Health

The first signs of the first menstrual period in adolescent girls

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The first periods of girls are considered the beginning of gynecological age, denoted by the term "menarche". Menstruation indicates that significant changes have occurred in the girl's body. The preparation of the organism for conception, pregnancy is begun. Restoration of the menstrual cycle will occur within 3 years. Therefore, the appearance of the first menses does not guarantee readiness for childbirth.

When to wait for the first menstruation in girls

Approximately 2 years before the onset of menstruation, the body begins to restructure. The teenager is changing beyond recognition. It is during this period that complex relationships between parents and daughter appear. It is considered normal if a girl's period begins at the age of 12 to 14 years. Along with this, there is the concept of early puberty, when menstruation begins at age 9. There is a late menarche, when menstruation comes in 16 years. The menstrual cycle is a complex process involving the reproductive system, the endocrine, the central nervous system. All components of a single process should be ready for this. The appearance of the first period is influenced by many internal and external factors.

The presence of the first menstruation does not mean that they will go regularly from month to month. A break of up to 6 months is possible, which is also considered normal. You can not predict the nature of the discharge. But they are rarely abundant. Often the first menstrual flow is scanty or moderate. A lot of blood is a sign of pathology or disease.

Factors affecting the onset of menstruation

Approximately 2 years before the onset of menstruation, the girl's body begins to change physically. The girl begins to form female body features. Mom realizes that this may be, and the daughter continues to lead a carefree lifestyle, not paying attention to significant changes. Delay or accelerate the arrival of menstruation can the following factors.

  • Genetic predisposition. Doctors have identified a pattern - the period of her daughter's begin at the same age as that of her mother. If it happened to mother at the age of 9, then the arrival of menstruation at this age is not considered a deviation from the daughter. The same situation with the late menarche.
  • Physical development. In girls begins to grow breasts, rounded hips, waist appears. It occurs under the influence of sex hormones that prepare the body for adulthood. If there is accelerated physical development, it means that critical days will come sooner. Regularity is noted - the period begins when the girl reaches 45 kg. In full girls, menses begin faster.
  • Psycho-emotional state. The state of the nervous system affects the establishment of the monthly cycle. Under the influence of strong stress and constant nervous tension, menstruation may come sooner or much later. The same factor affects the duration of critical days, the nature of the discharge, the frequency.
  • Girl food. A full ration is a pledge of full development. If there is a deficiency of vitamins, minerals and other useful components, the period will be delayed.
  • Past health problems. The term of the onset of the first menstrual period in girls is affected by injuries to the genital area, serious viral diseases, and diseases of the internal organs. The health picture can be clarified by the doctor.
  • The presence of diseases. The reason for the delay may be deviations in the functioning of the endocrine system, inflammatory processes of the reproductive system, improper development of organs.

The influence of some factors can be weakened. For example, to change the diet, to create a favorable environment for calming the nervous system. Get rid of the disease correct timely treatment. But to accelerate the physical development or affect the genetics is almost impossible.

Signs of the first menses

Menarche often occurs suddenly, unexpectedly. Although this process is preceded by many changes, which determine the onset of the first menstruation.

  • Physical changes. Together with breast growth, rounding of the hips, hairs begin to appear in the pubic area, armpits. Increased activity of the sebaceous glands. This is followed by excessive sweating, the appearance of acne on the face, chest, back. In some adolescent girls, the head often begins to ache, dizziness appears, and occasionally a stomachache.
  • Changes in the psyche. The nervous system is under tremendous stress. Changes begin to occur 2 years before the month of the girl. There is nervousness, mood swings, tearfulness, depression, nervous breakdown, excitability. All these signs are intensified on the eve of critical days.
  • Vaginal discharge. Approximately 3 months before the beginning of the first menstrual period, the girl appears discharge in the form of whiter. On the panties teenager discovers white or yellow spots. Over time, their number increases. On the eve of critical days there are a lot of them. If the girl does not feel burning, itching, the phenomenon is considered normal. The presence of unpleasant sensations indicates the development of thrush under the influence of the work of hormones.
  • Painful sensations. Approximately a week before menstruation, the chest starts to hurt badly, and in 3 days the lower abdomen. This is due to the work of the uterus. The body is reduced to reject the layer of epithelium. At first it will be difficult to work out. The process is accompanied by pain, weakness, poor health.

From the age of 12, a teenager needs to be prepared psychologically for the arrival of critical days. Conduct a delicate conversation, explain what's what. What to do when the first periods begin. Mom needs to get ready for this too, buy pre-pads. A teenager should carry a means of hygiene in a secret pocket of a briefcase, handbag. In case the first periods start at school. Spend a lot of time sex education.

Features of the first menstruation

In an adult woman, the menstrual cycle lasts 28-30 days. Duration of monthly from 3 to 7 days. In adolescent girls, the cycle is irregular. The delay may be up to 3 months. If the arrival of the next month is delayed, you must visit a doctor. Usually, the menstrual cycle is restored by the age of 18 or within 2 years after the start of the first menstruation.

The amount of discharge is also ambiguous. With a well-established cycle, the volume of blood lost is almost the same. What can not be said about the monthly girls. The first periods are characterized by a small discharge of blood. Brown secretions may be present instead. If the first menstruation is accompanied by bleeding, you should consult a doctor. A lot of discharge should not be.

Pain in the abdomen appears 2 days before menstruation. Disappear on day 3 after onset. This is a normal phenomenon, as changes occur in the body associated with the end of the development cycle of the egg. If the pain is severe, you must show the girl to the doctor.

The first periods in girls are accompanied by general weakness, dizziness, and drowsiness. You can give sedatives in the form of tincture of valerian or herbal tea from chamomile, lemon balm, mint. Eliminate the pain can be analginum, paracetamol, citramona. A lot of pills do not give.

Hygiene products

The first menstrual periods in girls begin unexpectedly for themselves and suddenly for mom. As a means of hygiene is better to choose gaskets. They can be purchased or own production. For the most part, it all depends on what the girl’s mother uses. In any case, the gasket should be of high quality. First, you can buy a tool with the designation "normal", with the image of 3 droplets. As well as pads for daily use with 1-2 drops.

In the manufacture of gaskets with their own hands, you must use pure natural material. The most commonly used cotton, cotton wool, gauze, bandage. The easiest way - to wrap cotton wool with gauze, to sew a piece of cellophane to the panties. Attach the gasket of its own production with a pin to the panties. On the Internet you can find a pattern, a detailed description of a more complex process of manufacturing gaskets.

Despite the fact that tampons are widely used by modern women, it is better to protect girls from this hygiene product. There are many reasons for this. From toxic swabs to the threat of gynecological diseases. A qualified doctor can explain in more detail.

The rules of hygiene during menstruation

It is very important to explain to the girl how to behave during her period. Strenuous exercise the day before, during menstruation, lead to pain, bleeding. If the first months of the girls begin at school, they should take time off from the class teacher home. Unusual changes will occur in the body that may scare the girl. Need mom support. This is especially true when menstruation begins at an early age.

The washing procedure should be carried out at least 2 times a day. Use clean, warm water without intimate hygiene products. You can add a little potassium permanganate to the water. This substance will reduce the number of harmful pathogens that develop in the secretions of blood. Change the gasket should be as filling. With scant discharge, hygiene products change every 5 hours.

The first periods are stress for the girl, an important event for the mother. It is better when a teenager will be ready for this, rather than everything collapses suddenly. Early sexual education should take place in an accessible form for the child, in accordance with his age. If a girl does not trust her mother, you can take her for a consultation with a doctor.

First menstruation

On average, the majority of adolescent girls start their first periods at the age of 12-14 years, but these periods can vary greatly depending on the individual characteristics of the organism, environmental conditions, genetic predisposition, health status and other factors. Even food and climate affect the duration of the first menstruation. If menarche occurred in the period from 10 to 17 years, then this is considered the norm.

By the time of the first menstrual period, other signs of puberty had already appeared: body growth accelerated, the figure began to acquire more rounded shapes, pubic hair appeared, the external and internal genitals increased, the mammary glands became larger, and the nipples darker. After all these changes, menstruation occurs, but it still does not indicate the end of puberty: the cycle should be established, the figure should take on its final form, and the body should end the period of endocrine maturation.

The first menstruation is often not abundant, have a special smell, since during this period the vaginal glands are actively working. The microflora of the genital organs is changing, so it is very important to follow the rules of intimate hygiene. Menstruation may be accompanied by headaches or pain in the lower abdomen, weakness, nausea, dizziness.

Signs of the first menstruation

If a girl watches her condition and is attentive to the changes in her body, then the first menstrual periods will not be a shock, as there are many symptoms by which you can determine their approximation. Two years, a year or a few months before menarche, girls develop characteristic vaginal discharge, whites, which initially have a liquid consistency and stand out in small quantities. For three or four months, they become more abundant and thicker: on this basis it is possible to determine the approximate time of the onset of the first menstruation. If leucorrhoea has a pronounced sharp smell and color and is accompanied by itching, it is necessary to visit a gynecologist.

Some girls have pains in the lower abdomen a few months before the menarche, they may be weak or rather severe. Often they are accompanied by other signs of premenstrual symptom: headache, fluctuations in mood, aggression, tearfulness. But PMS often does not start just a few days, but a few weeks or months before the first menstrual period, although different girls may have different periods.

By the time of the first menstruation, there are also changes in appearance associated with the activation of the sebaceous sweat glands: pimples appear, sometimes there is a strong acne rash, hair becomes dirty more quickly, dandruff can occur.

What should be the first monthly

Learn about the imminent onset of first menstruation is possible not only on the basis of information about the health and heredity of the girl, but also on a number of indirect evidence. The first signs of menstruation in girls appear long before their immediate onset and so that the first critical days do not become an unpleasant surprise, you should carefully monitor the health of the child and pay attention to the changes taking place.

The first periods in girls can be as abundant as well as be a few bloody drops. It depends on the function of the endocrine glands and the general state of health. Color (from red to brown - standard options) is also due to the individual characteristics of the organism.

The duration of the first month

For many girls, even if it seems that they are very young and unformed, the beginning of menstruation signals the next stage of puberty. Therefore, often the nature of the discharge and their intensity are no different from those observed in adult women. However, since menstruation is still a very individual process, some features may be present, such as scanty or, on the contrary, rather abundant secretions (their volume depends on the concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone in the body, therefore, even if only a few drops appeared during the first menstruation blood, do not worry). The first critical days, as in adult women, last from three to five days. You should not worry if they ended a little earlier or a little later, because the cycle is just beginning to be established, and similar failures are quite normal.

Deviations from the norm with monthly

But, despite the fact that the fuzzy cycle allows for many corrections, there are also symptoms, the presence of which indicates that there are deviations. For example, the extremely abundant nature of the discharge indicates that malfunctions have occurred in the endocrine system.

In this case, it makes sense to show the child to the pediatric gynecologist or gynecologist-endocrinologist and pass a blood test for hormones. In the future, when the cycle gradually begins to be established, it will be necessary to monitor its duration.

Opinion gynecologists

The main danger, as many doctors say, in the first menstruation is not the process as such, but the fact that the girl is often unaware of what is happening to her, because of which she can become confused and frightened. Therefore, they strongly advise mothers to talk with their daughters about what is monthly in girls, 11-year-olds and even a little younger this will be extremely useful. It is also necessary to tell the child not only what is menstruation, but also what precedes its onset. So, when the first symptoms appear, indicating the early onset of transitional age, the girl will be able to understand what is happening to her, and, in which case, to react in time. It is important to teach the child to independently monitor the duration of the month and the interval between them, because the information on the duration of the cycle can give an extensive description of the general state of health.

It is also necessary to remember that after the first critical days there can be a significant delay. In most cases, this is also the norm, because within six months after the "launch" of ovarian work, the cycle will be formed and established. Because of this, jumps and crashes may occur. The maximum that can be done in this case is to teach the girl to use the pads and make sure that they are always at hand.

It is necessary to understand both an adult woman and a little girl who just has to become a woman, that menstruation is a completely natural process, and there is no point in being afraid or embarrassed. Explaining to the daughter what it is and how to live with it is not worth keeping back. After all, sooner or later the girl herself finds out about what her mother once was ashamed to tell, but if she is warned in advance, she will be able to avoid many unpleasant incidents and mistakes. Assuming that the child will soon come monthly, it is also necessary to pay special attention to her lifestyle. In such a difficult period for the body, it is important to maintain it with proper nutrition (having consulted a doctor, you can start taking vitamins E, K, D), healthy sleep (children at that age need to sleep for at least eight hours), moderate physical activity (trips by bus can частично заменить пешими прогулками) и комфортным эмоциональным состоянием (стрессы следует свести к минимуму, потому что дети к ним особенно чувствительны, и на здоровье девочки как общем, так и репродуктивном, это может сказаться не лучшим образом). Поддержка, понимание и общая атмосфера помогут сделать переход намного более легким.

Половое развитие

Проблема полового созревания в России является актуальной в наше время. It so happened that in many Russian families, discussion with children about sexual development, marriage, childbirth is left behind the scenes. But not only parents, but also teachers in schools need to conduct conversations with children, schoolchildren, striving for the competent sexual education of our descendants.

Puberty, as a physiological process, proceeds in a certain sequence.

In the pubertal phase (10 - 12 years), there is an increase in the mammary glands, which is called thelarch, the beginning of pubescence is noted (11 years - 12 years) - this is called pubarhe. Completion is the onset of the first menstruation - menarche (menstruation begins in girls aged 12 to 13 years), coinciding with the completion of body growth in length.

What is the monthly (menstruation)?

Monthly, and from the medical side - menstruation, represent the rejection of the endometrium (the mucous membrane of the inner layer of the uterus), a rhythmic process that repeats at certain intervals. Menstruation is the completion of the physiological process - the menstrual cycle, which lasts 3-4 weeks.

During sexual growth in the hypothalamus and pituitary gonadotropic hormones (FSH-follicle-stimulating hormone and LH-luteinizing hormone) begin to be produced, which trigger the mechanism of follicle growth, steroid production, and egg maturation. In the mucous membranes of the uterus, vagina, cervical canal cyclical changes occur, corresponding to the phases of the menstrual cycle.

Cycle phases

The menstrual cycle has several phases:

  • endometrial rejection phase, which has individual periods of duration from one day to several days. This is a very complex process, followed immediately by the process of growth of the endometrium, which occurs with unusual speed,
  • then the proliferation phase begins (with a normal 4-day cycle) starts from the 5th day and lasts until the 14th day of the menstrual cycle. Every day the process of growth of the endometrium increases, and by the end of the proliferation phase the growth of the endometrium in thickness reaches a maximum,
  • during the proliferation phase, the secretion phase will begin from the 15th to the 28th day of the menstrual cycle. In this phase, the growth of the endometrium stops and begins its preparation for the adoption of a fertilized egg, or for rejection (if the fertilization of the egg has not occurred).

Changes in the body

Before the onset of menstruation, the body signals this. various manifestations, among them:

  • pulling back pain and sacrum,
  • headache,
  • feeling broken
  • tension in the nipples
  • weight gain
  • many girls and girls, a few days before the onset of menstruation, the discharge of heavy mucous discharge begins,
  • possible, but not always, increased body temperature, fluctuations in blood pressure.

In addition to the above changes, the first signs of menstruation in girls can manifest changes in the psychological sphere: weakening of memory, irritability, tearfulness, insomnia.

The first 1.5 years after menarche, the frequency of cycles with ovulation (that is, the cycles in which the egg matures) reaches 60%. In 1/3 of the girls, the first 3–5 years after menarche, the menstrual cycles are characterized by insufficiency of the corpus luteum, but most often the cycles are new. This explains the high frequency of dysfunctional uterine bleeding at puberty.

What factors affect puberty (the beginning of menstruation) and how many years do girls start menstruating?

It should be said that a large number of factors affect the time of onset and the course of puberty. These include hereditary (race, nation), constitutional factors, state of health, body weight.

For example, in girls with high body mass, menstruation occurs earlier, unlike their peers, who have a lower body mass.

The question of how much then, on average, the girl begins her period for a girl, is the answer: when reaching a body weight of 47.8 + -0.5 kg, when the fat layer is 22% of the total body weight (average 12 - 13 years )

In addition to these factors, other factors (external) also influence the onset and development of sexual development: climatic (light, height above sea level, geographical location) and a balanced diet (with sufficient protein, fat, carbohydrates, trace elements and vitamins).

Also, sources can be diseases such as heart disease with heart failure, tonsillitis, severe gastrointestinal diseases with a violation of nutrient absorption, kidney function failure, and liver function failure. All of these conditions weaken the girl's body, inhibiting the normal course of the process of puberty.

How many days do the first periods last?

According to the World Health Organization, in 38% of girls the menstrual cycle from menarche to the second menstruation lasted more than 40 days, in 10% - more than 60 days, and in 20% - 20 days.

The duration of the first menstruation is from 2 to 7 days, but it can go longer, up to 2 weeks, and on average, the girl uses from 3 to 6 pads. But usually the first menstruation in girls are plentiful and long.

What does Dr. Komarovsky say?

An article by a well-known children's doctor, Komarovsky, O. Ye., States that the final installation of the menstrual cycle takes from 8 to 12 years and in a larger number of adolescents it lasts from 21 to 45 days.

The first three years, the menstrual cycle, on average, is 28 - 35 days, but with age it shortens, which is associated with the work of the ovaries.

Allot The following fluctuations in the menstrual cycle in adolescents:

  • first year after menarche - 23 - 90 days,
  • fourth year - 24 - 50 days,
  • seventh year - 27 - 38 days.

What should parents pay attention to?

It should be noted that there are signs and conditions that should alert the parents and make them promptly turn to a specialist.

These include:

  • absence of periods for 6 months,
  • symptoms of endocrine disorders (diabetes, obesity),
  • polycystic ovaries,
  • active sports (which often occurs in girls 12 years old)
  • loss or lack of appetite, or vice versa, when girls start to increase their appetite,
  • taking certain medications, drugs,
  • tumors of the pituitary gland, ovaries, adrenal glands,
  • blood diseases.

Exist menstrual disorders:

  • amenorrheawhen there are no periods for more than 3 months (it is worth saying that there is a physiological absence of periods during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and in other cases amenorrhea is pathological and requires treatment),
  • oligomenorrhea - the interval between periods more than 35 days,
  • polymenorrhea - the period is less than 22 days,
  • hypomenorrhea -the duration of bleeding less than 3 days,
  • hypermenorrhea - more than 7 - 10 days,
  • menorrhagiawhen bleeding continues 10 - 14 days or more,
  • opsmenorea - rare with an interval of more than 35 days and scanty monthly.

Stress has a great influence on the setting of the menstrual cycle. If a girl is constantly subjected to stress (home, at the institute during the session), periods can be delayed, scarce or completely absent, this is the so-called stress-amenorrhea.

And it happens that the first menses begin later and later: at the age of 16 - 18 years. Causes of late onset of menstruation can be underweight, pituitary tumors, past infectious diseases (measles, rubella), stress, and psycho-emotional overstrain.

What is better to use: pads or tampons?

When our grandmothers went monthly, they used gauze, rags, then they were washed and used again.

In the modern world, a huge number of gaskets and tampons have been developed and introduced into wide use.

It is really very convenient, because using them allows you to continue to lead an active life, without fear that something will leak somewhere. The question remains, what is better to use: tampons or pads.

It must be said that the use of pads is safer than tampons, because when using cotton cylinders it is necessary to observe safety and hygiene measures.

The tampon is allowed to leave in the vagina no more than 2 hours, and longer use creates a favorable environment for the growth of pathogens.

Psychologist tips

Here is several recommendations of a psychologist about how to tell the girl about the first menstrual periods:

  1. Since the first blood of a girl can appear not at the age of 12, but at the age of 11, and sometimes at the age of 10, it is necessary to tell the girl about her periods beforehand.
  2. It is necessary to take a closer look at the child, as far as he is actively interested in “forbidden” topics.
  3. It is necessary to find suitable literature where it is explained in an accessible language how to tell the girl about her period and at what age they should begin (books, magazines, video lectures).

The usual questions of adolescent girls: “Does it hurt?”, “How much discharge does it take?”, “How much do the first periods go?”.

When the age of the girl approaches 11 - 12 years, she starts to wait monthly. During this period, you can purchase hygiene products - pads or tampons. If the girl is not yet living sex, then it will, of course, pads. It is necessary to explain to the girl that it is necessary to change the gaskets every 3 to 4 hours or as far as the pollution is concerned, take a shower twice a day (morning and evening) and wash each time the gasket is changed.

In addition, explain to the girl that the onset of menstruation suggests that there is a possibility of pregnancy, and from this stage the girl should be more responsive to her health and life.

Bleeding

The symptoms of the first menstrual period in girls at any age are approximately identical. At first, the ovaries begin to work - these are the paired sex glands, which will now release an egg cell every month for fertilization. Approximately 2 weeks before the first bleeding, the girl may note that the discharge from the genital tract has become more abundant.

They acquire a mucous consistency, liquefy and become viscous. Such allocations will be for 2-5 days, after which they will change again. These signs speak not only about the early beginning of menstruation, but also become evidence of ovulation. If you observe the behavior of your body, in the future you can learn how to easily determine the beginning of ovulation.

After 10-14 days after the appearance of mucous discharge, the girl starts menstruating. It may be accompanied by premenstrual syndrome or may occur without it. The first discharges are scarce and are not as intense red as the subsequent ones.

Depending on the individual characteristics of the color of menstruation can vary from pinkish pale to intense brown. Do not worry if the menstruation does not have a rich scarlet shade like blood. It should be borne in mind that the discharge also contains particles of the endometrium and cervical mucus, so they can change their color.

Despite the fact that the symptoms of the onset of the first menstrual period are identical in all girls, for each they may appear differently. This is completely normal, since there are no identical organisms. Each girl has their own sensitivity and observation. Not the least role in the time of onset of menstrual bleeding is played by minor factors.

Physical development. With an accelerated pace of physical development at an early age, there is a high probability that menstrual bleeding will start earlier. The converse is also true: if a girl has a delay in physical development, then her period can begin later.

Determine this feature is not difficult. It is enough to compare the girl with her peers. To know on this basis, when the period begins, it is possible only at the stage of puberty. A girl may be shorter and have insufficient body weight at a younger age, but by the age of 10-13, she can quickly catch up and even overtake her peers in the physical development.

Genetics. It is believed that the genetic relationship between mother and daughter determines the time when the first menstruations begin. Usually this feature is paid attention to when the menarche periods are shifted. So, if a girl's menstruation went at 9 years old, like her mother’s, there’s nothing wrong with that. In order to eliminate the pathology, it is necessary to show the child to the pediatric gynecologist.

Psychological state. Stress can provoke a delay in menarche, disrupt the established cycle or, on the contrary, cause early menstruation. The emotional state of the child has a direct effect on the hormones. During puberty, many things are perceived by girls as especially painful, which manifests itself in the form of emotional outbursts. An unstable emotional state can be a sign that menstruation does not start on time.

Diet and mode. These factors play an important role in the menarche offensive. If the girl eats inferior, does not adhere to the daily regimen, and does not have an additional source of microclients, then the menarche will begin later. Often, the first periods come in winter, because during this period the body is usually calm, the appetite is increased, and sleep is established. However, the cold season can not be considered a sign of the first menstruation.

If the girl's period began before the age of 10 or is missing even at the age of 15, this may be a sign of endocrine diseases, inflammation of the pelvic organs or uterus infantilism. In this case, it is necessary to show the child to the doctor in order to determine the possible pathology and take measures to eliminate it.

When are the first critical days?

A few decades ago, girls started to have menstruation at almost 18 years of age. Now puberty comes earlier. The occurrence of the first menstruation at 11–16 years is considered normal. Some girls have critical days earlier, and some later.

It depends on several factors:

  • diseases that were carried in childhood
  • heredity
  • power supply,
  • living conditions
  • physical development.

In addition, if the grandmother and mom started their periods early, then the child will most likely do the same. If a girl overtakes her peers in physical development, then her period will come earlier. Conversely, if the baby grows weak and often sick, then she is likely to fall behind in puberty. Menstruation will come later with poor nutrition, lack of vitamins and nutrients necessary for the growth and development of the young body.

There are cases when the first menses in girls begin at 8–9 years old. Early sexual development can be caused by hormonal disturbances, great physical exertion. If menstruation does not start by the age of 17, then this is a reason to visit a gynecologist. The reason for the lag in sexual development may be in the insufficient functioning of the ovaries, emotional stress, nerve overload, problems of hormonal metabolism, disorders arising from the pituitary gland, exhausting sports training, unfavorable environmental conditions, dieting.

Signs preceding the first monthly

Any mother monitoring the condition and health of her daughter may notice signs that precede the onset of the first menstruation. From this very moment it is necessary to begin preparing the child for a new life period. About a couple of years before the onset of menstruation, the girl's figure changes (her chest increases, her hips become wider). Under the arms and pubic hair begins to grow. In addition, the menstruation in girls is preceded by acne on the face, back.

A few months before the first critical days girls notice traces of atypical discharge on their underwear. They can be transparent, yellowish or whitish without an unpleasant odor. All this is the norm and does not indicate any disease. If there are such symptoms as itching in an intimate place, a strange smell inherent in the discharge, then you should visit a specialist.

A few days before the onset of menstruation The girl may show signs of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that occurs in adult women:

  • frequent mood swings, tearfulness,
  • apathetic or aggressive state
  • no-cause headaches
  • pain sensations of a pulling nature, localized in the lower abdomen.

How is the first menstruation, and how to prepare the child?

The first signs of menstruation in girls - bloody issues. They can be moderate or very scarce. During the first menstruation, about 50-150 ml of blood comes out of the body (depending on the individual characteristics of the girl, hereditary factors). On the very first day a small amount of menstrual blood is lost. The most abundant discharge observed on the second day. Then their volume is gradually reduced. The duration of menstruation can vary from 3 to 7 days.

For the first time, the month of the girl may be accompanied weakness, discomfort in the lower abdomen. With the next menstruation, they can also be observed. These symptoms occur in most adult women, so do not worry about this.

Monthly characteristic odor. Он объясняется тем, что во время менструации активно функционируют слизистые железы вульвы, вырабатывая секреты.

Первые кровянистые выделения, несильные боли тянущего характера могут напугать ребенка. The task of the mother is to explain to her girl that menstruation is a normal physiological process that occurs in the body of every girl and adult woman. The conversation should be friendly, not instructive.

Mother should tell her daughter:

  1. About the menstrual cycle. Critical days occur every month. It is imperative to say how long the monthly period of girls is. It should also be noted that the average duration of the menstrual cycle is 28 days, but during the first two years it may fluctuate.
  2. On the need to follow the rules of hygiene. Blood is a very favorable medium for the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. They can lead to the development of serious inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system.
  3. About the risks of sexual relationships. With the onset of menstruation, each girl enters into childbearing age, and intimate relationships with the opposite sex can lead to pregnancy, which at this age is extremely undesirable. Childbirth can harm both the young mother and her baby. That is why the girl should be aware of what may be promiscuous, unprotected sex.

Features of the menstrual cycle

In adolescent girls, the menstrual cycle (the period from the first day of the previous menstrual period to the first day of the next menstrual period) is 21–35 days. but during the first two years not all of it becomes regular. For some, he constantly hesitates. For example, one menstrual cycle can be 25 days, and the next - 32 days. This is normal. It does not indicate that the girl has some kind of pathology. If there are any suspicions, then you can visit a doctor. The specialist will tell you exactly whether this is normal or not ailment.

It is worth noting that intervals between months can be from one and a half months to six months. Do not worry if the monthly does not occur at the right time. At a young age, menstrual function is not yet fully formed. That is why some girls have long breaks. If menstruation does not occur in a few months, then you need to seek help from a doctor. A prolonged pause between the first and second months for girls may indicate a serious malfunction in the work of the young body.

With the beginning of the first menstruation, the daughter should be taught to keep a calendar, in which she could celebrate when her periods began and ended. This information may not be useful in the first 1-2 years from the beginning of the critical days, because at this time the menstrual cycle has not yet been fully established. But then the calendar will be useful in consultation with a specialist, if the cycle will remain irregular. Too short or long periods, small or large gap between periods can be a sign of a disease.

When and how does it start?

Signs of the first menses

The first signs of the appearance of menstruation are detected long before their arrival, as a rule, in a year or two. At about 10–13 years of age, the girl’s figure begins to form in a feminine type: her hips are widening, her chest is outlined. First, the nipples on the breasts become more prominent. Then the volume of the breast as a whole increases. Hair appears in the armpits and in the pubic area. Sometimes a small amount of vegetation is found on the legs and near the nipples.

The appearance of a teenage girl often gives her disappointment. Due to the revitalization of the sebaceous glands, her skin becomes fatter and can become covered with pimples. Particularly affected by acne are face, chest area and back. This is also considered as signs before the first menstruation in girls. The fact is that the period is characterized by rapid growth of bones, and the skin behind it does not have time. Greasiness is nothing more than a defensive reaction aimed at avoiding damage.

Sweat glands begin to function more intensively. All changes in appearance are caused by enhanced production of sex hormones. Shortly before this, the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, and, after them, the ovaries, which produce estrogens and progestins, begin to function more actively.

Behavior changes

The first signs of menstruation in girls 11 years old - 13 years old are not limited to external changes. Big problems can bring new manifestations of character to her and her close ones.

Hormonal balance in adolescence is unstable. His jumps provoke increased irritability, possibly aggressiveness. They can be replaced by stormy fun or despondency, which is causeless at first glance.

We recommend reading the article about how many years the first periods of a girl can begin. You will learn everything about the onset of the first menstruation, the preparation of a teenager, recommendations regarding hygiene and the first visit to the gynecologist.

Development of the reproductive system

Signs of the first menstrual periods in girls are more associated with the development of reproductive organs. The most notable of them manifest themselves several months before this important event:

  • The appearance of whiter. Vaginal mucous secretions are usually colorless or whitish. They may be yellowish, cream. Whites appear arbitrarily, but under the influence of estrogen, which thickens the epithelium of the internal genital organs. Basically, the contents of the discharge are cells of the surface of the vagina. The appearance of whiter may occur 2 years before the menarche. But the closer to menstruation, the more obvious this very first sign of menstruation becomes. The whites are made more abundant, they can change the consistency,
  • Soreness in the abdomen. Feelings are blurred, but sensitive, can change their strength. Sometimes pain gives to the lower back. These first signs of the early arrival of menstruation declare themselves periodically, but it is important not to take for them the manifestations of any ailment. Premenstrual sensations should not last long and be unbearable,
  • Swelling of the mammary glands. Breast growth is a separate feature. But at some moments, its lobules become more pronounced to the touch, painful. The sensation is present when touching it, and the heaviness can be felt at rest,
  • Headache. The first signs of the onset of menstruation are similar to what adult women feel immediately before menstruation. Sensations are caused by hormonal "explosion", which provokes fluid retention in the body, squeezing of blood vessels and, as a result, pain in the head. To this group of symptoms can be attributed all the negative manifestations of nature, which have already been mentioned, from aggressiveness to indifference to everything.

Changes in the reproductive system before menstruation

Difficulties in anticipation of the first menstruation

It is worth knowing to a close teenage girl: what signs of the first menstrual period were her mother's, they will manifest in a similar way to her daughter. As a rule, features of sexual development are inherited through the female line. But still they must fit within certain limits.

If the listed manifestations are noted in a hypertrophied form, it is possible that the development of the endocrine system or the sexual system is wrong. The timing of the onset of symptoms of impending menarche is also significant. Their appearance before 10 years and later 16 are the reason for the visit to the adolescent gynecologist.

Therefore, to accustom the girl to a more careful toilet of the genitals is necessary from childhood. As well as to ensure that she was protected from colds, dressed in accordance with the weather, did not sit on cold surfaces.

What signs before the first menstruation, also depends on the situation in which the girl grows. If she has to be nervous often, she is poorly nourished, endures physical exertion unreasonable for her age, and manifestations of puberty can cause her great problems.

All these factors can interfere with it, so the development of the reproductive system will slow down and the first menstruation will have to wait a long time. Frequent illness can have this effect.

We advise you to read the article about tampons for girls. You will learn about the possibilities of using this hygiene product, their anatomical features, the effect on the microflora and the methods of administration and extraction.

Manifestations before menarche

Signs of the onset of the first menstruation are clearly manifested 2-7 days before the event. Mostly they concern the reproductive organs and the breast:

  • The mammary glands are compressed, become larger due to the expansion of their components due to hormones. The chest may increase soreness or at least show discomfort,

  • In the lower abdomen there is aching pain. It is caused by an expansion of the cervical canal through which the secretions will flow. The ovaries are also enlarged, as a result of which there may be a heaviness in the stomach.

The first signs that soon menstruation, and will touch the general state of health. The girl may experience outbreaks of irritability, or, conversely, unreasonable tears, as well as drowsiness and apathy. Frequent dizziness, increased appetite, craving for sweets or, on the contrary, nausea and lack of interest in food.

A girl should not think that this is due to something bad. On the contrary, you need to tell her about the routine of what is happening, to help transfer the unpleasant symptoms of growing up with the least amount of mental damage. After all, hormonal balance is very dependent on the state of the nervous system, which means women's health.

The first signs of the first menstrual period in adolescent girls

On average, the majority of adolescent girls start their first periods at the age of 12-14 years, but these periods can vary greatly depending on the individual characteristics of the organism, environmental conditions, genetic predisposition, health status and other factors. Even food and climate affect the duration of the first menstruation. If menarche occurred in the period from 10 to 17 years, then this is considered the norm.

By the time of the first menstrual period, other signs of puberty had already appeared: body growth accelerated, the figure began to acquire more rounded shapes, pubic hair appeared, the external and internal genitals increased, the mammary glands became larger, and the nipples darker. After all these changes, menstruation occurs, but it still does not indicate the end of puberty: the cycle should be established, the figure should take on its final form, and the body should end the period of endocrine maturation.

The first menstruation is often not abundant, have a special smell, since during this period the vaginal glands are actively working. The microflora of the genital organs is changing, so it is very important to follow the rules of intimate hygiene.

Menstruation may be accompanied by headaches or pain in the lower abdomen, weakness, nausea, dizziness.

If a girl watches her condition and is attentive to changes in her body, then the first menstrual periods will not be a shock, as there are many symptoms by which you can determine their approximation.

Two years, a year or a few months before menarche, girls develop characteristic vaginal discharge, whites, which initially have a liquid consistency and stand out in small quantities. For three or four months, they become more abundant and thicker: on this basis it is possible to determine the approximate time of the onset of the first menstruation. If leucorrhoea has a pronounced sharp smell and color and is accompanied by itching, it is necessary to visit a gynecologist.

Some girls have pains in the lower abdomen a few months before the menarche, they may be weak or rather severe. Often they are accompanied by other signs of premenstrual symptom: headache, fluctuations in mood, aggression, tearfulness.

But PMS often does not start just a few days, but a few weeks or months before the first menstrual period, although different girls may have different periods.

By the time of the first menstruation, there are also changes in appearance associated with the activation of the sebaceous sweat glands: pimples appear, sometimes there is a strong acne rash, hair becomes dirty more quickly, dandruff can occur.

The body of a teenage girl changes very quickly. More recently, her figure was quite childish, but now there are feminine roundness. In addition to external changes, internal ones also occur, which force the girl to care for herself differently.

With the onset of puberty, hormones are released, which stimulates the development and restructuring of the internal organs.

The girl's body is preparing for future motherhood, stimulating the work of the uterus, ovaries, vegetative-vascular system.

The teenager comes the first menstruation (menarche), vaginal discharge increases, the girl begins to sweat much more than before. Sweat gets a smell, so personal hygiene in adolescence is very important.

In adolescence, many girls begin to gain weight quickly. Limit the consumption of sweet, fatty, flour and pay more attention to the sport. Do not be afraid of changes in the body. They are all natural and normal.

Just remember that you have innovations in the daily routine that will help you to always be clean and tidy.

First, make it a rule for a daily shower. It is better to take it twice - in the morning and in the evening. In this case, you need to be able to properly use deodorant. To take action, he needs time.

Therefore, apply it after the evening shower. During the night, the active substances will begin to work, the sweat will not stand out. Best of all, gel and solid deodorants cope with their task. Sprays only drown out the smell of sweat and very quickly disappear. To get deodorant on your skin, remove the hair from your armpits with a razor.

And shave them always. Sweat settles on the hairs, it is impossible to wash them qualitatively, and it looks not aesthetically pleasing.

The second thing a girl should remember is that now there will be menstruation every month. Take care of the pads beforehand, until the cycle is established, the discharge may begin earlier than expected. Remember that during menstruation you need to wash especially thoroughly. Use soap or intimate gel to completely remove secretions and odor.

Feel free to tell your mother about the changes that are happening to your body. She can give wise advice. The increased work of the sweat glands leads to the fact that the hair on the head very quickly saly. Wash them as they get dirty, greasy hair looks very untidy.

Use shampoos, drying the scalp.

At puberty, the girl may have acne. If there are a lot of them and they cause inconvenience, consult a doctor. Complex therapy of acne rash consists not only of lotions and masks, but also special preparations that regulate the amount of hormones.

Only a doctor can prescribe them.

Symptoms of the first menses

The first menstruation is an exciting event in the life of any girl. During this period, important changes occur in the body. They are all natural and testify of your growing up.

The symptoms of the first menstrual period in girls appear shortly before the onset of menstruation. Having noticed them, you will be able to prepare for this important event in advance.

In this case, the appearance of bleeding does not come as a surprise to you.

When to wait for the symptoms of the first menstruation?

Puberty occurs gradually. Usually, the first signs of your growing up become noticeable 2–2.5 years before the onset of menstruation. Carefully watching your body, you can assume when to wait for the arrival of menstruation.

For most girls, menstruation begins at 11–12 years old, but there are exceptions. Most often they are the norm and simply reflect the individual characteristics of the development of the organism. Remember: the first periods can come in 10 years, and sometimes they begin only after 15 years.

If you are worried, talk to your mother or go with her to the pediatric gynecologist.

What changes happen to your body before menstruation?

Before menstruation begins in girls, the symptoms of hormonal changes in the body become more and more noticeable. The most characteristic features include the following.

The appearance of white discharge. On the approximation of the first menstruation may indicate bright vaginal discharge. They are white or transparent and have no unpleasant smell. Most likely, you just notice small spots on the underwear. Since the appearance of discharge to the onset of menstruation, it can take just a few months, or a whole year.

Changes in shape as a result of hormonal adjustment of the body. What is the symptom before the first menstruation in girls can not be missed? Of course, this is the formation of a female figure.

This process begins about 2 years before the onset of menstruation. You will notice how your body is changing: your breasts are increasing, new hip outlines are getting, etc. All this happens under the influence of hormones.

By the way, because of them you can become more vulnerable and irritable during this period.

The appearance of premenstrual syndrome. It is associated with a change in the balance of hormones in the second half of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of the first menstrual periods in girls can be:

  • swelling of the mammary glands,
  • headaches,
  • discomfort in the lower abdomen,
  • increased appetite
  • fast fatiguability,
  • frequent mood swings.

You can notice all the symptoms mentioned a few days before the onset of bleeding. Эти симптомы перед месячными у девочек проявляются по-разному. Одни почти не замечают их, а другим предменструальный синдром доставляет значительный дискомфорт.

Как начинается первая менструация?

At the first menstrual period, the girls have symptoms the day before. You may notice unusual sensations: heaviness and even nagging pain in the lower abdomen, weakness and excessive fatigue. The onset of menstruation is hard to miss. You will see reddish or red-brown spots on underwear.

The appearance of blood - the main symptom of menstruation. Discharges may be minor or abundant. Depending on their intensity, it is necessary to select hygiene products. The symptoms of menstruation in girls can vary, this is absolutely normal, because each organism is individual.

Menstruation usually ends in 3-5 days.

O.b.® tampons at the first monthly

Girls can use o.b.® tampons from the first menstruation. Such hygiene products will help you feel comfortable and confident. With them you will be able not to give up your favorite activities (for example, dancing or swimming) during critical days. Do not be afraid that the tampon can damage the hymen.

During menstruation, it becomes elastic and stretchable, in addition, it has a hole for the outflow of secretions. Small size tampons — o.b.® ProComfort ™ Mini or Normal — are optimally suited for girls. When filled, they increase by only 10–15% of the initial value.

And thanks to the silky SilkTouch ™ coating, hygiene products are especially convenient to insert and remove. You may be worried that a tampon might get lost inside the body. But this is not true: you can always remove it by simply pulling on a durable lanyard. With proper use, tampons do not harm your health.

Just carefully read the instructions before applying them or consult with a gynecologist.

The first signs of menstruation in girls 71

The young organism develops in different ways, it may have features that are faster or slower. But in any case, by the age of adolescence girls start their periods.

It is worth it to tell what the first signs of menstruation are. Some manifestations may seem frightening to girls, which can adversely affect sexual development in general.

What is the menstruation?

Menstruation or menstruation is called a certain phase of the monthly cycle, within which the functional layer of the uterine mucosa is separated, and discharge of blood from the vagina appears. In medicine, the first menstruation in girls is called "menarche."

The first symptom of a delay in menstruation is the phenomenon when the menstrual periods have not come on time. If menstruation did occur, it means that the pregnancy did not occur this month. The first periods in girls do not indicate a complete readiness of the body for pregnancy, but pregnancy is actually possible.

The period of the first menstruation

The average age at which menstruation may begin in girls is 13 years. But basically, the first signs of menstruation in girls begin at the age of 12 to 14 years. Gynecologists often use the term "gynecological age." This age is calculated from the onset of the first menstruation. There is the establishment of the menstrual cycle, indicating sexual maturity.

The time of the onset of menstruation often varies in this range, but there are exceptional cases. Thus, the signs of the first menstruation may appear either earlier or slightly after the specified period. You should go to the pediatric gynecologist. Often this happens in connection with the simple physiology of the girl. Before talking about abnormalities, genetic predisposition should also be considered.

If from an early age a girl began to outpace her peers in physical development, then the probability of the onset of the first menstruation before the rest is high. If the girl began to fall behind in physical development, while others look more adult, then the first menstruation may occur later.

After the onset of the first menstruation, in most cases in girls, the menstruation cycle lasts about 28-30 days. Monthly lasts mainly for three to five days.

Often, menstruation can last a whole week, which is not considered a deviation. Gradually periods in girls become regular.

For the rest of the girls, the interval before the next menstruation is about 1.5 - 3 months.

If the break lasts more than 3 months and there are no signs during menstruation, you should contact your gynecologist.

Also the amount of blood lost during menstruation may vary. The intensity of bleeding can be hereditary or simply be a feature of the girl's body.

The symptoms of menstruation in girls appear even a few years before the start of the first menstruation, expressed in changes in appearance, emotional state and behavior. The figure becomes more feminine. Due to changes in hormonal levels, there is an active work of the sebaceous, sweat glands. This leads to acne.

Before the start of the first menstruation, the intensity of vaginal discharge changes over several months. The leucorrhoea becomes profuse. Unlike infectious secretions of the urogenital system, they are white or transparent and odorless.

Also, the first periods in girls can take place without any signs.

Indicators of their approximation are such signs for menstruation, such as:

  1. pain in the abdomen,
  2. mood swings,
  3. bouts of nausea
  4. feeling weak
  5. headaches.

Thus, the signs of menstruation in girls appear differently.

What means of intimate hygiene to use?

Currently, advertising tampons and pads is a frequent occurrence. Most likely, the girl will be aware of the purpose of these hygiene products before the first menstruation. But the first periods of adolescents are different, so girls can not do without help during the first month.

Firstly, buying intimate hygiene by yourself can be a problem for a girl. It is best to at least first women purchase gaskets for their daughters. Of course, before buying gaskets, you need to correctly approach this case. It is undesirable to use hygienic tampons in the first months. But the gaskets should be carefully chosen.

  • Do not dwell on the choice of gaskets with high absorbency, because if the intensity of the menstruation is weak, then the girl will change them less often than they should. This can lead to the multiplication of bacteria, and blood will be a breeding ground for them. As a result, there may be an unpleasant smell and diseases of an inflammatory nature.
  • But do not take gaskets with very little absorption, because when signs of menstruation appear, A girl can get into an awkward situation by using them. After all, on the girl's clothes may appear a blood stain. And this situation may affect the fragile psyche of a teenager.

The first periods of the girl does not serve as a reason for frequent bathing. A great shower replacement will be a daily shower. It should also be washed 2-3 times a day. It is advisable not to use soap.

Gynecologists advise to use special gels for intimate hygiene, which contain lactic acid. Unlike soap, this component does not adversely affect the microflora.

The first menstruation does not accept great physical exertion, so for the time you need to abandon sports. Of course, light exercise will not harm the body.

An important point in the period of menstruation will be dieting. But this does not mean that you need to reduce the amount of food consumed, but just need to revise the diet and remove spicy dishes from it.

Thus, it should be noted, the first menstruation in a child can cause panic fear. Mothers just need to provide support and care in relation to their maturing child.

What is menstruation?

Especially without going into the physiology of the female reproductive system, we can say that menstruation (menstruation) is a phase of the menstrual cycle, during which there is a separation of the surface endometrium of the uterus and the appearance of bleeding from the vagina.

During each menstrual cycle, the female body prepares for the onset of pregnancy: the blood supply to the uterus improves, the thickness of the endometrium increases so that the fetal egg is easier to attach.

The appearance of menstruation indicates that pregnancy has not occurred this month.

The onset of the first menstruation in girls is not a sign of the body's readiness for pregnancy, but rather, makes it clear that from now on, pregnancy is possible.

The timing of the first menstruation in girls

According to statistics, the age of onset of the first menstrual period in girls has significantly "rejuvenated" over the past hundred years.

So, if earlier the timing of menarche approximately coincided with the age of majority (18 years), now the majority of girls already at the age of 13 learn from their own experience about menstruation.

Among other things, the place of residence affects the appearance of the first menstrual period in girls. For example, among the eastern peoples, menarche occurs in 10-11 years.

If the first menstruation in girls occurs between 11 and 16 years old, this is the norm. Girls talk about early sexual development if at the age of 8-9 years the first signs of sexual development appear. The absence of menstruation by the age of 17 is a sign of lag in sexual development.

The appearance of the first menstrual period in girls will depend on:

  • physical development
  • hereditary factor
  • diet,
  • places of residence and nationality
  • childhood diseases, etc.

The cause of menarche ahead of time (up to 11 years) can be:

  • hormonal metabolic disturbances
  • heavy physical exertion
  • poor diet.

If the first menstrual periods in girls come in 16-20 years, the reason is as follows:

  • ovarian failure
  • violation of the pituitary gland,
  • hormonal metabolic problems
  • neuropsychiatric disorder, etc.

Signs of Menstruation in Girls

In a healthy girl, menstruation begins at the age of 12-15 years. Sometimes the cycle begins at 11 years. For girls - this is an important event in life. Mom should prepare her for this in advance, so that the natural physiological manifestations are properly perceived and do not cause fright or stress.

Signs of Menstruation in Girls completely different. This is purely individual. In some, they appear quickly and brightly, in others they develop slowly over several years.

Puberty in girls

This process begins in the girl's body approximately 2-2.5 years before the onset of menstruation. The production of hormones begins, the formation of the reproductive system takes place. Hormonal surge is the cause of mood swings, excitability of the nervous system, moodiness, manifestation of aggression about the simple and well-grounded demands of parents.

The girl's breasts are forming, and new secondary sexual characteristics appear: pubic and axillary hairs grow, the growth and formation of the female-type body accelerates, teenage clumsiness appears due to the uneven growth of the bone and fat systems.

Secretion of sebaceous and sweat glands increases, the smell of sweat and body changes. There may appear juvenile acne on the face, décolleté and back.

The girl's reproductive system is gradually being formed to start menstruation. Transparent or whitish vaginal discharge, which does not smell and does not irritate the labia, is observed.

Parents during this period should be especially attentive to their child, since puberty does not always go smoothly and painlessly. Mom should explain to her daughter that these are temporary phenomena, they are part of the natural physiological process.

It is necessary that the girl eat properly and fully, so that her daily routine is age appropriate. It should be clarified that strict diets, which adolescents often harass, have a bad effect on health and may further prevent healthy offspring.

The purpose of conversations with her daughter is the opportunity to correctly convey to her information about the development of a woman, about her full life, about the consequences of rash actions after the onset of menstruation. She also needs to be told about the rules of hygiene and to teach her to use specialized tools.

So, signs of menstruation in girls are

  • breast enlargement
  • increased fatigue
  • headaches and lower abdominal pain
  • increased appetite
  • mood swings

The onset of menstruation in girls

When a girl enters adulthood, parents should be aware of all the deviations that may be observed in her. At the very beginning, the cycle will always be unstable, but then this phenomenon disappears, the cycle stabilizes, and any deviations from the norm should alert the parents, give reason to monitor their daughter's health and, if necessary, consult a doctor.

The menstrual cycle is influenced by food, climate, family conditions, physical exertion. Stressful situations have a very negative effect on the girl's puberty and on the establishment of the menstrual cycle.

If the cycle is not normalized during the year, then we can talk about health problems. The intervals between cycles in girls can last from one and a half months to three. Too rare, or vice versa, too frequent periods should be a reason for a visit to the doctor.

You should also visit a doctor for severe pain in the lower abdomen (suspected of infestation of the hymen, infection and inflammation, hormonal disorders), with too heavy bleeding, in the absence of menstruation for more than 3 months, with constant violations of the cycle.

Hygiene of the girl during puberty and menstruation

The girl must observe personal hygiene during puberty, as well as during the menstruation.

Hygienic procedures consist in frequent water procedures, constant change of specialized means (gaskets). Mom should explain to her daughter that using tampons at this age is not recommended, they may have an undesirable effect on the health of the still not fully formed reproductive system.

Parents should help their daughter keep a calendar so that the normalization of the cycle can be monitored, necessary dates should be noted, all uncharacteristic manifestations on the part of the organism can be identified.

What should pay special attention

Parents in the period of formation of the menstrual cycle should be especially patient with their daughter, be tactful and understanding. It is necessary to involve the daughter in sports, to organize her regimen, to monitor rest and nutrition.

The atmosphere in the house should be smooth and supportive, adults should not exacerbate conflicts, and resolve all differences in a relaxed atmosphere.

We need to understand for ourselves that the unstable behavior of her daughter is a consequence of the hormonal changes in the body, and not the girl’s desire to give her parents trouble. Only in understanding and caring will a full-fledged and healthy woman grow up from a girl.

Menstrual cycle in girls

After the onset of the first menstruation, in most cases in girls, the menstruation cycle lasts about 28-30 days. Monthly lasts mainly for three to five days.

Often, menstruation can last a whole week, which is not considered a deviation. Gradually periods in girls become regular.

For the rest of the girls, the interval before the next menstruation is about 1.5 - 3 months.

If the break lasts more than 3 months and there are no signs during menstruation, you should contact your gynecologist.

Also the amount of blood lost during menstruation may vary. The intensity of bleeding can be hereditary or simply be a feature of the girl's body.

Symptoms before the first monthly

The symptoms of menstruation in girls appear even a few years before the start of the first menstruation, expressed in changes in appearance, emotional state and behavior. The figure becomes more feminine. Due to changes in hormonal levels, there is an active work of the sebaceous, sweat glands. This leads to acne.

Before the start of the first menstruation, the intensity of vaginal discharge changes over several months. Leucorrhoea become profuse. Unlike infectious secretions of the urogenital system, they are white or transparent and odorless.

Also, the first periods in girls can take place without any signs.

Indicators of their approximation are such signs for menstruation, such as:

  1. pain in the abdomen,
  2. mood swings,
  3. bouts of nausea
  4. feeling weak
  5. headaches.

Thus, the signs of menstruation in girls appear differently.

Desirable and undesirable actions during menstruation

The first periods of the girl does not serve as a reason for frequent bathing. A great shower replacement will be a daily shower. It should also be washed 2-3 times a day. It is advisable not to use soap.

Gynecologists advise to use special gels for intimate hygiene, which contain lactic acid. Unlike soap, this component does not adversely affect the microflora.

The first menstruation does not accept great physical exertion, so for the time you need to abandon sports. Конечно, легкие физические упражнения не повредят организму.

Важным моментом в период месячных будет соблюдение диеты. But this does not mean that you need to reduce the amount of food consumed, but just need to revise the diet and remove spicy dishes from it.

Thus, it should be noted, the first menstruation in a child can cause panic fear. Mothers just need to provide support and care in relation to their maturing child.

The nature and signs of periods in girls

Signs of the beginning of menstruation indicate that the girl has reached a new stage in her life - the stage of puberty. And this period is accompanied by the appearance of menstruation - the discharge of blood from the genital organs at regular intervals. As a rule, these discharge (menstruation) appear once a month and continue for 3-5 days. The menstrual cycle can range from 21 days to 30, which is considered normal, especially if it is regular. It is for this reason that the girl needs to have a special calendar, where she will celebrate all the coming “critical” days.

Sexual maturity of girls depends on many factors, including climatic conditions. For example, adolescent girls living in southern latitudes have the first signs of menstruation a little earlier than representatives of northern latitudes. On average, in healthy girls, the first periods appear at the age of 13-15 years. With the pathology of the development of genital organs or weakened health, the first menstruation may not occur until the age of 19.

Signs of the appearance of the first menstruation are increased irritability, poor sleep, irritability, pain in the lower abdomen, the appearance of a whiter on underwear. During this period, the girl needs special attention from her mother, whose duty is to clarify the meanings of the monthly blood discharge.

In healthy girls, the menstrual cycle is established immediately, while in those who are often ill, there is a disorder, accompanied by an increase or decrease in the amount of blood secreted. Mom should help her daughter to monitor the regularity of menstruation and, in case of deviations, advise to visit a doctor.

The appearance of the first menstruation is preceded by the formation of the mammary glands, the expansion of the pelvis and rounding of the shoulders. In the armpits and pubic hair grows. Angular teenager turns into a girl with a nice body shape. Such changes begin to occur with the girl's body even before the first signs of menstruation appear.

Every girl should know that with the advent of monthly discharge in her body, cyclical changes occur, contributing to the preparation of the body to conceive and bear a child. The process of ovulation, in which the follicles of the ovary increase in size, burst and from them the germ cells that flow into the fallopian tube are carried out with a current of fluid (occurs 14 days before the onset of menstruation).

In place of the follicle, a yellow body is formed, which consists of clusters of yellow cells lining the walls of the follicle. If fertilization does not occur, then the yellow body is absorbed. The corpus luteum and follicle fluid are a special kind of hormones that have a great influence on the vital activity of the female body.

If fertilization does not occur, the uterine mucosa disintegrates and leaves the body in the form of menstruation. During this period, the inner walls of the uterus are an open wound, and therefore there is a risk of infection penetrating into it. After the signs of menstruation disappear, the lining of the uterus is restored.

These processes occur, as a rule, within 4 weeks, after which the process of maturation of the egg cell is repeated throughout the entire reproductive period in the life of the woman. Sex hormones affect not only cyclic changes, but also the functioning of the whole organism.

The signs of menstruation do not indicate sexual maturity of the girl, and therefore it should be remembered that sex life can begin after the age of 18, when the formation of the female body is completed. Early pregnancy and childbirth have a negative impact on both the young mother and the baby.

The menstrual cycle may be accompanied by malaise and increased fatigue, but most of the women on such days continue to do normal activities. In the event of pain or increased blood loss during menstruation, you must visit a gynecologist.

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