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What is PMS in girls and what to do when it comes?

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Premenstrual syndrome is a complex of symptoms that appear every month in the second half of the menstrual cycle. In girls, the disease has an individual course, since the set of signs of PMS is different for each of the fair sex. A few days before the arrival of critical days, headaches, irritability, depression, nausea, vomiting, pain in the lower abdomen or in the region of the heart, skin problems, edema, etc. may appear. And in more severe cases, neurosis develops.

In this article, you can get complete and comprehensive information about premenstrual syndrome: what it is, how PMS stands for, what causes the syndrome, and what are the symptoms and treatment of this disorder.

ICP concept

Premenstrual syndrome is a transcript of the abbreviation PMS. This disease is a combination of various changes and disorders in the body that affect both the physical and the psycho-emotional state of a woman. It is characterized by a large number of symptoms that begin to manifest 2-10 days before the arrival of menstruation, on average, the ICP begins a week before the regulative. In addition to the hormonal imbalance, a woman during this period there is a shortage of trace elements, which leads to frequent mood swings and the appearance of discomfort.

Due to the fact that PMS has a cyclical nature, it is also called a cyclical syndrome, while the English version of this disease literally translates as “premenstrual tension syndrome”. According to statistics, only a fifth of women under the age of thirty years are faced with this syndrome, while women under 40 years already in half of the cases suffer from certain manifestations of PMS. By the end of the reproductive age, 60% of women experience premenstrual symptoms. Women of the Caucasian race who are underweight and are subject to excessive mental stress are at risk.

With age, the time for PMS to develop symptoms increases, and the symptoms are aggravated. The most famous sign of PMS is a dramatic change in mood and irritability. Often there is pain in the lower abdomen and swelling of the mammary glands. Some signs of cyclic syndrome are similar to pregnancy, but the longer a woman has PMS, the more accurately she can distinguish the disorder from conception.

Why does ICP arise

Unfortunately, modern medicine does not have an exact answer to the question of why premenstrual syndrome occurs. There are many different theories explaining the development of this disorder:

  • violation of water-salt balance, which leads to "water intoxication",
  • an allergic reaction to endogenous progesterone,
  • psychosomatic nature.

The most plausible and most likely is the hormonal theory of the origin of PMS, which claims that PMS is a consequence of hormonal jumps in the 2nd phase of the menstruation cycle. The correct combination of hormones ensures the normal functioning of the female body:

  • Estrogens improve well-being, activate brain activity and increase vitality,
  • excessive progesterone has a sedative effect, which leads to depressions in the 2nd phase of the cycle,
  • Androgens are able to influence sexual desire, increase working capacity and energy.

After ovulation with the beginning of the second phase of the menstrual cycle, the hormonal balance of the woman changes completely; the organism can react differently to such changes. There are cases when the ICP was passed on to the next generation.

Due to the endocrine instability of the premenstrual period, somatic and psychovegetative changes occur in the body. They are caused by hormonal "swing" throughout the cycle and the reaction of the visceral brain to them:

  • with an increase in estrogen, progesterone levels first increase and then decrease. Because of this, edemas appear, the mammary glands hurt, the work of the cardiovascular system is disturbed, pressure jumps, the woman becomes aggressive and irritable,
  • with increasing production of prolactin, more fluid is retained in the body,
  • with increasing levels of prostaglandins, vegetative-vascular disorders, problems with the digestive system and headaches may appear.

All the causes of PMS are reduced to a hormonal imbalance, but the reasons for its manifestation may be the following factors:

  • a drop in serotonin, which causes mental symptoms of PMS: depression, depression, tearfulness,
  • low level of vitamin B6 contributes to the accumulation of fluid in the body, increases the sensitivity of the mammary glands, contributes to sudden mood swings,
  • magnesium deficiency can cause tachycardia, dizziness, headaches and a desire to eat sweets,
  • tobacco - smoking women are 2 times more likely to suffer from PMS symptoms,
  • overweight problems - women with a body mass index greater than 30 units are more likely to experience the effects of PMS,
  • PMS can be inherited,
  • complicated childbirth, abortion, miscarriage, surgery in the gynecological field,
  • stressful situations.

Forms, degrees, stages

Premenstrual tension syndrome or, as it is more customary to call it, PMS has a very extensive classification. According to the severity of symptoms, the disorder has the following forms:

  • swelling - it is characterized by swelling of the legs and face, as well as excessive sweating,
  • the neuropsychic form is characterized by sharp drops in the emotional background,
  • cephalgic - the main symptom is severe pain in the head,
  • crisis - accompanied by a sharp and strong jump in blood pressure,
  • atypical - a characteristic symptom is increased t ° C of the body and migraine,
  • mixed - combines the symptoms of various forms of the disorder.

The severity of PMS in girls can be severe and easy. In the first case, no more than 10 signs appear, 5 of which are most pronounced. With a mild degree, a woman has no more than 5 signs, the most pronounced of which will be only 2.

There are 3 stages of the disease:

  1. Compensated. Signs are weak or do not appear at all, and with the onset of menstruation disappear completely.
  2. Subcompensated. Symptomatology pronounced and adversely affect performance. Increases with age women.
  3. Decompensated. Symptoms are very intense, but with the onset of critical days immediately disappear.

All forms and stages of PMS are treatable, but for this you need to spend a lot of time and effort.

The list of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome can include up to 150 different manifestations. The symptoms of this condition are very bright and diverse, and in some cases the clinical signs of PMS are very similar to pregnancy or various gynecological diseases.

If a girl has PMS with a maximum of four symptoms, this is the norm. If there are 4-10 signs - a syndrome of moderate severity, when more than 10 symptoms are recorded - a difficult stage that can lead to the woman’s disability. If you know all the symptoms of PMS, you can easily distinguish this condition from other diseases or pregnancy.

Physiological symptoms

After the follicle ruptures and the egg leaves the uterus, a yellow body begins to be produced in its place, releasing progesterone. It is this hormone in the second phase of the cycle before menstruation that prepares the body for a new cycle and contributes to the growth of the endometrium. Due to the increase in progesterone concentration, the following signs of cyclic syndrome may appear:

  • reduced sexual desire and sharply aggravated immediately before critical days,
  • dry or excessive vaginal discharge,
  • swelling of the body and in the form of swelling of the mammary glands,
  • swelling on the face due to the fact that fluid is retained in the body,
  • rash on chin
  • pain in the lower abdomen pulling nature
  • change in appetite and gastronomic preferences; you may want to salty or sweet,
  • frequent desire to drink
  • bloating, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence and other problems with the digestive system,
  • pain in muscles and joints.

Vegeto-vascular manifestations

Excessive content of prostaglandins in the body during the PMS leads to problems with the cardiovascular system, and the manifestation of vegetative-vascular signs of the syndrome is noted:

  • a sharp change in blood pressure readings and vascular disorders,
  • nausea down to vomiting
  • dizziness,
  • heart rhythm problems
  • heartache.

With age, cyclic syndrome is associated with headache and migraines.

Psycho-emotional symptoms

Mental disorders associated with cyclic syndrome are most noticeable to others, therefore, almost everyone knows about emotional fluctuations, as a precursor of PMS. But there are other symptoms of this type:

  • dramatically changing mood
  • depression and depression
  • irritability,
  • insomnia or prolonged "hibernation"
  • distracted attention
  • strong aggression
  • thoughts of suicide and panic attacks (symptoms that are very rare).

If PMS is accompanied only by slight indisposition, then it is not worth worrying, but for more serious signs, including nerves, medical treatment may be required.

When does it start and how long does it take

Many women, especially those who have never experienced a cyclical syndrome, are interested in how many days before menstruation it begins, and how long the PMS is. The exact timing of the onset of premenstrual syndrome is not. Symptoms in all manifest differently. With a mild degree of disorder, 3-4 signs may appear within 2–10 days before the regulator, 1 or 2 of them are pronounced. When severe PMS begins, symptoms appear 3-14 days before the menstrual flow. In this case, one can count 5 or more signs of the syndrome, 3 of which will be clearly pronounced.

The duration of the disorder is also individual, but most often PMS in girls lasts until the onset of menstruation. If the symptoms persist throughout the entire cycle, it is necessary to communicate with a specialist, as this may indicate the presence of other diseases. Under PMS mastopathy, neurosis, thyroid disease can be disguised. If symptoms appear only before menstruation, gynecological diseases and neoplasms are most likely to occur.

PMS current

PMS in women goes differently. In some, symptoms manifest themselves at the same time and pass with the onset of regulatory. In more severe cases, the patient's condition over the years can only worsen, and the number of symptoms with each cycle is constantly increasing. In severe cases, the symptoms of PMS do not disappear with the onset of critical days, but persist even after their completion; over time, the period without premenstrual symptoms is significantly reduced. This leads to disability. There are cases when the signs of cyclic syndrome appear in the period of menopause. This condition has the name "transformed ICP".

Women with mild PMS may experience slight discomfort that does not adversely affect the quality of life. A severe degree of the syndrome affects privacy, leads to disability, and in some situations requires the issuance of a disability certificate.

Diagnostics

An experienced specialist can easily diagnose PMS according to the symptoms of a woman, especially if their manifestation has a certain cyclical nature. This ailment is an exception to the medical rules, because the patient can tell the specialist more about the signs of an ICP than an examination and examination. However, for the diagnosis of PMS, a whole range of studies and analyzes is used:

  • talking with the patient about her physical and emotional well-being and collecting information about the signs of PMS,
  • blood test for the concentration of hormones in the blood,
  • Ultrasound examination of the chest, if there is heaviness and pain,
  • x-ray
  • CT and MRI,
  • daily urine analysis,
  • blood pressure measurement
  • additional consultations with specialized specialists (neuropathologist, psychologist, neurologist, cardiologist, etc.).

To make it easier and faster to establish an accurate diagnosis and prescribe an effective treatment, gynecologists recommend all women of reproductive age to keep the menstrual calendar. It is necessary not only to mark the beginning and end of menstruation, but also your feelings throughout the entire menstruation cycle.

Not every woman knows what to do with manifestations of premenstrual syndrome, how to get rid of them and prevent the appearance in the future. Treatment of PMS should be comprehensive. In order for drug therapy to give the maximum result, a woman must completely change her lifestyle and nutrition. A very good effect on the elimination of uncomfortable symptoms when PMS shows herbal treatments, aromatherapy and yoga. We will write about all methods of treatment of the syndrome in more detail.

Lifestyle

Drug treatment PMS will not bring a stable and long-lasting result if a woman does not change her lifestyle. To prevent negative symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, some adjustments should be made to your daily routine. Survive ICP will help the following recommendations:

  • you should ensure proper rest to your body, for this you need to sleep for 8-10 hours a day. Most women with mild PMS, after normalizing sleep, noticed a significant improvement in their condition. Full rest eliminates anxiety and irritability, reduces the level of aggression, improves immunity. If there are problems with sleep, evening walks and ventilation of the room can get rid of insomnia.
  • To overcome a depressive state, you need to systematically exercise 2-3 times a week systematically. Exercise increases the level of endorphin in the blood, thereby improving mood and well-being. Yoga, dancing, body flexing, running and other reasonable loads can have a positive effect on the body.
  • good nutrition should be supplemented by taking vitamin complexes that include magnesium and vitamin B6, E, A. Thanks to this composition, the pronounced symptoms of PMS can be removed: reduce heart rate, remove insomnia, anxiety, fatigue and irritability,
  • you need to avoid stressful situations and direct your thoughts in a positive direction, for this practice yoga and meditation,
  • sex should be regular. Active sex life relieves stress, removes bad emotions, improves immunity and increases the level of endorphins.

Proper and balanced diet with PMS helps to get rid of the unpleasant symptoms of this condition. For example, if you reduce the amount of caffeine consumed, that is, to drink less coffee, Coca-Cola and do not eat chocolate, you can remove mood swings and causeless anxiety.

The diet should not be strict, it is important that the diet had a lot of foods with calcium and fiber, that is, on the table should always be fresh vegetables and fruits, as well as milk in different forms. Such food improves intestinal function and removes excess water from the body. The diet should consist of 75% of carbohydrates, 15% of proteins and only 10% of fats.

The amount of fatty, spicy and spicy foods is better to limit, as it prevents the liver from participating in the exchange of estrogens. Also, it is better to remove beef from the diet, as it is a source of artificial estrogen.

It is better to drink herbal teas, freshly squeezed lemon juice, carrots and clean drinking water. Alcoholic beverages should be limited, since they wash out vitamins and minerals from the body, and under the influence of alcohol, the liver is worse at coping with the utilization of hormones.

As for the diet, it should be fractional. In order to avoid overeating and maintain the required level of insulin in the blood, you need to eat 5-6 times a day in small portions.

Since PMS is characterized by appetite jumps, it is quite natural that shortly before menstruation a woman may want something salty or “harmful”, there is nothing to worry about, sometimes you should meet the needs of your body to feel more comfortable.

Medicines

Since PMS has a very large number of symptoms, the treatment of premenstrual syndrome is symptomatic. Remedies for PMS should be taken only as prescribed by a doctor. PMS can be treated with the following groups of drugs:

  • in order to reduce emotional drops, remove depression and irritability, sedatives are prescribed in combination with psychotherapy and relaxation sessions,
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to eliminate pain in the abdomen and lower back, as well as to relieve headaches - Nimesulide, Ketanov, Ibuprofen,
  • diuretics may be prescribed to remove excess fluid from the body and get rid of edema in PMS
  • если результаты анализов и тестов показали, что есть гормональные нарушения в течение второй фазы менструального цикла, может быть назначена гормонотерапия, которая включает гестагены. Медроксипрогестерон ацетат или Дюфастон нужно будет пить с 16 по 25 день менструационного цикла,
  • to reduce irritability, nervousness, aggressiveness, insomnia and other neuropsychiatric manifestations of PMS, tranquilizers and antidepressants are prescribed - Rudotel, Zoloft, Sertralin, Prozac, Sonapaks, Tazepam, etc. They are taken in the 2nd phase of the cycle, on the 3rd day after their appearance symptoms
  • if PMS has a crisis or cephalgic form, Parlodel should be drunk in the 2nd phase of the cycle. If tests show elevated levels of prolactin, this drug should be drunk continuously,
  • in case of an edematous or cephalgic form, antiprostaglandin administration is prescribed for the 2nd phase of the cycle - Naprosin, Indomethacin,
  • If the level of serotonin and histamine increases, antihistamine therapy is prescribed. You must first follow up when the first signs of PMS appear, and in the next cycle, 2 days before the onset of the syndrome, antihistamines should be taken until the 2nd day of menstruation,
  • to improve blood circulation should drink for 3 weeks Nootropil, Aminolol or Grandaksin,
  • for the normalization of neurotransmitter metabolism in the central nervous system in the case of the development of cephalgic, neuropsychic and crisp forms of PMS, Difenin or Peritol should be taken. The course of taking 3-6 months,
  • in addition, the doctor may prescribe homeopathic medicines Remens or Mastodinon, as well as taking vitamin complexes for depression.

Folk remedies

To improve the therapeutic effect of traditional medicine methods, it is best to supplement the traditional medical treatment. In the fight against PMS, herbs help best, you can make chamomile, peppermint, St. John's wort tea, primrose and other herbal teas. Also a good effect gives the infusion of motherwort or valerian. They need to take 30 drops 3 times a day.

If the woman is not allergic, you can practice aromatherapy, and the composition is made up of various essential oils, including lavender, geranium, rose, bergamot, juniper, basil and sage. At home, you can take a relaxing bath for 2 weeks before the onset of menstruation, just drop a few drops of the oils listed above into the water.

Prevention

To prevent the development of premenstrual syndrome, you should follow simple, but very effective recommendations:

  • stick to diet food. The diet should be balanced, it should definitely include foods rich in vitamins, potassium, magnesium and calcium. You can consume these elements in the composition of vitamin complexes,
  • control body weight, do not allow overeating and tough diets,
  • do not give your body heavy physical exertion and do not succumb to psycho-emotional disorders,
  • lead a healthy lifestyle, give up bad habits and exercise regularly,
  • engage in protected sex regularly, preferably with a regular partner,
  • go to the gynecologist's routine check-ups at least once every six months,
  • if you are prescribed hormone therapy, take all the medicines that make up it in time, and also inform the specialist of any changes in your state of health so that it can change or cancel the drug in time without harm to health,
  • if PMS occurs, never treat it yourself, all the methods of therapy should be agreed with your doctor.

Women reviews

We give feedback from several women who have encountered PMS in their lives:

Before every month I became a real whimper, and I wanted to quarrel with someone so much. My gynecologist recommended not to suffer nervous breakdowns, but to drink a course of Remens. Now and monthly go regularly, and there are no signs of PMS,

When I have PMS, the character is simply bad, aggression and irritability is overwhelming. While I am not going to the doctor, I began to drink vitamins B6, I walk more on the street, I went in for sports, it seemed to be easier, and I don’t get my relatives so much mood swings,

My PMS began to manifest itself after I began to take oral contraceptives, before there was no such thing, but now 5-6 days before menstruation a wild zhor appears, the chest swells and hurts a lot, pulls the lower abdomen, and the nerves are generally on the verge. I will go to the doctor to change the drug. As it turned out, PMS is a very bad disorder, both for me and for those around me.

How to translate PMS in girls

PMS stands for premenstrual syndrome, which is manifested by a complex of symptoms, it can be observed in girls 2-10 days before the onset of menstruation. Many believe, especially men, that PMS is a woman's whim, a myth that women themselves have come up with to justify their bad mood, but this is a false statement. Premenstrual syndrome is officially recognized as a disease with varying degrees of severity, requiring treatment.

Signs and symptoms

What is PMS in girls and women, what are the signs and symptoms of premenstrual tension? In most cases, women may experience and manifest several symptoms and signs of the disease at the same time. The most common symptom and symptom is painful swelling of the mammary glands, which can be mistaken for pregnancy. Symptoms of cyclic stress syndrome include:
- nagging pain in the lower back, lower abdomen,
- A woman may experience and experience increased sensitivity to odors, increased appetite,
- ordinary life is changing: there is irritability, tearfulness, frequent mood changes, drowsiness, aggressiveness, ordinary life is changing,
- some at this time have a headache, nausea or vomiting.

How long does PMS in girls and why does it occur?

The main cause of premenstrual stress is a hormonal imbalance that occurs in the female body between estrogen and progesterone. Premenstrual syndrome may be a consequence of various gynecological diseases, operations. As a rule, discomfort, pain and behavior change in women begin to occur in one day, sometimes in 10 days, until the period begins. How long can this condition last? All the above symptoms gradually begin to disappear on the day of menstruation, but there are cases that all signs of the painful syndrome persist even after its onset, such a condition requires consultation with a gynecologist.

What to do when it comes to PMS in girls or women?

At the first manifestations of the approaching premenstrual syndrome, it is necessary to avoid stressful situations, establish a daily routine and rest more. If you suffer from headaches, nausea would be nice to take a day off and stay at home. You need to revise your diet. Avoid fried foods, alcohol and coffee, include vegetables, fruits in the menu, drink herbal teas, especially with a soothing effect. Calm walks in the fresh air, swimming or warm relaxing aromatic baths are helpful.

What do girls feel during PMS and how do they behave?

Each woman has premenstrual syndrome in different ways. Some ladies except headaches, lower abdominal pain, nausea, may gain some weight (up to 2 kg), this is due to fluid retention in the body. There is a change in appearance, acne appears on the face. But the most significant changes occur in behavior: the mood can change every minute, a girl can be irritable, aggressive, tearful, fall into depression, she wants to sleep all the time, her appetite increases, her taste preferences change. Each body reacts to premenstrual stress individually.

How to communicate during the ICP girl?

What to do to others and how to behave with a person who has premenstrual syndrome? The change in habitual behavior and mood swings that accompany the disease can make a balanced and pleasant girl capricious and nervous. A loving man should be more sensitive and attentive to his second half at this time. Such her behavior is a temporary phenomenon, be tolerant, do not provoke her to quarrels and conflicts.

How to treat?

PMS in a girl who is very painful and lasts a long time requires treatment to alleviate her condition. To calm and reduce nervous tension, herbal-based soothing preparations are used, of course (Novopashit). When it is necessary to balance the hormones in the body, hormonal agents are prescribed (Utrogestan, Duphaston). If you need to eliminate the pain, you can use Diclofenac.

Compliance with all recommendations, comprehensive treatment significantly reduces pain, discomfort experienced by women with premenstrual syndrome, improves her well-being.

Causes of premenstrual syndrome

Initially, official medicine believed that the symptoms of PMS in women develop exclusively on the background of an unstable nervous system. But as the problem was investigated, it became clear that this was too simplistic an explanation, and the combined effect of the following factors on the development of the clinical picture:

  • Estrogen decline. In the second half of the cycle, the level of estrogen responsible for femininity and softness decreases, and a natural small amount of testosterone manifests itself in the form of typically male aggressiveness and irritability.
  • Progesterone lift. Estrogen is replaced by progesterone, which provokes fluid retention and vegetative symptoms in PMS.
  • Thyrotoxicosis. Hyperfunction of the thyroid gland adversely affects irritability and nervousness, greatly enhancing the manifestations of premenstrual syndrome.
  • Constitutional features. It is reliably known that thin girls with a BMI below 18 experience the most pronounced symptoms. Excess weight is also not the best option, since after a BMI exceeds 30, the clinical picture is also clouded.
  • Diseases of the reproductive system. Aggravates the manifestations of concomitant endometriosis, erosion, polyps, endometritis, cervicitis, infections and other diseases.
  • Emotional stress. Stressful situations and on a less favorable background change the character of a woman for the better, and in combination with hormonal storms they give a hellish effect.

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Finding out what causes PMS, whose symptoms are already pretty fed up, is a thankless task. Doctors were not too lazy to conduct a study in which participated completely healthy women. Drugs corrected their hormones, but in due time all the typical signs were there.

Symptoms with age tend to increase, but for women held a very curious manifestation of premenstrual tension is characteristic. Most of the shopping in the shops takes place in the last week before menstruation. So you - not a shopaholic, but just treat PMS.

Symptoms of PMS in women: a list of typical manifestations

The clinical picture largely depends on the psychological characteristics and associated diseases. Patients can differentiate their sensations by specific symptoms, or complain of general malaise.

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The most common cause of seeking medical help is emotional lability, as a result of which the social sphere of life suffers - relationships with relatives and at work worsen. Typical manifestations of PMS are:

  • changes in the emotional background - irritability, tearfulness, aggression,
  • mood swings
  • breast sensitivity and engorgement,
  • sleep disorders - insomnia, drowsiness, difficulty falling asleep,
  • abdominal distention, painful or pulling sensations in the abdomen,
  • increased appetite, craving for sweets,
  • depression of sexual attraction, apathy,
  • acne,
  • odor sensitivity
  • swelling, weight gain,
  • headache, dizziness,
  • heartbeat, pressure increase,
  • nausea, stool disorders, less constipation,
  • back pain or coccyx, joints.

This list includes only those symptoms whose frequency of occurrence exceeds 20%. A special feature of the condition is the fact that the symptoms are very different for different women.

Neuropsychic form

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It is characteristic of women with emotional instability, and can vary from a little anxiety to severe neurotic disorders that require inpatient treatment. Symptoms include the following manifestations:

  • panic attacks,
  • feeling of fear,
  • irritability,
  • depression,
  • insomnia,
  • anxiety, sadness,
  • inattention, forgetfulness,
  • mood swings
  • dizziness,
  • aggressiveness,
  • decreased or increased libido.

With a significant manifestation of panic attacks, women cease to leave the house, and they urgently need to alleviate the symptoms of PMS. In this case, you need to contact a qualified psychotherapist and master the methods of self-mastering the attack described in other materials on our site.

Pain form

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Typical prevalence of various pain syndromes, manifested in women with a low threshold of pain sensitivity. A frequent companion of painful forms are vegetative manifestations. Patients complain of:

  • migraine or headaches,
  • pain in the heart,
  • lower abdominal pain
  • breast tenderness,
  • cardiopalmus,
  • sensitivity to smells, bright light, sounds,
  • nausea, vomiting,
  • high blood pressure
  • paroxysmal sweating.

The necessary components of treatment in this case will be analgesics and maximum rest, due to which the well-being improves significantly, and the symptoms become tolerable.

Edematous form

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Women with a predisposition to kidney disease suffer from this form. The severity of manifestations depends largely on compliance with the water-salt regime, and women are concerned about such violations:

  • swelling of the face, lower limbs,
  • weight gain, reaching 3-4 kg,
  • increased thirst
  • headache,
  • itchy skin
  • decrease in the amount of urine
  • stool disorders.

To remove the symptoms of PMS, an edematous form, it is preferable to use diuretics of plant origin, to limit salt intake. Be sure to control the amount of fluid you drink so that it does not exceed 2 liters per day.

Crisis form

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Difficult experienced by patients, and often causes difficulties in diagnosis. A clear connection with the phases of the menstrual cycle and independent relief of symptoms with the onset of menstruation allows distinguishing the crisis form from somatic pathology. The clinical picture includes the following manifestations:

  • paroxysmal palpitations
  • bouts of fear, panic or aggression,
  • cardialgia
  • blood pressure surges,
  • bouts of frequent urination.

With careful examination of the patient often revealed pathology of the cardiovascular or urinary system. In this case, PMS is only a catalyst of the disease.

Atypical form

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A rare form of premenstrual syndrome, which manifests itself by the following changes:

  • pathological drowsiness, not passing even after a long sleep,
  • increase in body temperature, usually to subfebrile numbers,
  • morning sickness, vomiting,
  • allergic rash.

Often there are mixed forms in which a woman has symptoms from different groups. Despite the diversity of manifestations, a number of common features allows you to diagnose their belonging to the clinical picture of premenstrual syndrome:

  • The first manifestations are observed in the period of 20-25 years, and increase with age. PMS symptoms in women 40 years of age have the highest severity, and after that they decline.
  • The degree of intensity of unpleasant sensations differs from cycle to cycle, but their set usually remains the same.
  • On the first day of menstruation, all symptoms disappear without additional therapeutic measures.

The time of onset of symptoms depends on the duration of the cycle. With a standard 28-day cycle, PMS begins 2-7 days before the intended menstruation, and its severity gradually increases. For women with a 40-day cycle, the period of feeling unwell can last for 2 weeks.

How to get rid of PMS symptoms yourself

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It is always necessary to begin treatment with the mildest methods, leaving heavy artillery in the form of medicines for later. To ease your condition will help simple recommendations that will be useful to absolutely all women:

  • Full sleep - allow yourself to get enough sleep at least 1 week a month, taking 8-9 hours to it. It removes psycho-emotional manifestations well.
  • Physical activity - regularly engage in any sport. So you will increase the level of endorphins and their psychological resistance to stimuli.
  • Aromatherapy has a beneficial effect on the nervous system. Add a few drops of lavender, bergamot, juniper or geranium essential oil to the bathroom, shower gel or shampoo.
  • Preparations of magnesium - will help your nervous and cardiovascular system. 2 weeks before your period, start taking Magnerot, Dopelgerts active magnesium, Magne B6, Complevite magnesium or Magnesium plus.
  • Proper nutrition - in the case of PMS, this means exclusion from the diet of coffee, black tea, cocoa and chocolate, so as not to increase emotionality once again. Lean on vegetables to replenish your vitamins, and the fiber they contain will provide regular stools.
  • Listen to your desires.If you want to wrap yourself in a blanket and watch a tearful melodrama, do so. Do not force yourself into domestic affairs, and if your relatives go on strike, remind you that according to statistics, the greatest number of crimes committed by women falls on the last week of the cycle.

Do not hesitate to talk about your emotions, if you honestly admit to your family that in the coming days you can expect a surge of negativity from you, they will be ready and will survive a difficult period easier.

Professional help: make an appointment with a doctor

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By contacting a doctor, you will receive specialized assistance that will quickly and effectively alleviate the condition. The treatment is prescribed after a detailed survey of the patient, since it mainly has a symptomatic focus:

  • Consultation psychotherapist. Psychocorrection techniques are used for any form of the disease, but the greatest effect is given with the dominance of psycho-emotional manifestations.
  • Sedative preparations. Start with herbal medicines, such as glycine, valerian, novopassit, etc. With an unexpressed effect, the doctor will prescribe more effective medicines like adaptol or phenibut.
  • Diuretics. The edematous form is perfectly amenable to treatment with broths of cranberries, viburnum or cranberries. Also in the course are medicinal herbs - nettle, yarrow, sage and chamomile.
  • Oral contraceptives. The preferred method of contraception for women with PMS, as it excludes the influence of the main precipitating factor - hormone fluctuations.
  • Antidepressants and tranquilizers. Appointed under strict indications, and can not be used for a long time, so as not to cause addiction.
  • Analgesics. Severe pain syndrome is a direct indication for prescribing painkillers such as indomethacin, ibuprofen, or spasmalgon.

It is important to know that intense pain in the lower abdomen can signal endometriosis, a polyp or other gynecological diseases, so that you must undergo a preventive examination twice a year at a gynecologist.

Premenstrual syndrome is very insidious. On the one hand, nothing extraordinary happens in the body, it is just a reflection of normal physiological processes. But at the same time, it is absolutely impossible to tolerate these storms every month, and it is not necessary. Begin to act and remain calm regardless of the phase of the cycle.

1. Symptoms of PMS

The first signs appear 2-10 days before the beginning of the month. They can be observed with ovulatory and anovulatory cycle. Symptoms disappear with the onset of bleeding, less often after it ends.

There are more than 150 signs that can accompany premenstrual syndrome. The main ones are:

  1. 1 Changes in the digestive organs: nausea, vomiting, bloating and discomfort in the abdomen, impaired stool (constipation or diarrhea), bulimia, change in taste, craving for alcohol or sweets.
  2. 2 Pains of various localization: in the lower back, lower abdomen and pelvic region, headaches, in the region of the heart.
  3. 3 Breast engorgement, edema of varying severity on the legs, arms, face, decrease in diuresis and fluid retention.
  4. 4 Neuropsychiatric disorders: mood swings, tearfulness, aggression, depressed mood, unmotivated fear, isolation, depression, suicidal thoughts.
  5. 5 Skin manifestations: increase in fat content, sweating, the appearance of acne, hyperpigmentation.
  6. 6 From the musculoskeletal system: joint pain, muscular weakness, lumbodynia, sciatica.
  7. 7 Other manifestations: tachycardia, pruritus, dizziness, thirst.

Such symptoms bother from 5 to 40% of women, and 10% of them note that PMS disrupts the usual rhythm of life and relationships with others.

Some features of premenstrual syndrome have been observed. It is more pronounced in young women, although it occurs after 40-50 years.

Depression of mood and tearfulness is more often observed in girls, aggression in women over 40 years old. Premenstrual symptoms are more typical for residents of large cities engaged in mental work and having a shortage of body weight.

2.2. Edematous

A woman has edema of varying severity on her legs and arms. Swelling of the fingers makes it difficult to remove the wedding ring. They chop up the mammary glands, become painful or sensitive, the volume of the abdomen increases, the process of digestion changes.

Some patients report weight gain due to fluid retention (up to 700 ml / day).

Excessive sweating and sensitivity to odors are often observed. Many women with such symptoms turn to therapists, do not analyze the frequency of complaints.

2.3. Cephalgic

In women with this form of PMS, headache, dizziness, hypersensitivity to sounds and smells predominate, nausea and vomiting may occur. The headache is often pulsating, appears in a certain part of the skull, but is not accompanied by an increase in blood pressure.

Some women notice in their heart palpitations, increased sweating. There may be edema, engorgement of the mammary glands, and the diuresis is positive (the amount of urine withdrawn is greater than the amount of fluid consumed).

2.4. Crisis

It is characterized by sympathetic adrenal crises. Blood pressure rises sharply, pressing chest pain, palpitations appear. Sometimes the patient notes the cooling of the limbs, the appearance of the fear of death.

There are no changes on the ECG. Crises occur in the evening or at night, as well as after stress or overwork. After the attack, the woman urinates plentifully.

This form of PMS is the result of failure to treat edematous, cephalgic or neuropsychiatric forms.

2.5. Atypical forms

Some women have symptoms that do not fit the generally accepted classification. Some researchers point to these manifestations of PMS:

  1. 1 Hyperthermia with regular temperature rise in the luteal phase to subfebrile numbers. There are no signs of inflammation in blood tests, and the body temperature returns to normal with the onset of menstruation.
  2. 2 Menstrual migraine. Manifesting migraine headache in the days of menstruation.
  3. 3 With cyclic allergic reactions (more often in the form of urticaria, less often - angioedema).
  4. 4 Ophthalmoplegic form - unilateral descent of the eyelid into the luteal phase.
  5. 5 Hypersomnic - the appearance of lethargic sleep in the second phase of the cycle.
  6. 6 Cyclical bronchial asthma.
  7. 7 Cyclic gingivitis and stomatitis.

With PMS, these symptoms should be repeated every cycle for several months. To establish a connection with the cycle, you can independently keep a diary and mark the time of the appearance of unpleasant sensations. This will help to systematize the information and make it easier for the doctor to make a diagnosis.

3. Theory of occurrence

Why do some women change cycle phases easily and painlessly, while others become a real challenge? Until now, there is no consensus on this issue.

The following conditions contribute to the deterioration of well-being:

  1. 1 Frequent stress, sedentary lifestyle.
  2. 2 Disorders of the menstrual cycle and copious, painful periods.
  3. 3 Neuroinfections.
  4. 4 Severe pregnancy and childbirth.
  5. 5 Consequences of abortion.
  6. 6 Gynecological diseases.
  7. 7 Injuries and operations.
  8. 8 Chronic diseases.
  9. 9 Sexual dissatisfaction.
  10. 10 Unsustainable diet, eating low-fiber foods, vitamins B and D, and calcium.

One of the first was put forward hormone theory of PMS. Other theories have now been developed:

  1. 1 Water intoxication.
  2. 2 Allergic.
  3. 3 Prolactin.
  4. 4 Prostaglandin.
  5. 5 Psychosomatic.

The following facts are in favor of the hormonal theory of PMS:

  1. 1 Symptoms of pathology first appear with the onset of puberty, for girls such a condition is not typical.
  2. 2 Unpleasant sensations before menstruation can occur throughout the reproductive period and almost disappear with the onset of menopause.
  3. 3 Symptoms do not disappear in women who underwent uterine removal with ovarian preservation.

Hormonal theory is associated with the predominance of estrogen over progesterone (relative hyperestrogenism) and their undesirable effects.

The development of water intoxication is associated with impaired water-salt metabolism in the body. Normally, fluid retention occurs in the luteal phase of the cycle, but with an imbalance, this indicator increases even more. The result is mastodynia - pain and engorgement of the breast.

Headache is also associated with hyperhydration and increased intracranial pressure. In some patients who are prescribed diuretics, pain is reduced.

5. Treatment methods

Treat mild forms of PMS with the help of psychotherapy and lifestyle changes. It is important for women to pay attention to the mode of work and rest.

Observe the daily regimen, bedtime (optimally no later than 22-23 hours) will help to get rid of unpleasant sensations. Those who have night shifts and duty, it is better to transfer to a day job.

During the day, it is important to alternate work and rest. Regular physical exercises, morning exercises are desirable, someone has a daily walk in the evening.

Work with a psychologist is combined with a special diary, which reflects all the symptoms that precede the onset of menstruation.

It is also useful to make a graph of the basal temperature, which will notice the onset of the luteal phase of the cycle, as well as determine how many days before the onset of menstruation the first signs of PMS appear.

Pregnancy can be one of the ways to treat PMS. Some women with the delay mark the disappearance of discomfort.

5.1. Balanced diet

Be sure to revise the diet. It is necessary to create a menu based on the principles of healthy lifestyles, with the restriction of simple carbohydrates, caffeine, salt, alcohol, trans fats.

Recommendations to limit "harmful products" are more relevant to the second phase of the cycle. But on other days you should not abuse them. Additional food fortification with fiber, vitamins, minerals and trace elements is needed. In most cases, it is recommended to take special multivitamin complexes.

In several studies, it has been shown that taking dietary supplements containing vitamin D and calcium can reduce the severity of premenstrual pain, migraine, and eliminate mood swings and other symptoms. The effectiveness of supplemental magnesium supplements and B group vitamins (especially B1, B2 and B6) is being studied. The duration of their use should not be less than 3-4 months.

The caloric intake of the diet is maintained at an average of 1200-1500 kcal, a more accurate calculation is performed based on age, body weight and height.

5.2. Preparations

Drug treatment involves the appointment of hormonal drugs. The following groups of drugs may be used:

  1. 1 Combined oral contraceptives (for example, Angelik, Jes plus, Yarin plus, Dimia, Janine, Chloe, Diane-35, Logest, etc.). Their effectiveness has been proven in studies, the selection of the drug is carried out only by the attending physician. He will tell you how much you need to take pills and what to do if you experience side effects.
  2. 2 Dopamine receptor agonists (Bromkriptin, Dostinex).
  3. 3 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (Buserelin, Diferelin) are used to treat severe forms. They can cause hot flashes, depression and insomnia, therefore they are not recommended for long-term use.
  4. 4 Progestins (Duphaston, Mirena). This group is sometimes assigned in medical practice, although data on their effectiveness in ICP are contradictory. The theory of progesterone deficiency in the second phase of the cycle abroad is already considered obsolete, as the effect of prolactin, prostaglandins has been proven.

To improve the metabolism and functional state of the CNS, Fezam, Lutsetam, Vinpocetine, Magne B6 are used. For dysphoria, the psychotherapist may prescribe mild sedatives, antidepressants.

Normalize blood rheology, improve blood supply to tissues Pentoxifylline, Troxerutin, Nicergolin. Diuretics are prescribed for marked edema.

As adjuvants use herbs that have a sedative effect: valerian extract, motherwort tincture.

Folk remedies with a strong PMS may be ineffective. Physiotherapy methods have a good effect.

Any attempts to cope with PMS should be combined with the right attitude, changes in the perception of the disease and the world around it. For men, the state in which a woman is found may not be clear. It is important that the spouse or sexual partner understands that the reasons for the changed behavior are hormonal fluctuations, and not a whim or caprice.

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The nervous condition of a woman before menstruation has become the object of ridicule from men. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) "spoils" the life and that, and others, often causing disagreements in a couple and quarrels in the family. Therefore, what is PMS in girls should be known to men.

Women who have experienced all the “charms” of the ICP know for sure that this is not a series of whims, but a really difficult state. However, only a few of them are able to cope with manifestations of hormonal changes in the body. Modern medicine makes it possible: the observance of certain rules and the use of safe drugs will help to survive the premenstrual period without shocks and depression.

PMS in women - transcript

What it is? PMS is a special condition of a woman a few days before menstrual bleeding, characterized by emotional instability, vascular and metabolic abnormalities. The abbreviation "PMS" stands for premenstrual syndrome. To make it clear what constitutes premenstrual syndrome, let's answer frequently asked questions:

  • Premenstrual syndrome: are men right, ironic about the state of a woman?

This time the men are clearly wrong. Premenstrual syndrome is listed in the WHO classification. This means that the global medical community recognizes this deviation.

  • PMS is in all women?

Every second woman faces premenstrual syndrome. Moreover, the incidence of PMS and the severity of its symptoms increases with age. So, up to 30 years, only 20% of women suffer from it, after 30 - every third, and after 40 years PMS occurs in 55-75% of women.

  • Why does premenstrual syndrome occur?

Doctors do not give a definite answer. Hormonal fluctuations before menstruation, as the cause of PMS, are not always justified. In some women, changes in the hormone levels of progesterone and estrogen are not so significant. The closest to the truth is the theory of a temporary change in neuroregulation.

  • How many days before menstruation do PMS symptoms appear?

A woman's condition changes 2-10 days before the onset of menstrual bleeding. The duration of this period and the severity of its manifestations is individual. However, all painful sensations necessarily cease in the first days of menstruation.

  • Premenstrual syndrome only have to endure?

Not necessarily. To ease the menstrual syndrome, several rules have been developed for the daily regimen and diet. Also, in the case of its pronounced manifestations, the gynecologist may prescribe some medications (they will be described below).

  • Does the PMS pass after delivery?

In some women, premenstrual syndrome is initially absent and may appear after childbirth. For others, on the contrary, the unpleasant symptoms disappear or subside (especially the swelling and tenderness of the chest) after the birth of a child.

Most often, premenstrual syndrome occurs in smokers (the probability of PMS is doubled!), Women with a weight index of over 30 (their kg divided by height squared in meters). Also, the risk increases after abortion and complicated labor, after gynecological operations. Genetically determined response of the body to physiological changes before menstruation is not excluded. However, the most common PMS is fixed in depressive (phlegmatic) and emotionally labile (choleric) women.

Characteristic symptoms of PMS

There are hardly any women with the same picture of PMS: there are about 150 signs of premenstrual syndrome. However, in such a variety of symptoms can distinguish the main groups. Symptoms of PMS in women:

  • Deviations from the nervous system and psyche

The mood of a woman can be called in one word - negative. She can cry for nothing or no reason at all. Ready to “tear to shreds”, the degree of aggression also coincides little with the offense. At best, the woman is depressed and is experiencing irritability, which she cannot always cope with.

Due to elevated levels of progesterone in 1-2 weeks. before menstruation in a woman, the mammary glands noticeably increase and heave. Many women at this period need a bra a size larger than usual. Chest pain in the chest can be so intense that walking can cause discomfort.

Some women on the skin of the mammary glands are the veins. At the same time, swelling of the hands and face can be observed, and swelling in the legs at the end of the day becomes more noticeable. Often recorded temperature rise to 37.0-37.2 ºС. Зачастую живот увеличивается в размерах вследствие скопления газов и запоров.

В период ПМС нередко возникает пульсирующая головная боль, иррадиирующая в область глаз. Attacks are similar to migraine, sometimes accompanied by nausea and vomiting, but the pressure remains normal.

PMS after 40 years, when hormonal changes are aggravated by concomitant diseases, often provoke pressure rises in the evenings (hypertensive crisis), tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), shortness of breath and heart pain.

Premenstrual syndrome may occur with the predominance of certain symptoms (edematous, cephalgic, crisp), but the mixed form is most often diagnosed. Almost every woman suffering from PMS has:

  • constant thirst and excessive sweating, acne,
  • dizziness and staggering, especially in the morning, and fatigue,
  • desire to eat salty or sweet, increased appetite,
  • heaviness in the lower abdomen and spastic pain, irradiation in the lower back is most often caused by a long inflammatory process in the genitals (thrush, chronic adnexitis, etc.),
  • goosebumps and less numbness of the fingers and toes, associated with deficiencies of vit. B6 and magnesium,
  • the rejection of strong odors, even their own perfumes.

Premenstrual syndrome can occur in the following scenarios:

  • Stage compensation - signs of PMS little pronounced, disappear immediately after the onset of menstruation. The course is stable, the progression of symptoms over the years is not observed.
  • The stage of subcompensation - the severity of symptoms increases over the years, with the result that for some time the woman’s ability to work is impaired.
  • The stage of decompensation - severe symptoms (hypertensive crises, fainting, etc.) disappear only after a few days after the end of the menstrual bleeding. Women have panic attacks, often suicidal thoughts. During the period of PMS, women are often violent, especially towards their children (severely beaten).

Premenstrual Syndrome or Pregnancy

The symptoms of premenstrual syndrome are very similar to the signs of pregnancy. The main question for women is how to distinguish: PMS or pregnancy? It is almost impossible if you do not do a pregnancy test or wait for a period of menstruation. However, according to some signs, we can assume the onset of pregnancy:

  • Only during pregnancy there is a perversion of taste. In addition to craving for salty or sweets, as with PMS, a pregnant woman refuses previously loved food and expresses a keen desire to use chalk and earth. There may be addiction, for example, to fat, which the woman had not previously tolerated.
  • Strong odors in a pregnant woman also cause a negative reaction. In addition, olfactory "hallucinations" may occur in a pregnant woman: a peculiar odor appears in an inappropriate place.
  • The pain in the lower abdomen at the onset of pregnancy is less straining, occurs periodically and is softer, pulling in nature. Low back pain appears only with the threat of miscarriage or in later pregnancy.
  • Mood swings can occur already in the first weeks of pregnancy, which coincides in time with the period of PMS. However, a pregnant woman expresses positive emotions as violently as anger. Premenstrual period inherent negative emotional reaction.
  • Fatigue occurs closer to 1 month. pregnancy (about 2 weeks. delayed menstruation).
  • PMS ends with the onset of menstruation. When this occurs, full uterine bleeding. Sometimes, pregnancy also causes bleeding on days when menstruation should occur. The difference between bleeding during pregnancy and menstruation is a smearing character: only a few drops of blood are secreted, and the discharge is pink or brownish.
  • Only during pregnancy from the first weeks frequent urination is often observed. For ICP this feature is not typical.
  • The nausea can be triggered by premenstrual syndrome and is observed throughout the day. During pregnancy, nausea and vomiting occur a little later, at 4-5 weeks. and indicate early toxicosis.

Treatment of PMS - drugs and advice

To reduce and, at best, completely get rid of premenstrual syndrome is quite possible. If the symptoms are not too pronounced, the following recommendations will help to deal with PMS without drug therapy:

  • Full sleep at least 8 hours. Walk and breathing exercises will help improve sleep.
  • Physical activity - stimulates the synthesis of endorphins, which improve mood and calm the nervous system. In the premenstrual period, dances, yoga and other relaxing practices (massages, bathing) are especially useful.
  • Nutrition correction - rejection of sweet and fat, saturation of the diet with fruits and vegetables. Irritatingly affects the nervous system of coffee, alcohol, energy and chocolate. These products should be excluded for the ICP period.
  • Regular sex is a source of oxytocin (the hormone of happiness). In addition, there is a relaxation of the uterus, spastic pain disappears. You should not stifle increased sexual desire: nature itself tells you what the body needs.
  • Hold on to your emotions. The best tactics for the premenstrual period - think about it later. Of course, it is not necessary to ignore the serious negative, which coincided with the ICP. But knowing that it is easy to “go too far” and talk too much, it is better to postpone a serious conversation for later.
  • It should not be in the premenstrual period to go shopping. There is a high likelihood of wasting money, which can later turn into a family conflict.

In severe cases, the woman is prescribed medication:

  • Pain in PMS, what to do? - let's admit No-shpy. However, to get involved in this drug is not worth it. Having a spasmolytic effect, No-shpa in large doses can increase menstrual bleeding. A good anesthetic effect is given by NSAIDs (Ibuprofen, Naproxen). It is worth remembering: Ibuprofen (Nurofen, Mig-400) is not recommended for women after 40 years due to the negative effect on the heart.
  • Chest tenderness and swelling - easily eliminated by the use of diuretics (Veroshpiron 25 mg, Furosemide 40 mg).
  • Multivitamins - fill the lack of magnesium, calcium and Vit. AT 6. An excellent tool for PMS is the drug Magne-B6, the reception continues for 1 month. followed by a repeated course. The homeopathic remedy Mastodinon and saffron decoction gives a good effect.
  • Removal of excitation of the nervous system - herbal preparations are most often used (Novo-Passit, Persen). Mixed infusions of valerian and motherwort will help reduce tension and improve sleep, take 15-25 caps. 2-3 times a day or only an hour before bedtime. In severe cases, an Afobazol tranquilizer is prescribed, effectively eliminating the state of anxiety. In this case, the drug does not adversely affect the psyche, women can drive a car during its reception. It is advisable to take antidepressants (Fluoxetine, Zoloft, Paxil) and neuroleptics (Nootropil, Sonapaks, Aminalon). Tranquilizers, antidepressants and antipsychotics are used only as prescribed by a doctor!
  • Hormonal drugs — oral contraceptives (Midiana, Yarin) are used to stabilize the hormonal level and level the symptoms of PMS, the course is 3 months, followed by a repeat. The gestagenic drug Drospirenone (Anabella, Angelik, Vidora) prevents the engorgement of glands and edema.

Premenstrual syndrome can not be tolerated. The condition of PMS, especially in women with unstable psyche and neurosis, may worsen over time, which ultimately will negatively affect the quality of life and disability.

It is also worth remembering that diseases of the sexual sphere, endocrine disorders (including hypo-and hyperthyroidism) only aggravate the course of premenstrual syndrome. Their treatment, compliance with recommendations for lifestyle changes and, if necessary, medicines will help to cope with even the severe form of PMS.

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