often this occurs at a young age, as well as in an adult, shortly before the onset of the menstruation process in a woman.
These periods are characterized by an increase in the content of steroid hormones, which lead to the appearance of skin rashes.
This is due to the modification of the composition of the secretion produced, the change of which leads to blockage of pores and the formation of hair-type follicles. This is normal and does not require separate treatment.
With hair loss
This effect leads to increased levels of androgens in the blood. Their increased level affects the structure of the scalp, and also leads to brittle hair and their active loss.
If this additionally shows a decrease in libido and the formation of a voice more coarse, it is immediately necessary to pass tests for the determination of androgen content in the blood.
Possible reasons for the increased androgen content:
- postpartum period
- menopausal period
- emotional stress
- endocrine problems,
- problems with the ovaries.
Preparation for analysis
Key points to follow:
When studying analyzes at the expense of ELISAIt is strictly forbidden to subject oneself to physical overload, excessive emotional stress, to undergo a physiotherapeutic type of treatment, to use medications (except those that were intentionally prescribed by a medical specialist) or oral type contraceptives. In addition, alcohol and fatty foods are prohibited. Smoking a few hours before testing is also recommended to avoid.
- Blood donation must be performed in the morning., while you can not eat for twelve hours before the immediate donation of blood.
- Before immediate blood donation, the patient must rest for fifteen minutes., his body must be relaxed.
- When studying the state of the endocrine system when using thyroid hormones as a treatment, the analysis is carried out no less than a day after the last administration of hormones. Three days before blood donation, iodine-containing medications should be stopped.
- When studying for PSA 7 days before the analysis, the prostate-type gland should be left alone and no action should be taken with it.
- When analyzing on ACTH, renin / angiotensin blood donation is best done in the morning, in the interval: 7-9. This allows to obtain reference type indicators. Before direct blood donation, the patient must be allowed to rest for an hour.
- When analyzing cortisol and aldosteron blood donation should be done before ten o'clock in the morning.
- When analyzing sex hormones for women of reproductive age, it is important to consider information on the time and date of blood donation, as well as on the bottom and phase of menstruation. In the presence of pregnancy should also be taken into account and its term.
- In the presence of treatment with medical devices It is important to indicate the names of the used medical products and the date of the last use.
The rate of sex hormones in women
The key role in the life of every girl is assigned to the state of her hormonal background. General well-being, reproductive capabilities, external well-being - it all depends on him.
The hormonal level determines the qualitative characteristics of the processes that occur in the body of a girl. There are normalized indicators for which a woman feels good. However, the hormonal level often departs from the decoding performance.
Key factors that affect the hormonal level:
- Age characteristics.
- Phases of menstruation.
The hormonal level in women with menopause will also be extremely different from what is considered to be the norm.
In the presence of menstruation, changes occur in the woman’s body on a regular basis every month. Menstruation is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH).
The follicular phase is characterized by enhanced follicle growth, egg maturation and the onset of bleeding. The average duration of these processes is fourteen days, permissible deviations: from 7 to 22 days.
Changes in the hormonal level during the course of this phase:
- Increased FSH levels.
- Increased concentration of estrogen (contribute to the preparation of the endometrium to attach a fertilized egg).
The ovulatory phase is the longest, it is characterized by the release of the luteinizing hormone type. Usually it does not last more than five days. At the end of the phase, the dominant type of follicle is broken and releases the egg cell (ovulation).
During the course of this phase, the following changes occur:
- Increased LH and FSH.
- Increased estradiol concentration.
The luteal phase is reduced to the formation of the body of the yellow type.
When this occurs, the following changes in the woman's body:
- Increased progesterone levels (due to it, the endometrium is being prepared for embryo introduction).
- Decreased FSH levels.
- Decreased estrogen concentration.
If the fertilization process does not occur, then the endometrium and the body of the yellow type are rejected. This process is characterized by bleeding during menstruation.
The ratio of FSH and LH
Normalized indicators of FSH, depending on the phase, honey / ml:
- From 1.3 to 9.9 and more for follicular.
- From 6.16 to 17.2 and more for ovulatory.
- From 1.1 to 9.2 and more for luteal.
Normalized indicators of LH depending on the phase, med / ml:
- From 1.67 to 15.0 or more for follicular.
- From 21.8 to 56.5 and more for ovulatory.
- From 0.60 to 16.2 and more for luteal.
The normalized value of the hormone in accordance with the age characteristics:
- from 6 to 9 years old - 0.23 - 1.50 μmol / l,
- from 9 to 15 years - 1.00 - 9.20 µmol / l,
- from 15 to 30 years - 2.40 - 14.50 μmol / l,
- from 30 to 40 years - 1.80 to 9.70 μmol / l,
- from 40 to 50 years - 0.66 to 7.20 µmol / l,
- from 50 to 60 years - 0.94 - 3.30 μmol / l,
- after 60 years - 0.09 - 3.70 µmol / l.
Normalized hormone values in the presence of pregnancy:
- in the first trimester - from 3.12 to 12.48 μmol / l,
- in the second - from 1.7 to 7.0 µmol / l,
- in the third - from 0.86 to 3.6 µmol / l.
Note: in newborn babies, androgen indices are extremely elevated, but immediately after birth, its level rapidly decreases. Achievement of the limiting indicators is performed after puberty, and later along with the process of maturation it decreases.
Where can I get tested for hormones?
A free way to go and get the results of the tests can be in the medical organizations of the state type after the doctor prescribes a study.
More operatively, you can go through and get the test results in private medical organizations.
For this, you will have to pay the required amount of money, the cost may be different, however, you will not have to go through a lengthy process with one specialist to get a referral to the next.
Note: this type of organization should be chosen carefully so as not to become a victim of fraudsters.
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Hormones in the body.
What are hormones for, what organs are produced and what are they responsible for?
Hormones, which are produced by the endocrine system and represent a special group of biologically active substances, are the main regulators of the body.
The main organs that are responsible for the production of hormones are:
Also for the production of hormones are responsible individual endocrine cells scattered throughout the body.
- are responsible for the growth and development of the body,
- ensure the proper functioning of all organs and systems of the human body,
- contribute to an adequate response to changes in the external environment,
- take an active and direct part in human mental activity,
- help in the formation of emotional reactions to certain situations.
The level of certain hormones in a person’s blood has certain norms, the indicators of which depend on a person’s age, gender, place of residence and other factors.
A disturbance in the hormonal background is said if the level of hormones is not within the normal range, but above or below the permissible limits.
The hormonal background of a person can be disturbed for a variety of reasons and can occur with a variety of symptoms.
Causes of failure in the hormonal system
Causes of hormonal failure can be:
- frequent, strong and prolonged stress,
- misuse of hormonal drugs,
- eating foods or drinks rich in phytohormones,
- large physical overload,
- unfavorable ecological situation,
- the presence of parasites in the body.
Symptoms of hormonal disorders.
Symptoms that indicate the state of hormonal levels include:
- a sharp increase in weight,
- excess hair on the body of a woman,
- failure of the menstrual cycle,
- severe premenstrual syndrome,
- decline in school performance,
- uncontrollable mood swings,
- weight loss with good appetite,
- worsening of sleep or even insomnia,
- itching, redness and rash on the skin of unknown etiology, etc.
Such symptoms may indicate an imbalance in the work of the hormonal system, which, ultimately, will lead to the emergence of various pathological processes, exacerbation of chronic diseases, etc.
Malfunction of the hormonal system seriously affects the work of all organs and systems of the human body, affects the physical, mental and psycho-emotional health of the person.
Therefore, at the first signs testifying to an imbalance in the work of the hormonal system, it is necessary to make an appointment with an endocrinologist, who, in turn, after talking with the patient, will send to pass the necessary tests to check the work of certain organs of the hormonal system, determine the state of the hormonal background and his compliance with regulatory indicators.
What tests need to pass?
What tests you need to pass to check the hormonal background: a list
Analyzes of female sex hormones include a study of the following hormones:
- luteinizing hormone (LH),
- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),
Analysis of male sex hormones:
Pituitary hormone analysis
- STG. Growth hormone
- ACTH. Adenocorticotropic hormone
- TTG. thyroid-stimulating hormone
Adrenal hormone test
Thyroid hormone tests include:
How and when to be tested for hormone levels?
First, hormone testing is done on an empty stomach. The material for analysis is blood taken from a vein.
Secondly, the day before taking tests for hormones, it is necessary to exclude sex, alcohol and smoking.
Thirdly, the day before taking tests for hormones, it is necessary to limit physical exertion.
Fourth, the day before taking tests for hormones, it is necessary to avoid stressful situations.
If you are taking hormonal drugs - notify your doctor as this affects the interpretation of test results.
Convenient location centers.
Centers are near metro stations Marx Square, Zaeltsovskaya and on Stanislavsky Square, no queue, no appointment, high quality and low prices!
Studies are performed according to international quality standards.
How to get to the center on Kalinin Square? - from 8.00 to 12.00 weekdays, Saturday from 8.00 to 12.00
How to get to the center on Marx Square? - from 8.00 to 12.00 weekdays, Saturday from 8.00 to 12.00
How to get to the center on Stanislavsky Square? - from 8.00 to 12.00 weekdays.
On Sunday, sampling is not performed.
In order to pass the tests in our center you just have to come to us from 8.00 to 12.00 (on an empty stomach), preliminary recording and a call are not needed.
A bit of theory
Hormones are amazing substances on which everything depends. Literally everything.We want to eat or sleep, feel attracted or disliked by someone, get scared, enjoy, get pleasure from chocolates or favorite music ... A mother feels affection for a newly born child, a couple, hugging, forgets about a quarrel ... What are these: feelings and wishes? Of course. But hormones control the feelings and desires of a person, and every emotion, need, desire is just a combination of several of them. Biochemistry - everything is simple.
In humans, these substances are produced by the endocrine glands. These include such anatomical structures:
- pineal gland,
- adrenal glands
- ovaries in women, testes in men,
- thyroid and parathyroid glands,
If we talk about sex hormones, namely, they are the topic of this article, then you should be interested in the ovaries. And the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands, as they also participate in the secretion.
The female hormones include estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating, luteinizing hormone, prolactin. They each regulate the work of the reproductive system in their own way. And their level wants to find out the gynecologist, who issues a referral for analysis.
They can be called hormones of femininity. Why in plural? Because under this name combine three female sex hormones:
Estrogens ensure the development and growth of reproductive organs, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics, a feminine figure, and the manifestation of sexuality. In addition, they regulate the menstrual cycle, stimulating the maturation of the egg - their highest level is observed just before ovulation.
After the release of the oocyte, the level of estrogen decreases to increase with the beginning of a new cycle.
All three hormones are produced by ovarian follicles and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex. A small amount of estrogen is produced by adipose tissue. And regulate the synthesis of the pituitary and hypothalamus. However, these two glands control the production of all hormones.
If a woman has a lack of estrogen, these symptoms may manifest themselves:
- irritability, mood swings,
- weight gain
- decreased libido
- bone fragility
- sleep disturbances
- reduced skin elasticity
But an excess of hormones harms the body. Women can also gain weight, suffer from irritability and insomnia, headaches. Nausea, engorgement and tenderness of the chest, hair loss, the appearance of acne, edema. Naturally, the menstrual cycle will also be broken.
If a woman has the above symptoms, she should be tested for estrogen levels. It can be performed on any day of the cycle, preferably on an empty stomach, like many other tests. There are no specific training requirements.
Low production of these hormones is observed with a strict diet, underweight, excessive physical activity. As for diseases, these are diseases of the pituitary and hypothalamus, dysfunction or hypoplasia of the ovaries, hypofunction of the adrenal cortex.
An increase in estrogen in the blood can speak of such disorders as tumors, polycystic ovaries, neoplasms of the adrenal cortex, cirrhosis of the liver, certain diseases of the uterus. In addition, such an imbalance may be caused by taking OK, features of the diet.
This active substance is produced by the pituitary gland with an increase in estrogen concentration. Together with FSH, luteinizing hormone stimulates the release of a ripe egg from the follicle.
With a decrease or increase in LH levels, there is a lack of menstruation or scanty, short bleeding, decreased libido, sterility, miscarriages. In adolescence, low levels of PH manifest as growth retardation and sexual development.
As a rule, the reason for the decline in LH levels is congenital genetic pathologies and developmental disorders, but this can also be provoked by obesity, bad habits, certain medications, stress, and surgery. Naturally, the level of LH decreases during pregnancy, this is the norm.
Increased concentration of this hormone can be prolonged exercise, stress, disturbances in the pituitary gland, polycystic, ovarian depletion.
On which day to go give up if sent for analysis? Usually they do this for 3–8 or 19–21 days.
What hormones to pass if there is not enough milk after delivery? Or, on the contrary, milk is excreted, albeit in small quantities, but there was no birth, and there is no pregnancy. In this case, you need to investigate the level of prolactin - it is he who is responsible for the production of milk. In addition, prolactin provides the onset of orgasm, reduces pain sensitivity.
The pituitary hormone is produced, and it is also synthesized by the embryo, since protection against the effects of the maternal immune system may be required, and prolactin provides it.
To hand over female hormones, or rather, blood for their research, it is necessary if both an increase and a decrease in the level of prolactin are suspected.
In the first case, the woman does not have ovulation, consequently, infertility is diagnosed. There may be miscarriages, amenorrhea is a frequent symptom. There is a release of milk from the nipples, hirsutism, frigidity, the thyroid gland is disturbed, osteoporosis develops.
The reasons for the increase in prolactin: disorders in the pituitary gland, hypothyroidism, autoimmune diseases, prolactinoma, polycystic ovary, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, vitamin B6 deficiency.
Prolactin deficiency is manifested by the absence or small amount of milk after childbirth, early miscarriages, cycle disorders, hirsutism, edema, migraines. The reason for the decrease in this hormone can be a disease of the pituitary gland, traumatic brain injury (traumatic brain injury), prolonged pregnancy, and abundant bleeding.
In any case, the hormones need to be analyzed so as not to have to identify the cause of the symptoms for a long time. The procedure takes place on any day of the 1st and 2nd phases of the cycle, as usual, on an empty stomach.