A colposcopy is a procedure in which the doctor examines the walls of the vagina, cervix and vulva. To do this, use a special device equipped with an optical element at the end. It is called colposcope. The video is displayed on a special screen, moreover, the doctor can see it in a 30-fold increase.
The test is completely painless if the doctor only examines the mucous membrane. However, if during the procedure, the doctor takes an analysis for a biopsy (biopsy), then this process can be accompanied by rather unpleasant sensations. And then for several days after the colposcopy, the woman will experience discomfort, and a small amount of blood will flow out of her vagina.
Why is colposcopy prescribed for suspected cervical erosion?
Colposcopy for cervical erosion is indicated if an examination of a cytological smear revealed a deviation from the norm. Also, the doctor may prescribe a procedure if he sees any anomalies in the process of mirror examination.
Thanks to colposcopy, the doctor sees the condition of the mucous membranes of the vagina and cervix. If there are any deviations from the norm, the doctor can give an accurate diagnosis. During the study, the doctor can distinguish healthy cells from atypical ones. Moreover, if there is a tumor in the area of the cervix of the uterus, colposcopy allows to establish its type - benign or malignant.
Does colposcopy reveal erosion?
With the help of colposcopy, all types of erosion can be identified - true, innate, and pseudo-erosion (ectopia). Moreover, the doctor sees changes on the mucous membrane right during the examination, but carries out a procedure to clarify the diagnosis. Externally, erosion is manifested by redness of the affected area, as well as the formation of ulcers and wounds on it. With a 30-fold increase, the doctor sees erosion well. If there is a suspicion of the onset of the cancer process, a biopsy is additionally prescribed.
Preparation for the procedure
Colposcopy is performed both before and after the menstrual cycle. It is important to agree with the doctor on the exact date so that the procedure does not coincide with the monthly. Before going to the doctor you need to prepare. To do this, follow these requirements:
- You can not have sexual intimacy for 2-3 days before colposcopy.
- It is not recommended to use tampons, use vaginal suppositories, or perform douching for several days before the procedure.
- If a woman is very sensitive, she can take an anesthetic drug (for example, Ibuprofen).
If there are still monthly periods on the appointed day, the procedure should be postponed.
Usually colposcopy does not last long, only 15-20 minutes. A woman sits in a gynecological chair and spreads her legs. Then the procedure is performed in the following sequence:
- The doctor inserts a gynecological mirror into the vagina. You must purchase a disposable device at the pharmacy in advance. The process of its introduction does not cause discomfort.
- Then he applies Lugol’s solution (iodine with water) to the surface of the cervix. After contact with iodine, the affected areas change color. In this case, the solution does not affect the healthy areas.
- After that, a colposcope is installed at a distance of several cm from the vagina. The doctor can see the cervix enlarged (up to 30-fold increase).
- If abnormal areas are found, the doctor performs a biopsy - takes a small area of tissue with a surgical element. A cervical biopsy does not cause severe pain, as there are no nerve endings in this organ. However, after this, the patient may develop an unexpressed pain in the lower abdomen. Also, the doctor may enter a special tool that stops the blood. This is necessary so that the wound from the place of the taken material does not start to bleed.
For several days after the procedure, bloody discharge from the vagina is possible (if a biopsy was performed). After colposcopy, the woman does not experience discomfort.
The result after the biopsy will be obtained approximately 2 weeks after the procedure. The accuracy of the result will be very high - 99%. A few weeks later, after the next menstrual period, it is recommended to re-take the examination at the gynecologist in order to assess the condition of the cervix. If erosion has been diagnosed, he prescribes treatment. Then, after several months of therapy, colposcopy is performed again to evaluate how effective the treatment is.
The vaginal portion of the healthy cervix is covered with stratified squamous epithelium (MPE), which has four layers and is pink in color. The cervical canal is lined with a single layer of glandular epithelium (bright red). The boundary between them, normally, should be in the area of the external os.
True erosion - when colposcopy shows signs of inflammation in the MPE and underlying tissue, the affected surface is swollen, deposits of fibrin filaments are visible. There is a rejection of the affected areas of the epithelium.
Pseudo-erosion (ectopia) - MBE is replaced by a cylindrical epithelium. On colposcopy, clusters of bright-red papillae are determined, which, when applied with acetic acid, turn pale and look like a bunch of grapes, the vessels shine through the single-layer cylindrical epithelium. This picture can be uniform or in the form of islands.
During the healing of erosion, the doctor sees a transformation zone - when, against the background of the pathological placement of the cylindrical epithelium, a multilayered layer appears in the form of islands and flames (an incomplete transformation zone). If it completely covers the cervix, and under it cysts and glands appear through - the transformation zone is called complete. This stage of erosion healing requires close attention, most often atypical cells appear in these zones.
Metaplasia - a picture of the replacement of single-layered cylindrical epithelium on the MPE.
When diagnosing ESHM, malignant processes should be excluded. Colposcopy allows you to identify suspicious areas from which fingerprints are taken and a biopsy is performed. Cytological examination of smears in ectopia reveals cells of the surface and intermediate types, flat and cylindrical epithelium of all layers.
Cervical erosion - is the devil scary as it is painted? Why colposcopy is needed, whether it is necessary to cauterize the very erosion and a few questions that need to be asked to the doctor in order to test his competence.
Hello. Over the past 3.5 years I have eaten a dog on the topic of gynecology - when my mother was diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma, stage 4, a cockroach spoke in my head, who repeated every day that this diagnosis would be made to me too. I shoveled so much information, so many webinars, and read articles from evidence-based medicine bases that I could go to the university and quietly take exams in gynecology. Mom died exactly 3 years after the operation, and the need to apply my knowledge was not long in coming. But I was fully armed and now I am sharing with you information that might help someone. I hope that someone will help. I am not a doctor, I do not diagnose, I do not treat, I am not going to argue and prove.
This spring I had to issue a medical certificate for driving practice courses. I went to a private clinic, which is two minutes away from work. Among the mandatory doctors - a gynecologist. Sat down in this chair, the doctor looked at my inner world and blurted out - "Yes, you have a huge erosion! You need to cauterize! It will be cancer!".
Cervical cancer is a RARE disease. It is rarely considered to be a disease, one case of which is diagnosed by an ordinary doctor (not specializing in this disease) no more than once a year when visiting a doctor from 20,000 to 200,000 patients. It is in third place after breast cancer and ovarian cancer (as far as I know, according to some sources, endometrial cancer is in second place).
I got up, got dressed and left. Have I returned to this doctor? Not. And you run from such doctors. She did not do tests, she just looked at so-so light in the mirror and set me commercial diagnosis. After that I went to my proven and beloved doctor for colposcopy.
The neck is located at the junction between the external genital organs and internal genital organs. There is such a place as a transition zone, a place of a barrier. In general, the internal and external genitals of a woman develop from different embryonic shoots. That is, embryonic tissue is different. The uterus, the tubes are formed from Mullerian ducts, which grow together and then form a single uterus, a single neck, fallopian tubes and ovaries. And the vagina grows from the urogenital sinus and grows as if towards the cervix. Normally, they are connected and the junction of these two embryonic buds is the transition zone. There are several such transition zones and they are very important for doctors. The epithelium of the vaginal mucosa is a thick layer, and it passes into a single-row epithelium. These fabrics are different in structure, function. There are so-called polypatent cells that can grow in one type of tissue or in the second. And it is very dangerous in terms of oncology.
Why is the cervix red?
The red epithelium, which looks inflamed, is only because it is thin, single-row, so the vessels are so translucent. The neck consists of a stroma, which is not a muscle. The muscle begins only where the uterus begins. This is a connective collagen tissue. The neck can not relax, shrink, it is not affected by noshpa, which is pricked during childbirth
Ectopia of the cervix - what is it?
In addition, some doctors called erosion by ectopia. Ectopia is when the red spot is more than the doctor wants to see. The transition zone is simply shifted out. And if the smear and cytological parameters are normal, then no erosion should be treated, especially if the girl is under 25 and she did not give birth. As my doctor confirmed to me, who performed colposcopy for me, if a girl started to have late periods, then even 25 years later such a picture will be observed and cleaned absolutely normal. Later, stratified squamous epithelium grows and there is no ectopia after 40 years, there will be almost all white cervix, possibly with changes in dysplasia. And in this growing epithelium there may be problems.
How did the term "cervical erosion" appear?
What I called terrible horror, normal "beautiful" neck xD Where did "erosion" come from? In ancient times, when almost no one looked at the neck, when there were no chairs yet, and there was a lot of cancer, because they simply could not find it, imagine the doctor finally looked in there. But how? He needed a source of light, tools. And maybe it was from here that "yes, I kept him a candle." And then the doctor saw the inner world of the woman and exclaimed - Erosio! (Scratch). It seemed to him that someone had scratched his neck. The name got stronger, although he was later removed and the diagnosis was removed, because it means nothing. There is no diagnosis, respectively , there is no treatment plan. And communication begins on the forums - “but they told me, burn it,” “and they said to a dream, cut it out”, “and I will walk like this, it will pass by itself.” And confusion begins in our heads. NO DIAGNOSIS EROSION. And you need to go to the doctor who does not cauterize, not because he is kind, but because he gets new knowledge, and does not look at you with a candle. Fear is not necessary to erosion, and possible dysplasia, as this is already a diagnosis. Dysplasia from dysplasio is an impaired cell structure. When cells are found in a smear, with some not such properties - two nuclei, enlarged nuclei, without nuclei. And this is already a problem and this is a diagnosis. And depending on the degree, there is a tactic - what to double-check, what analysis to complete, how to treat. But I will not talk about dysplasia, I will tell you more about colposcopy.
How do colposcopy?
Colposcopy is a technique for inspecting the cervix on a gynecological chair, an examination with a special device called a colposcope. Invented by Dr. Hans Ginzelman in 1925, when he wanted to look at the neck affected by cancer through a magnifying glass. An increase in modern devices is possible from 3 hours to 40 times, with the display of the image on the screen and the fixation of images in the database.
This is a routine inspection, it is carried out at least with us during the initial examination. Come to the gynecologist, take off your clothes and sit in the usual gynecological chair. It's not scary at all. Colposcopy - does it hurt? Not. Do not pinch, do not hurt. Yes, this is not your favorite man, this doctor is picking there. But I did not experience any particular discomfort.
Sample with vinegar - if some area is not painted in white color - not very good, because the tissues have changed their chemical properties.
Iodine test - iodine-containing solution. If the epithelium does not have glycogen and does not stain, the epithelium with other chemical properties.
This is dignoses dysplasia. And such a neck needs more attention and, possibly, a biopsy.
Colposcopy during pregnancy - useless research Well, something like that Because the girl is already pregnant. Cervical cancer is seen with the naked eye, this is the cancer that has a long developmental period, staging and skip it - put "2" in the doctor's report card. If before pregnancy there was a good picture on colposcopy, then what for to injure the neck, to bring it out? If there was cancer, then there is no longer colposcopy and pregnancy, there are already serious events. Colposcopy is a research at the initial examination and it is often a waste of money when it is carried out often and at the first sneeze.
When it is impossible to carry out colposcopy:
- it is undesirable during menstruation, there are difficulties with colposcopy in the middle of the cycle (and you try to look at something there when there is a Japanese flag in the picture, and during ovulation there will be so much mucus that you will try to pick it out, because )
- in the recommendations of the international communities are not recommended to be carried out simultaneously with the cytological fence
- can not be carried out if there is an allergy to iodine (Do you need anaphylaxis right on the gynecological chair? I doubt it)
The best time is right after your period.
Naturally, I advise colposcopy, but you need to find an adequate and competent doctor who does not cripple, heal from a non-existent diagnosis.
The essence of the disease
Cervical erosion occurs due to changes in this area. Hormonal disorders, mucosal damage, inflammatory and infectious diseases can provoke this process. At the same time, normal cells in a certain area are modified. Visually affected area looks like a red spot.
The pathology often proceeds asymptomatically, due to which certain difficulties arise in the process of diagnosis. The absence of visible signs of the development of the disease leads to the fact that the woman is in no hurry to seek help from a gynecologist, and the treatment of erosion begins in a neglected form.
The procedure and purpose of its implementation
Colposcopy is necessary for the diagnosis of gynecological diseases, in which the examination of the cervix is performed using a special optical device (colposcope), which magnifies the image several times. Thus, the doctor receives the most accurate information about the state of the mucous membranes of the reproductive system.
Colposcopy is prescribed during erosion in cases where abnormalities were detected as a result of cytological examination or when examined on a gynecological chair, abnormalities were detected.
Thanks to the colposcopic examination, it is possible to identify various diseases:
- erosive formations
- endometrial dysplasia,
- the process of replacing multilayered epithelium with cervical canal cells,
- changing the structure of the cervix,
- cancer and precancerous conditions.
Method for colposcopy
Colposcopy of cervical erosion is considered a painless procedure and for this reason it is performed without anesthesia. At the initial stage of diagnosis, vaginal secretions are removed, which may affect the result. Use for this purpose Lyugol or a solution of vinegar.
Examination of the cervix is simple and advanced. With a simple colposcopy, inspection begins immediately after removal of the discharge. In the case of using the advanced method, the neck is additionally treated with reagents and after a few minutes begin the examination. Thus it is possible to determine the extent of the lesion and decide on the need for cauterization of cervical erosion.
After applying the solution, swelling of the epithelium is noted, and the blood supply to the tissues is reduced. Thanks to this, it is possible to identify all pathological changes.
In order to diagnose precancerous conditions, they resort to the use of Lugol.This procedure is called Schiller breakdown. Atypical cells are found due to the fact that they are not painted in a dark color, but become light. A biopsy is recommended. This procedure can cause pain, as with the use of special forceps when taking the material.
Indications and contraindications to the procedure
Цель кольпоскопии шейки матки – выявление патологий влагалища и цервикального канала. К этой процедуре прибегают при необходимости выполнения следующих задач:
- определение типа эрозии,
- detection of polyps, condylomas and endocervicitis,
- diagnosis of endometriosis,
- determination of cervical-vaginal pathologies,
- detection of precancerous conditions at an early stage of development,
- cervical biopsy
- examination in the postoperative period.
In the process of examination on the gynecological chair, the gynecologist detects the presence of changes in the membranes of the cervical canal. After that, he recommends colposcopy to determine the malignant or benign nature of erosion and the detection of associated diseases.
There are no contraindications to colposcopy for cervical erosion per se. This is due to the fact that the procedure is considered simple and painless. The only limitation when it is impossible to conduct an inspection is the period of menstruation. Even pregnancy is not considered a reason to refuse to conduct a survey.
How is the result of the study determined?
Colposcopy in gynecology is considered one of the most simple and effective methods for the diagnosis of gynecological pathologies. As a result of this procedure, it is possible to determine the nature of the disease and the place of its localization. During the examination, the doctor assesses the appearance and structure of the mucous membranes.
Normally, the shell has a pale pink color, changing to bluish in the second phase of the cycle. Lugol at the same time dyes it brown, against which all anomalies are clearly visible.
If during the colposcopic examination smooth, fine-grained patches of a reddish hue were found, the diagnosis of cervical erosion is made. Small papillae of saturated red color indicate the presence of pseudo-erosion.
Papillomas are detected by applying a solution of vinegar to the neoplasm. At the same time, there is a reduction in blood vessels and blanching of the affected areas. The diagnosis of “endometriosis” is made in case of detection of irregular pink or bluish-purple formations, the color of which changes during the examination.
In the case of detection of mucosal seals in the form of rough spots or thin light plates, separated from the surface with little effort, leukoplakia is diagnosed.
With the help of colposcopy, it is also possible to determine the presence of cancers. These are edematous, vitreous areas with protrusions and distinctly visible vessels that do not react to the reagents.
Features of the recovery period
As a rule, after a colposcopy, the woman does not experience any discomfort and immediately returns to her usual life. In some cases, there are complications:
- bleeding. Such changes occur in the case of biopsy and vaginal tissue taking or from the neck area for further examination. Blood discharge while there are from several days to two weeks. They stop after the surface of the tissue is restored,
- lack of appetite and apathy,
- pain and fever,
- discharge of blood clots.
In the process of biopsy, epithelium damage occurs and an open wound is formed. For this reason, after this procedure, you should avoid intimacy, using tampons for two weeks and not resort to douching.
Colposcopy is one of the most effective and simple methods for diagnosing cervical erosion. As a preventive measure, this procedure is recommended for all women at least once a year. In this way, it will be possible to identify changes at an early stage of development and prevent undesirable complications.
What is the purpose of colposcopy?
If a woman has cervical erosion, colposcopy is necessary for:
- obtaining material for analyzes,
- clarify the cause of the disease,
- prescribing the correct treatment.
Colposcopy is also used to confirm diagnoses such as:
- oncological diseases of the vagina and cervix,
- precancerous pathological changes,
- determination of the localization of the inflammatory focus.
The procedure does not adversely affect the health of the woman. She is appointed to all, without exception, during routine checkups at the gynecologist. There are no special contraindications for the diagnostic procedure. It is not recommended only in the first days after surgical interventions and in case of hypersensitivity to iodine and acetic acid, which are used during the study.
How to conduct training for colposcopy?
In order to get a more informative and correct result from the procedure, a woman must first be ready. To prepare for colposcopy it is necessary:
- for a few days of the procedure to avoid sexual intercourse,
- do not use vaginal drugs,
- do not use intimate hygiene synthetic products.
The procedure itself lasts an average of 15 minutes, the woman should be conveniently located on the gynecological chair.
Initially, obstetric mirrors of metal or plastic material are inserted into the vagina. The colposcope is installed as close as possible to the gynecological chair. To date, many diagnostic gynecological cabinets have screens installed on which all stages of the procedure are broadcast. At the request of a woman, she can either look after the execution of procedures or refuse to broadcast.
In order to visually assess the degree and localization of pathologically modified tissues, mucous membranes are treated with acetic acid solutions or lugol solution, while the woman can feel a slight burning sensation. Pathologically altered cells undergo staining, while healthy cells remain unchanged. To date, the method of colposcopy is considered the most informative, the reliability of its results is almost 98%.
How does a woman feel after the procedure?
If colposcopy for cervical erosion was performed without taking a tissue material for a biopsy, then the condition of the woman after the procedure does not change at all. If cervical erosion has reached a large size and a biopsy has been performed, for several days a woman may experience some discomfort in the lower abdomen with smear secretions.
If personal hygiene rules are not followed, the wound surface after a biopsy may become infected with the development of serious bacterial complications.
In order to avoid bacterial infection of the genital tract, it is recommended:
- do not use tampons for menstrual bleeding,
- refuse to have sex for seven or more days,
- Do not use douching and other self-treatment methods without the approval of the gynecologist.
The reason for the emergency treatment to the doctor after a colposcopy in combination with a biopsy are such symptoms as:
- intense pain in the lower abdomen and external genital organs,
- initial symptoms of intoxication.
Pathological diagnostic picture
Pathological changes during colposcopy manifest as damaged areas of epithelial tissue and changes in the configurations of the vascular plexuses. After treatment with diagnostic solutions on the cervix, foci of erosive changes are recorded. When using acetic acid, the foci of erosion will be painted in a whitish color, when treated with lugole - in dark brown.
If during colposcopy erosive surfaces with elements of additional tissue are found, then there is an assumption about the development of an oncological process in the cervix.
A colposcopic examination and the correct explanation of the results depend entirely on the qualifications of the gynecologist who performs the procedure. The doctor must have the appropriate skills, be able to assess the external state of the genital organs, properly make the collection of diagnostic material.
The purpose of such a diagnosis?
Very often it is during erosion of the cervix, colposcopy is an important diagnostic procedure. It is used to promptly diagnose and timely treat such diseases of the female genital organs, such as:
- Genital warts, papillomas
- Cervical cancer
- Pre-cancerous conditions of the vulva, vagina, cervical tissue
- Cervicitis - inflammation of the cervix
- Vaginal or vulvar cancer
- Cervical Polyps
Therefore, the indication for carrying out the procedure is any deviation from the norm during the examination or analysis of a smear, and there are no contraindications to its conduct, except for the period of menstruation. Based on the diagnostic results, the doctor prescribes appropriate treatment.
Preparing for colposcopy of the cervix
As a rule, it is recommended to carry out the procedure after the end of the month in the first 2-4 days. In the case where the examination is scheduled, and the woman began to have menstrual flow, the procedure should be postponed. To prepare for cervical colposcopy, you should:
- 2 days before colposcopy it is worth giving up sexual intercourse.
- The same applies to the use of various suppositories, sprays, vaginal tablets, if the doctor did not recommend something to use on purpose.
- Do not use intimate hygiene products, and wash the genitals only with water.
- You can not make an independent douching for a few days before colposcopy, especially since douching in itself is not a safe method of treatment (see All about douching - harm or benefit, how to do douching).
- No painkillers are required before colposcopy - this is an absolutely painless examination, the same as before a gynecologist's examination, mirrors are simply inserted, and the cervix is examined under magnification, nothing concerns it.
How is colposcopy performed
Such factors as mucus and palpation of the uterus and appendages can affect the colposcopic picture and distort it for the better, therefore:
- The doctor removes mucus from the neck and is treated with vinegar and Lugol with a cotton wool, not a gauze pad.
- Colposcopy is done before palpation of the uterus and appendages (the same applies to the exclusion of sexual intercourse the day before).
Colposcopy can be extended and simple.
Simple colposcopy - when the inspection is performed immediately after the removal of the discharge from the surface of the cervix.
Extended colposcopy - after treatment of the vaginal part of the cervix with a 3% solution of acetic acid, and after 2 minutes, the examination begins with a colposcope. After this treatment, any pathological changes become more clearly identified, since short-term swelling of the mucous membrane occurs on the surface of the cervix, the blood supply to the tissues decreases. To determine the oncological location of the cells, Lugol's solution is used (Lugol in angina.) This method is called Schiller's test, for precancerous diseases, cervical cells are poor in glycogen and do not turn dark when applied iodine or Lugol. Therefore, during the oncological process, whitish spots are traced against the background of brownish tissue. At the same time, the doctor can take a biopsy - a piece of tissue for histological examination.
Biopsy is a bit painful procedure, as it is performed with special forceps. A cervical biopsy is considered to be of little painful, sometimes there can only be a weak sensation of pressure and spasmodic pain. But with a biopsy of the vagina or vulva can be painful, for this use a local anesthetic. In some cases, the doctor may use a special tool that reduces bleeding. During a biopsy, the gynecologist separates a small piece of cervical tissue, placing it in a test tube and directing it to the laboratory. After a colposcopy with a biopsy, a small 3-5 mm scratch remains, which heals quickly in a few days. Sometimes, in cases when less than 14 days are left until the next menstruation, a biopsy may be prescribed for another day.
After 10-14 days, usually the results of the biopsy are ready, so after a colposcopy, you need to agree with your doctor about your next visit, when the analysis is ready to receive recommendations related to the results of the examination.
What can cervical colposcopy results mean?
If a doctor with an extended colposcopy detects altered areas, in some cases a biopsy is taken. With erosion of the cervix (ectopia), the affected area is not stained with Lugol, this only proves the presence of ectopia and the biopsy is not shown.
- visible pathologically changed vessels (convoluted, intermittent, in the form of a comma, etc.)
- punctuation is dotted interspots in the area not painted by Lugol
- the mosaic is in the form of a quadrangle in a different shape, again on an unpainted area
- whitish areas unchanged - leukoplakia
then a biopsy is required.
Even with the detected changes, only by one appearance the doctor will not be able to establish the diagnosis, everything will depend on the laboratory data after 2 weeks. When the histological analysis detects a change in tissue, then additional examinations and therapy will be required based on the result of the analysis.
What can not be done after colposcopy and biopsy?
If there was a colposcopy without a biopsy, then everything you want is possible.
And if the colposcopy was with a biopsy, then after the procedure it is possible:
- after a biopsy a woman may have nagging pain in the lower abdomen for 4-10 days
- appear scanty greenish or brown discharge (see Brown discharge in the middle of the cycle). Do not panic, this is the standard options.
In order to avoid complications after colposcopy with biopsy for 2 weeks, you should follow some rules:
- Exclude sex
- You can not douche, use tampons, and use only pads
- You can not drink drugs, which include acetylsalicylic acid
- Limit any heavy exercise, exercise
- You can not go to the bath, sauna, exclude bathing, you should take only a shower
Colposcopy during pregnancy and biopsy
For colposcopy, pregnancy is not a contraindication. Because it is a painless and safe method. At colposcopy only one contraindication - the period of menstruation.
But a biopsy, it is better not to do, because:
- This can cause bleeding, miscarriage, premature labor, especially in situations where placenta previa is detected.
- And not only therefore, but also because of the possible false-positive results of pathological changes in the cervix under the action of hormones during pregnancy.
- In addition, to treat, if anything, is still not possible until the woman gives birth (the exception may be cervical, and then it is neglected).
Therefore, most often, doctors do not perform a biopsy of the cervix during pregnancy and postpone the procedure until after birth. Colposcopy without a biopsy during pregnancy is safe and even if changes in the cervix are found, already 6 weeks after the birth of the child, it will be possible to repeat the colposcopy and perform the necessary biopsy.
Advantages of the method
Colposcopy is a modern diagnostic method that allows you to accurately see the state of the tissues of the cervix, and start treatment in time.
What other advantages:
- The ability to diagnose early stages of cancer or precancerous stages with erosion changes of the cervix.
- Diagnostics can be carried out without additional training - at the first examination of the doctor.
- Colposcopy can be done several times - without harm to the patient's health.
- The method is safe and painless.
- Can be used during surgery, which guarantees the success of the operation to remove damaged areas of the cervical canal.
- With the help of colposcopy, even the smallest fragments of malignant neoplasms are noticeable, which means the treatment of cervical cancer is possible in a non-operative way.
Colposcopy for cervical erosion is carried out according to indications and for prophylaxis. It is suitable for both women who have not given birth or who have given birth. Typically, this kind of diagnosis is used when needed:
- determine the type of erosion of the cervical canal of the uterus,
- find out if there are polyps, warts or endocervicitis on the cervix,
- diagnose endometriosis,
- determine any type of cervical-vaginal diseases,
- for early detection of precancerous conditions,
- perform a tissue biopsy
- burn erosion
- examine the patient after surgery.
During a typical examination, the gynecologist can see the outer membranes of the cervical canal and changes in them. Colposcopy makes it possible to determine the benign or malignant nature of erosion and whether there are associated pathologies.
How to prepare
In order for the test result to be more accurate, the patient must prepare. The preparation itself is not difficult, and does not require much effort. Three days before the procedure can not:
- have vaginal sex
- use vaginal suppositories, tampons, douche,
- use napkins, pads and synthetic tampons for hygiene.
Stages of colposcopy
How do colposcopy for cervical erosion can not know every woman. It is better to be ready in advance for all stages of the process. Сначала гинеколог осматривает шейку матки, с помощью гинекологического зеркала. Кольпоскопия не болезненна, но дискомфорт может вызвать введение во влагалище зеркала.For particularly sensitive patients, the doctor may do a local anesthetic, but this is usually not required.
First, the area of the cervical canal is treated with a dye solution and a vasoconstrictor. Usually, these are three percent solutions of acetic acid and iodine for the pigmentation solution. They are absolutely harmless, do not cause pain, except for burning from acetic treatment. Iodine paints damaged cervical tissue in a bright color. Then, the doctor takes the colposcope, and begins a thorough examination. If necessary, he can, using a colposcopic pinch, take samples for cancer cells from damaged tissues.
Usually, after a colposcopy, the woman feels well and does not bother her. But sometimes complications occur:
- Bleeding - if a biopsy has been done (colposcopic pinch), then it can begin. The period of bleeding from a day to two or three weeks. If this is not hyperthermia, then nothing to worry about. Symptom passes by itself.
- Weakness and lethargy. lack of appetite, pallor
- Pain and temperature up to 38 degrees
- Blood clots
During biopsy, the epithelium is injured, an open wound is formed. Therefore, after the procedure, some time can not:
- to have sex for two weeks; it injures the epithelium and can cause infection if the partner is infected with something,
- during the month to use hygienic tampons,
- douche - so you can bring the infection in an open wound.
What is colposcopy for cervical erosion
To consider a certain procedure called “colposcopy”, it is necessary to start a little deeper into the concept of cervical erosion.
Erosion is a violation or replacement of epithelial tissue in the cervix. In some cases, the disease occurs inborn, but most women have this type of acquired disease, that is, some external factors have influenced its appearance. As a rule, the disease is in the nature of pathology.
Now it's time to go to colposcopy of cervical erosion. Modern medicine has many ways to diagnose women's health, but the most common method is colposcopy.
Colposcopy for cervical erosion is the main procedure for inspecting a woman’s uterus. The procedure is performed using a specialized device - a colposcope.
This procedure is a testament stage when examining a girl for later diagnosis. To it must be certain indications that indicate the negative environment of the female genital tract. Before such a survey, various smears are taken that can help in identifying and establishing the environment of the reproductive system.
If, at the time of colposcopy, the gynecologist sees atypical tissues, abnormalities, then he may take a section of the affected mucous membranes for further examinations.
Does it hurt
Almost all women are afraid to undergo this procedure, because they have false information about the pain that can be caused. It is necessary to dispel such thoughts.
Colposcopy is not a completely safe procedure, but it does not bring any pain. But, it should be noted that pain can provoke acid in a more open study of the uterus. This is another type of procedure, of which a woman, of course, will be warned. It is during the reaction of the acid and mucous membrane that unpleasant sensations can occur. But they will not last long.
There are also a number of complications that are rare, but still occur among women:
- Pulling pains in the lower abdomen.
Bleeding in the first few days is a completely normal positive symptom, indicating rapid tissue healing.
But along with positive signs, there are negative symptoms:
- Increased basal body temperature.
- Changing the state of a person. Throws in cold or heat.
- Pulling pains in the lower abdomen.
Gynecologists recommend to call an ambulance for unusual sensations after the procedure. In this case, the woman needs an immediate examination of the female doctor.
All negative symptoms may appear after 2-3 for after such an intervention.
Once again, negative symptoms can appear only after an extended procedure, because during it the gynecologist uses a number of substances to soak the epithelial tissues. Symptomatology is a kind of reaction to such substances.
To understand the meaning of the procedure, it is necessary to understand what a colposcope is. Kolposkop based on magnifying and light bases. It was created to inspect the environment and the state of the female genital tract.
The device looks like a simple microscope. It has a magnifying glass, which is built in a bright flashlight to supply light. That is, the point is that the device helps to inspect a woman without contact, without hurting her with the touch of a device.
There are two types of procedures. Let's start with the usual colposcopy. It consists in a standard simple examination of the mucous tissue of the genital tract. Before the procedure, it is necessary to pre-syringe the genital tract with some kind of herbal solution without chemicals, which will clean the vaginal walls from secretions that can close and prevent the organ tissues from being examined.
The second type - extended colposcopy.
The extended view of the procedure is a bit more complicated. Before it, the female genital tract of a female doctor treats with a solution of vinegar acid or Lugol on a water basis. It is precisely because of this treatment that the girl may experience unpleasant and painful sensations, which everyone is so afraid of. But in reality, there is nothing to be afraid of, they last no more than a couple of seconds. Such processing is necessary not only to view the integrity of epithelial tissues, but also to view and observe the processes in it. The substance, which was treated genital tract, is absorbed into the mucous tissue, because of what it swells and exposes all its wounds. On the tissues edema is formed, from which all the excess blood leaves. At this point, the drinks of the epithelium substance can clearly see the places where there are scars. To establish their nature, doctors, most often, pinch off these patches of epithelial tissue and send them for a biopsy. Such an analysis should be carried out for the timely detection of the possible formation of cancer cells, tumors, infections. Analysis is required to establish the type of erosion, because congenital and acquired types of erosion differ in the nature of the epithelium.
Gynecologist reveals irregularities in the cells according to their color. For example, cells that lack glycogen will absorb the solution well, acquiring the appropriate color.
What is used
In addition to colposcopy for cervical erosion, this procedure is used for other female ailments. In the case of erosion, the procedure ascertains the stage of damage to the epithelial tissues and a milder, painless method of treatment that can suit a woman. Of course, for this procedure must confirm the presence of such a diagnosis. In addition, colposcopy confirms the presence of the following diseases of a woman:
- Cancer of the female genital tract.
- Inflammatory processes in the uterus.
- Cervical cancer.
- Cancer / fungus / infection of the vulva and other external genital parts of the organ.
- Possible cancers or cervical tumors. That is premature prevention.
- Pathological changes in the genital tract.