Trichomonas colpitis: symptoms and treatment, causes and methods of diagnosis


Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. According to statistics, about 10% of the population of all countries suffer from this disease. Trichomonas have a number of features that allow them to remain unnoticed for a long time, even during examination. How does the infection occur and how to suspect the disease? Are there effective treatment regimens?

Read in this article.

How is trichomonad colpit transmitted

The disease is caused by trichomonas vaginalis. These are single-celled organisms that can exist only in the human body. When they are in the environment, they quickly die, even under normal indoor conditions. The following factors are especially detrimental to them:

  • high temperatures (more than 45),
  • direct sunlight
  • change in osmotic pressure
  • when hit on household objects, they quickly dry out and die.

On this basis, the main mode of transmission is sexual, with unprotected intimate relationships.

They can be found in the following places:

  • in the vagina and the cervical canal in women most often,
  • they can also penetrate into the uterine cavity and appendages, sometimes provoking the appearance of abscesses and tubo-ovarian formations,
  • in the urethra, bladder, at least - in the rest of the urinary tract.

Theoretically, a household contact path is also possible, for example, infection through towels, in a bath, through other means of hygiene. But in practice, this does not have to face.

We recommend to read an article about colpitis during menstruation. From it you will learn about the causes of the disease and its effect on the menstrual cycle, the changing nature of menstruation and the features of treatment.

And here more about the treatment of subacute vaginitis.

Factors contributing to the development of trichomoniasis

Often trichomoniasis can occur in subclinical forms, almost without causing any complaints. The following circumstances may contribute to the manifestation of the disease:

  • Reduced immunity due to stress, hypothermia, physical exertion, etc.
  • In the period after suffering infectious diseases, exacerbation of chronic pathology.
  • Alcohol (and even beer), spicy, salty, pickled can also somewhat increase the symptoms of diseases.
  • Acceptance of hormonal drugs, in particular, glucocorticosteroids, as well as some drugs, for example, for chemotherapy.

Symptoms of Trichomonas colpitis

From the moment of infection until the first symptoms of the disease appear, it takes from a few hours to a couple of days and even weeks. The main complaints are as follows:

  • Abundant vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor. They can be white or transparent, as well as greenish, yellowish, swampy colors and others. It all depends on whether there is a co-infection. Blood may also be present, especially if there is erosion. It is believed that the discharge is always frothy, as Trichomonas emit carbon dioxide in the process of vital activity. But this can be seen only during a gynecological examination, and not always.
  • Burning, itching in the region of the external genitalia, which may be unusually red, swollen.
  • Frequent relapses of thrush, the appearance of warts are all evidence of immunodeficiency in the face of infection.
  • Also, the woman notes periodic pulling pain in the lower abdomen, which may increase with sexual contact.
  • If the body temperature rises, it means that the inflammation has gone beyond the vagina. There is a possibility of dissemination of the infection and the development of abscesses, pyosalpings, even peritonitis.
  • Inflammation of the urinary system. Most often it is cystitis and urethritis, including recurrent.

The consequences of untreated colpitis

Trichomonas colpitis is cunning. This is due to the following factors:

  • Trichomonas can be recognized by the body as its own cells. In this case, it does not respond to them due to the inflammatory process, which allows the infection to go unnoticed for a long time.
  • Trichomonas have an amazing property - they can “swallow” other pathogens and maintain their activity for a long time. Most often, chlamydia, myco- and ureaplasmas, and some others, are “hidden” this way. As a result, during treatment, the pathogens are incompletely eradicated, or they acquire resistance to drugs (antibiotics). So the process gradually becomes chronic.

Trichomonas colpitis can lead to the following complications:

  • Pathology of the cervix (erosion, polyps, etc.). A significant role is given to trichomonads in the development of dysplasia.
  • Inflammation of the endometrium with all the ensuing consequences (hyperplasia, polyps, etc.), pyosalpings, pyoovariums. Episodes of Trichomonas Pelvioperitonitis occur regularly.
  • Problems with pregnancy - from the impossibility of conception to fading at different periods, premature birth, intrauterine infection, etc.

Look at the video about Trichomonas colpitis:

Diagnosis of trichomoniasis

You can suspect the presence of Trichomonas colpitis is already on the basis of complaints and pelvic examination. But to confirm the following methods are used:

  • Normal smear on the flora of the posterior vagina. Ideally, if the doctor takes the material and immediately looks, even without coloring. Trichomonas motile, therefore, in the microscope, you can easily notice their activity. More often, just applying the material on a glass slide and then sending it to the laboratory is used.
  • A smear on oncocytology also reveals pathogens, if they exist in the cervical canal.
  • The most reliable method for determining Trichomonas is PCR. In parallel, you can be tested for other genital infections with a single material intake.
  • The culture method (seeding on a medium) is practically not used, since it is superseded by the price range, ease of implementation, and PCR effectiveness.

Treatment of trichomonas colpitis

Despite the fact that trichomoniasis is one of the most common infections, the range of drugs for treatment is not very large.

Since this pathology very often occurs in conjunction with other STIs, it is highly desirable to conduct a full examination before the start of therapy, only one sexual partner is possible.

The basics of therapy are as follows:

  • pills must be taken orally, i.e. systemic effects on the body
  • preferably combined with candles, vaginal capsules, etc.,
  • parallel treatment of other genital infections,
  • monitoring of the results is necessary for both sexual partners, and not earlier than 2–3 weeks after the end of therapy. Women should be tested on the eve of menstruation, since immunity is reduced at this time, and if the infection is not fully cured, it will somehow manifest itself at this time.

Trichomoniasis is very easy to get sick, but getting rid of these microorganisms is not always possible the first time. Often the infection becomes subclinical. In this case, Trichomonas seem to stop their livelihoods, and it seems that there was a complete cure. But with provoking factors, the symptoms of the disease reappear.

Causes of the disease in women

Trichomonas colpitis (symptoms and treatment in women are described below) appears when trichomonas mycobacterium enters the body. Most often, the process provokes unprotected sexual intercourse with a man who is the carrier of this infection.

It can be transmitted in a household way. However, the probability of spreading the disease in this way is low. Mostly girls are infected like this.

In addition, there are certain factors contributing to the development of pathology.

These include:

  • hypothermia,
  • stress and strain on the nervous system,
  • long-term use of corticosteroids,
  • Chemotherapy,
  • endocrine disruption

An additional risk factor is the frequent change of sexual partners. The possibility of infection in this case increases 4 times.

What are the symptoms and methods of treatment of Trichomonas vaginitis in women will be described below.

Symptoms of the disease

Symptoms of the disease appear brightly. The first symptoms manifest themselves 3 days after the infection of the body.

The following signs are inherent in the pathological process:

  • Swelling of the perineum and genital area.
  • Abundant yellowish discharge frothy consistency. They have an unpleasant smell.
  • Soreness during sexual intercourse.
  • Unpleasant sensation when urinating. At the same time, emptying becomes frequent.
  • Burning in the urinary channel.
  • Violation of menstruation in chronic form of the disease.
  • The appearance of genital warts on the external genitalia.
  • Diaper rash in the inner thighs.
  • Disorder of the stomach of a temporary nature.
  • Pain in the abdomen that can occur with the spread of the pathological process in the uterus, its appendages and ovaries. Pulling pains may occur in the lumbar region.

Diagnostic methods

As a rule, a single examination by a gynecologist is enough for making a diagnosis. The specialist detects irritation of the vagina, the wall of which is covered with serous exudate.

However, the diagnosis is not made on the basis of a visual examination. Laboratory methods are used to clarify the nature of the infection. It is supposed to take a smear from the vagina and rectum. The type of bacteria is determined by PCR, as well as cytological method.

Disease therapy

How is trichomonas colpit (vaginitis) in women stopped? Treatment involves the elimination of the acute form of the disease and ridding the body of mycobacteria. As a rule, outpatient treatment is carried out. Hospitalization is required for tubo-ovarian abscess and peritonitis. These complications occur on the background of acute trichomoniasis.

It is very important that the treatment was completed by both partners, since the body does not produce specific immunity to the disease. The risk of re-infection is quite high.

When treatment should abandon the use of alcohol and avoid sexual intercourse.

The basis of drug treatment is the administration of systemic drugs, as well as topical medications.

The main drug for getting rid of the disease is considered to be Metronidazole. It has a negative effect on the main bacterium, as well as anaerobes and the simplest pathological microorganisms. The dosage is selected individually by the attending physician.

In addition to such a drug as Metronidazole, they resort to the use of Naxojin, Ornidazole, Atrikan, and Nitazol.

From the means of local application it should be noted vaginal plugs "Trichomonacid", "Hexicon", "Neo-Penotran", "Klion D", "Terzhinan", "Meratin-Combi".

The anal zone and the urinary canal are treated with Trichomonacid.

The effectiveness of the treatment of such an infectious lesion as Trichomonas coleitis (symptoms and treatment in women) is monitored after the course, as well as the next menstrual cycle. As a rule, the prognosis for recovery in the acute form of the disease is favorable.

Chronic treatment

In the treatment of the chronic process, such modulators of the immune system as Immunal or Pyrogenal are used. Restoration of healthy microflora in chronic disease is a prerequisite for therapy.

Chronic form can cause serious complications and have erased symptoms that contribute to the spread of infection.


Trichomonas colpitis (causes, symptoms, treatment in women are presented in the article) can cause various complications.

To their series should include:

  • cervicitis,
  • endometritis,
  • salpingo-oophoritis,
  • infertility,
  • violation of the menstrual cycle,
  • the appearance of tumors in the pelvic area,
  • cystitis,
  • pyelonephritis.

In a pregnant woman, the disease can provoke premature birth, the birth of a baby with a low weight and infection of the fetus in the womb.

Causes and symptoms of the disease in men

The development of such a pathology as Trichomonas coleitis (symptoms and treatment in men proceeds in its own way) occurs when the male body is affected by urogenital Trichomonas. As a rule, the disease is transmitted during sexual intercourse. However, infection can occur in a household way.

In some cases, the disease manifests itself in men with a weakened immune system. Lack of vitamins and microelements, lack of personal hygiene, disruptions in the endocrine system - all this can contribute to the development of Trichomonas vaginitis.

The overwhelming majority of men infected with Trichomonas urethritis have symptomatology of an erased character.

Some patients complain of the following symptoms:

  • swelling and hyperemia of the genitals,
  • discharge of green-yellow color with an unpleasant smell, in which the nugget is sometimes present,
  • pain when urinating,
  • too frequent emptying with a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder,
  • pain, burning and heaviness in the perineum and pelvis.

During the examination, the doctor pays special attention to the condition of the mucous membrane and skin of the patient, and also checks the patient for the presence of associated diseases. For example, if prostatitis is diagnosed in parallel with urethritis, this fact will be taken into account when drawing up a regimen of therapy.

Diagnosis of Trichomonas colpitis in men is to conduct a series of surveys. The main method is to take a smear from a man's urethra. To pass this analysis requires prior preparation. The patient should not carry out sexual intercourse for 5-7 days. This condition allows enough pathogens to accumulate in sufficient quantities to detect them. If the patient does not follow the rule, then the seminal fluid will wash away the bacilli.

Also, when washing the body is prohibited the use of antibacterial agents. To abandon such a hygienic procedure should be 2 days before the analysis.

It is advised not to drink alcohol and give up smoking. This contributes to obtaining more accurate analysis results.

Taking a smear is a painful manipulation. The material for analysis is placed by laboratory technicians in a special environment. After the detection of the bacterium, a study of its sensitivity to various drugs is carried out. The drug that has the highest activity against mycobacterium is used as the primary means of therapy.

Also, the diagnosis involves a urine test. This method has a high degree of information. Collected in the morning before breakfast, urine contains a high concentration of bacteria and protein compounds. Protein compounds are detected due to activation of the body’s immune system.

The composition of the patient's blood is also subject to change. There is an increased level of leukocyte production. They contribute to the formation of protein fibers in the urine.

The patient shows the passage of ultrasound. It allows you to set the localization of pathogenic microorganisms. The site that has undergone inflammation will be swollen.

Much attention is paid to the state of the prostate gland. Often Trichomonas colpit provokes prostatitis in a man.

Treatment methods

Any treatment is carried out strictly according to the prescription of the urologist or venereologist. Both partners are treated therapies, even if the woman has no manifestations of the disease.

Men are prescribed antibiotics and anti-trichromonadic drugs. The basis of the group of antibiotics are fluoroquinolones. They help not only to get rid of the bacteria, but also to suppress purulent inflammation.

Often, doctors have resorted to the use of such an antibiotic as "Ciprofloxacin". It removes mycobacteria from the urethra and prostate gland.

Many doctors use Levofloxacin. The dose of the drug is selected by an expert individually.

Also, the urethra is washed with antiseptics. As a rule, resort to the use of tools such as "Chlorhexidine" or "Miramistin". They contribute to the removal of a large number of mycobacteria from the channel. Douching is carried out throughout the entire drug treatment course.

Trichomonas colpitis (symptoms and treatment in men differ from those in women) requires preventive observations. A visit to a specialist every 3 months is recommended. The doctor carries out repeated taking of analyzes. If they do not reveal pathogenic microbes, the therapy is considered successful.


Trichomonas colpitis (causes, symptoms and treatment described above) is an infectious disease that affects both men and women. The main mode of transmission is sexual intercourse with an infected partner, although a household method is not excluded.

At the first symptoms of the disease should immediately contact a venereologist or urologist. The specialist will conduct a proper diagnosis and prescribe the desired treatment regimen. The neglected form of the disease can cause serious complications.

Trichomoniasis vaginal

Trichomoniasis infection is an infectious-inflammatory disease, transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse from a carrier or infected to a healthy person. The incubation period of the disease is up to 1 month.

Symptoms of Trichomonas colpitis are:

  • abundant frothy yellowish discharge with an unpleasant odor,
  • itching, burning in the groin area,
  • painful sexual intercourse,
  • sharp pain when urinating.

After an unprotected act, infection occurs, the infection develops in the vaginal environment, inhibiting natural immunity. In a short period of time, the first sign appears - a kind of foaming discharge of yellowish color with a specific smell.
At this stage, an urgent need to consult a gynecologist, do not self-medicate.

The following symptoms appear with the development of the disease - itching, burning, pain, heavy discharge.
Trichomonas can coexist with other pathogenic, conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, representing an inflammation of a mixed nature. With such an infection, the symptoms of the disease appear taking into account the symptoms of other inflammatory processes.

According to ICD10, urogenital trichomoniasis has a code - A97.0.

Trichomonas colpitis in women is a pathology, with possible localization throughout the urogenital system, creating the risk of inflammation of the bladder, cervix. Chronic disease is characterized by symptoms of cystitis, cervical endometritis.
Pathological infectious disease can occur in acute and chronic forms.

The acute form of trichomonas colpitis is characterized by:

  • acute itching in the perineum, the vulva,
  • increased amount of mucus that has a frothy consistency, color from yellowish to greenish shades,
  • the smell of discharge is pronounced, peculiar unpleasant,
  • itching and irritation of the cervical mucosa, its redness may occur,
  • vaginal walls swell, become friable.

In contrast to the acute, chronic form of colpitis may occur with mild symptoms, or with its practical absence. This fact extremely complicates the diagnosis of the infectious process, which often leads to the spread of an inflammatory infection to the organs of the female urogenital system.

Symptoms and treatment in women

Initially, the patient's complaints are recorded, they are examined in a gynecological chair.

When viewed from a patient with trichomonas coleitis, there is observed:

  • swelling, friability of the vaginal walls,
  • mechanical bleeding
  • copious amounts of mucus on the walls, in the vagina,
  • redness, itching of the cervix.

Pastos of the vaginal walls is accompanied by itching of the external genital organs, the inner surface of the vaginal wall. The discharge may be a yellowish foam or a yellowish-green mucus with an unpleasant odor.

Infectious inflammation occurs with itchy sensations on the cervix that cause discomfort.

Drug treatment

Therapy of inflammation is a medical removal of the inflammatory process, the destruction of the pathogen.

Full recovery depends on concurrent treatment of the patient and his sexual partner, otherwise the treatment will not work. In the worst case, the disease will become chronic.

In the treatment of Trichomonas

Kolpit needs to follow a few rules:

  • do not take alcohol during treatment,
  • exclude spicy, sweet, salty, smoked food from the diet.

Drug therapy consists of antibiotic, antibacterial drugs and local therapy. After the treatment, a course of restoration of intestinal microflora is carried out to enhance the defenses of the immune system.

It is dangerous to engage in self-treatment in case of trichomonas colpitis, since the pathogen can coexist with other pathological pathogens of the inflammatory process. In this case, the complete suppression of the inflammatory process is impossible, there is a risk of the disease becoming latent.

Chronic, latent form is difficult to treat. Triggered inflammation can affect the urinary system, causing chronic cystitis or inflammatory diseases of the cervix. Therapy in this case should be comprehensive, the selection of drugs should be carried out taking into account secondary diseases, consist of initial drug therapy, comorbidities. Control tests are prescribed 10 days later, after the passage of 2-3 menses.

Symptoms and treatment in men

In men, specific colpitis affects primarily the urethra, causing inflammation of the urinary canal mucosa. Infectious disease is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • chew during urination,
  • itching of the penis,
  • the redness of the edge of the vas deferens,
  • increase the sensitivity of the glans penis,
  • mucous secretions.

Self-treatment of Trichomonas colpitis in men leads to the spread of infection and inflammation of the prostate.

Diagnosis of an infectious disease is carried out by a urologist or venereologist, for this purpose, blood tests, urine samples are taken, and a smear from a vas deferens is taken.


Preventive measures are:

  • protected intercourse,
  • timely visit to the doctor when the first symptoms appear,
  • routine visit to the gynecologist,
  • self-treatment exclusion
  • treatment of sexual partners,
  • carrying out a course of therapy in full,
  • control testing.

The main prevention is to avoid unprotected sexual intercourse, with the first symptoms go to the urologist, gynecologist, and venereologist.

What it is?

Trichomoniasis or trichomonas colpitis, as it is also called, is an infectious sexual disease affecting the health of men and women. Despite their equal distribution among both sexes, it is in women that the disease manifests itself as an inflammatory process in the vagina, which can eventually spread to the urethra, ovaries, uterus, or uterine cervix.

With regards to the male half, the disease manifests itself a little differently: first, the urethra is inflamed, but over time the infection affects the prostate, seminal vesicles, and also the epididymis. This disease in men has a slightly different name - Trichomonas urethritis, but we will consider only Trichomonas colpitis in women.

Late or incorrect treatment of this pathology can lead to a decrease in the immune system, which is fraught with serious consequences for the patient's body. In rare cases, this can manifest as phagocytosis, infertility or miscarriage. To prevent unpleasant consequences, you need to know about the common causes and symptoms of the disease. It’s not for nothing that people say: “Warned, it means it’s armed.”


There are several causes of Trichomonas vaginitis, but the most common of them is the ingress of infection into the patient's vagina. With intimate intimacy, without using contraception, a trichomonas infection can get inside the vagina.

Very often, the disease is transmitted from a man who carries the infection. In addition, there is another way of infection by harmful microorganisms - household means. It is not considered very common, as the first, but still it is worth giving it its due.

As a rule, little girls who are still careless about the rules of personal hygiene are most often infected by household means. To become infected with bacteria, you do not need to perform any super-complex procedures, you just need to use a towel, washcloth or soap, on the surface of which are Trichomonas.

The disease is very dangerous during pregnancy, because of this, the risk of infection of an undeveloped fetus inside the mother’s womb increases. Sometimes a baby can get a pathology during childbirth when it passes through the birth canal. Moreover, this can happen even when the placental barrier has not been crossed by a bacterium. Also, the infection can be transmitted to the baby during childbirth through the tools intended for obstetrics.

There are also other factors contributing to the development of the disease:

  • failure of the endocrine system,
  • consequences of long-term use of potent drugs,
  • high psycho-emotional stress on the body,
  • severe stress
  • weak immunity,
  • hormonal imbalance,
  • transfer of serious chronic diseases.

The list of common causes of Trichomonas colpitis in the female half should also include the frequent change of sexual partners. As the statistics show, the probability of infection with the disease increases approximately four times. And if to all this add ignoring means of contraception, then the chances increase almost to the skies.

Symptoms and diagnosis

Trichomonas colepit can manifest many characteristic symptoms that can manifest themselves in both individual and group cases.

The most common of these include:

  • pain during sexual contact or urination,

  • burning or severe itching in the patient's vagina,
  • the formation of minor bleeding from the vagina,
  • vaginal discharge increases in volume
  • swelling and redness of the perineum,
  • discharge yellow-green or white discharge, with an unpleasant fishy flavor.

With the development of Trichomonas colpitis, pain can spread not only to the female genitals, but also to the lower back or abdomen. Often, individual symptoms directly depend on the area of ​​infection.

Diagnosing this disease should be done by a qualified doctor. For this microscopic examination is used. No need for injections or surgeries, just take a swab from the vagina.

If necessary, the doctor can examine the walls of the vagina for the presence of associated diseases. This is done with a mirror. In rare cases, doctors prescribe a colposcopy to conduct a more detailed examination of the patient's cervix.

How to cure a disease?

With timely treatment, any disease, including Trichomonas coleitis, can be cured much faster, which cannot be said about its transition to the chronic form. Therefore, at the first manifestations of the symptoms of this disease, it is necessary as soon as possible to seek help from a gynecologist.

Often, several types of therapy are used to treat colpitis. This is a local and general therapy. Such a combination will quickly and effectively eliminate all the symptoms associated with this pathology.

In addition to traditional methods of treatment, doctors can prescribe and therapeutic diet, which is the rejection of salty, greasy and fried foods. It is also not recommended to drink alcohol, as it reduces the human immune system.

Folk remedies

Many people simply do not trust traditional medicine, preferring to take natural ingredients instead of synthetic substances. Fortunately, there are many folk remedies, thanks to the healing properties of which you can actively combat various types of diseases.

The most effective folk remedies against Trichomonas colpitis:

  • garlic juice. This tool is enriched with beneficial vitamins and minerals, and its powerful anti-bacterial effect contributes to the rapid recovery of the body due to stimulation of the immune system. Take the drug you need 2-3 times a day. Single dose - 1 tsp.
  • aloe juice This plant is famous for its beneficial properties, so it is used to treat many diseases. Trichomonas colpitis is not an exception. Aloe juice is taken 3 times a day. Single dose - 3 tablespoons,
  • sea ​​buckthorn oil. Homemade tampons in the form of tampons can have an anti-inflammatory effect on the body. It also eliminates irritation and itching. Used as a regular tampon daily before bedtime.


Treatment of trichomonas colpitis is carried out in gynecological or urological dispensaries. For the period of therapy, doctors forbid their patients to have sex. It is necessary to increase the immune system of the body so that it can successfully resist the effects of the infection. For this, various immunomodulators and vitamins are used.

As a rule, doctors prescribe the following drugs:

  • Urzall, Allylglitser, Kindomon and other herbal remedies
  • Gramicidin,
  • Sanazin,
  • Nitasol,
  • Metronidazole,
  • Osarsol,
  • Aminoacrichin and other drugs.

It is important to observe the recommended dosage of drugs, since their excess or self-medication can cause adverse reactions. This not only does not cure Trichomonas vaginitis, but also harm the patient’s health.

The presence of this disease on pregnant women can threaten the violation of labor and the full development of the fetus inside the womb. Therefore, when the first symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis appear, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor to provide qualified assistance. It is absolutely impossible to engage in self-medication, because not only the health of the mother, but also her unborn child is at stake.

Preventive measures

Prevention of Trichomonas colpitis is almost no different from any other diseases of the genital organs. No need to reinvent the wheel and look for unexplained and unusual preventive measures.

Simply arrange your sex life, use contraception and follow the rules of personal hygiene. If this has already happened, and an intimacy still occurred with the carrier of the infection, then immediately after that you need to treat the surface of the thighs and the vagina with Miramistin's solution.

Treatment reviews

Irina, Kemerovo, 31 years old:

Since school years, I know perfectly well that the treatment of diseases of the genital organs is always difficult. I know not from experience, but from biology lessons, if that. So after the detection of suspicious symptoms, you should immediately go to the doctor. Ignoring the problem will only aggravate the situation.

Masha, Krasnoyarsk, 24 years:

Suffered from colpitis for a long time, For the treatment used a variety of drugs, but to no avail. But recently, the doctor advised me to use pads with probiotics. It certainly helped solve my problem.

Oksana, Astrakhan, 39 years old:

Just three months ago, I began to show strange symptoms: my face became covered with small pigmentation. At first, I decided to wait for treatment, but then the situation worsened a bit. I have nothing left to do to treat this disease.

For therapy, I used freshly squeezed lemon juice, which, by the way, helped me. The symptoms went away, but after this juice the skin became very dry and began to peel off. The doctor advised me to use a special cream for the intimate area, and he also told me not to use this method of treatment any more (using lemon juice).

Causes and risk factors

The causative agents of Trichomonas colpitis - Trichomonas, belonging to the type of protozoa, class flagellates. They are anaerobic unicellular organisms and are widely distributed in nature. Thanks flagella Trichomonas have good mobility. The optimal conditions for their reproduction are the temperature of 35–37 ° С and the absence of oxygen.

Once on the mucous membrane of the vagina Trichomonas begin to actively develop and multiply, becoming the cause of the inflammatory process. In the process of life they produce a special enzyme - hyaluronidase, with which they penetrate into the intercellular space, lymphatic pathways and the bloodstream, spreading throughout the body.

One of the important features of Trichomonas is their ability to change shape and to mask well under blood cells - lymphocytes and platelets. This allows them to avoid attacks from the immune system.

A number of other pathogenic microorganisms (cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, fungi of the genus Candida, chlamydia, ureaplasma, gonococcus) can penetrate Trichomonas. As a result, they acquire protection from immune cells and drugs.

Trichomonas colpitis in women is a sexually transmitted disease, as it is sexually transmitted. In very rare cases, there is a contact-household way of infection (through towels, underwear, hygiene items).

Trichomonas are resistant to antibiotics, therefore, drug treatment of the infection is carried out by anti-parasitic drugs belonging to the group of 5-nitroimidazoles.

Since Trichomonas in the process of vital activity violate the integrity of the vaginal epithelium, the risk of infection of women with other sexually transmitted infections, in particular, HIV, increases.

Risk factors are:

  • hormonal imbalance
  • hypovitaminosis and other immunodeficiency states,
  • promiscuous sex life
  • ignoring barrier methods of contraception,
  • adverse socio-economic factors
  • alcohol abuse, drug addiction.

Depending on the duration of the course and the severity of symptoms, acute, subacute and chronic trichomonas colpitis are distinguished. Trichomonadal carrier - asymptomatic persistence of Trichomonas in the body - is distinguished into a separate form.

Possible consequences and complications

Trichomonas colpitis is an insidious disease that, in the absence of treatment, can lead to the development of long-term effects and complications. These include:

  • high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV,
  • chronic diseases of the genitourinary system,
  • pregnancy pathology,
  • infertility,
  • cervical cancer.

The prognosis for early treatment is favorable. It worsens when trying to self-medicate a trichomonas infection, as trichomonads become resistant to the action of antiprotozoal drugs, begin to multiply more actively and more aggressively affect the tissues of the body. As a result, the disease acquires an atypical course, becomes resistant to standard therapy, is accompanied by the development of complications.

Features of the disease

Trichomoniasis is an infectious disease triggered by the introduction of the pathogenic microbe Trichomonas vaginalis into the body, which belongs to the group of simple unicellular flagellates that actively reproduce in a warm, humid environment. The main distinguishing feature of Trichomonas is that they are a kind of reservoir for other smaller pathogens (Candida, gonococcus, myco-ureaplasma, chlamydia). That is why Trichomonas is extremely rare in the role of monoinfection, mainly mixed pathologies are diagnosed.

Being an integral part of the microflora of the genital organs, trichomonas in small quantities does not pose a danger, but in the case of rapid growth provokes various diseases.

Trichomonas colpitis in women causes inflammation in the vagina, extends to the uterus, her neck, ovaries, urethra and other organs.

Ways of infection

The main route of infection with Trichomonas is unprotected sexual contact with a sick partner (for any type of sex). A person can be a carrier of Trichomonas even without realizing it - there are no signs of infection, but transmission occurs.

Causes, factors in the development of pathology:

  • weak protective functions of the body,
  • lack of personal hygiene,
  • development of concomitant inflammatory processes of the urogenital system,
  • microtraumas of mucous genital organs,
  • the presence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs),
  • endocrine dysfunction
  • uncontrolled hormonal drugs
  • stressful situations.

In addition, certain food addictions can provoke the rapid growth of microbial colonies. Fried, fatty, spiced dishes violate the vaginal microflora.

Not excluded household infection. The vital activity of Trichomonas vaginalis in the external environment lasts up to several hours. However, in a wet environment, she feels great, can live in ponds, saunas, swimming pools.

The vertical pathway of infection (from mother to child - in utero, while passing through the birth canal) is recorded in 5 cases out of 100. This is a high percentage of the probability of infection, and girls are more susceptible.

Clinical picture

The incubation period of the disease varies from 5 to 30 days. Symptoms depend on the form of leakage (acute, subacute, chronic).

Acute trichomonas colpitis is accompanied by a bright clinical picture:

  • purulent frothy discharge with an unpleasant odor from the vagina,
  • urinary discomfort (cramps, pain, burning),
  • hyperemia of the vaginal mucosa,
  • discomfort in the crotch area,
  • blood in the urine,
  • soreness during intimacy
  • temporary diarrhea.

A woman worried about pain in the lower abdomen, often extending to the lower back, fixed failures of the menstrual cycle.

Trichomonas colpitis in men is not diagnosed, because it is a purely female disease. Nevertheless, the strong sex can be infected by pathogenic microflora in intimate proximity. The male part of the population, in most cases, is not disturbed by signs of the disease, they become carriers of Trichomonas and are able to pass it on. It is this fact that causes the high prevalence of the disease.

Interesting! More than 200 million new infections worldwide are recorded annually.

The acute stage does not last more than two weeks. After this, the symptoms subside, the subacute period begins. If the therapy has not been performed for two months, then the disease becomes chronic.

At this stage, microbes form dangerous alliances with bacteria that colonize the microflora of the genital organs, together they suppress the beneficial components, which is the “open gate” for the transmission of infections above. As a result, the inflammatory process of the pelvic organs develops (purulent character is not excluded), which can provoke the development of serious complications.

Possible complications

The presence of Trichomonas in the female body provide a direct threat to the reproductive system. Lack of therapy can lead to inflammation of the genitourinary system:

  • cervicitis (cervix),
  • endometritis (endometrium),
  • salpingoophoritis (fallopian tubes and ovaries),
  • adnexitis (ovaries and appendages),
  • cystitis (bladder mucosa),
  • pyelonephritis (kidney),
  • pelvioperitonitis (pelvic peritoneum).

When Trichomonas colpitis observed strong fluctuations of the menstrual cycle. Infected women have high risks of developing cervical cancer (the disease is often accompanied by purulent secretions).

The clinical picture of these diseases is quite pronounced, patients are often treated themselves. However, you should not forget that the reason remains not eliminated. Treatment should be handled by a specialist. Independent "prescription" of drugs can lead to disastrous consequences.

Patients with trichomonas colpitis automatically fall into the risk zone of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Against the background of the progression of pathology, problems arise with conception - ectopic pregnancies, miscarriage of the fetus, spontaneous interruption at any time, and infertility.

Often diagnosed during pregnancy. If you do not start timely treatment, then serious consequences may arise:

  • preterm labor,
  • chorioamnionitis (inflammation of the walls of the fetal bladder),
  • fetal hypotrophy (delayed physical development).

If the diagnosis is made in the third trimester and a special reorganization is not carried out, then the child becomes infected when passing through the birth canal. It is manifested by acute symptoms of lesions of the mucous organs (lungs, eyes, glands), it requires urgent treatment.

To prevent the development of complications can only timely diagnosis, adequate therapy.

Diagnostic measures

Diagnosis of Trichomonas colpitis is complicated by the fact that the microbe is able to “pretend” to be the cell of the body, it can easily change its mobility, shape, appearance.

For the diagnosis of the patient must undergo a set of laboratory tests for Trichomonas.

At occurrence of characteristic symptoms it is necessary to consult a doctor (venereologist, gynecologist). The specialist collects anamnesis (complaints, symptoms, chronic diseases, infectious diseases), followed by an examination of the genitals.

Microscopy (smear from the genitals):

  • native drugs (determines the presence of microbes by the movement of the flagella and the undulating membrane),
  • colored drugs (identifies Trichomonas by color),
  • phase contrast (allows you to consider even fixed pathogens),
  • luminescent (based on the use of ultraviolet rays - Trichomonas glow on a dark background).

As a rule, it is enough these researches for statement of the diagnosis. If they are positive, then you need to start treating the pathology. However, sometimes there can be controversial answers, then other methods of laboratory diagnostics are used, which will also help to detect the presence of co-infections.

  • the method of cultivation of the pathogenic environment (bacterial culture),
  • direct immunofluorescence (PIF) reaction,
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method reveals microbial DNA.

Men should be examined if Trichomonas are found in their partners. The fact of trichomonadal disease can be established against the background of the proceedings about the inability to conceive a child, infertility, erectile dysfunction.

When purulent colpitis carry out the diagnosis of cancer.

How to get tested

The main biological material is a vaginal smear. For more informative results, sexual abstinence is recommended for several days; a woman should not be washed for 2-3 hours before taking the material. This allows you to accumulate a sufficient number of bacteria in the urinary organs.

Venous blood is given on an empty stomach (the last meal at least 9 hours before the analysis). Urine should be morning (the first portion).

How to increase the effectiveness of analyzes

Due to the fact that the pathogen may be in an inactive phase, its concentration on the mucous is small, so no diagnostic method can cope with the task of identification. In medicine, in order to identify Trichomonas infection, provocation is used. The most effective is intramuscular administration of pyrogenal, as well as the local use of silver nitrite.

In response to the provocation, the infection actively goes outside, it can be detected within three days. The next day, tests are appointed - microscopy, mutual fund.

Important! Any method of laboratory diagnosis has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them gives a 100% guarantee to detect Trichomonas.

In cases where the symptoms of trichomoniasis are present, and the test results are negative, it is necessary to undergo a re-examination by various methods from different places. It is important to remember that the disease is in urgent need of treatment in order to avoid problems in the reproductive sphere.

Based on the test results, taking into account the general condition, the severity of symptoms, the presence of comorbidities, the characteristics of the patient's body, an individual treatment regimen is developed by the attending physician. Only a specialist knows exactly how to treat a Trichomonas infection.

The main therapeutic goals are elimination of the pathogen, relief of the inflammatory process, prevention of the development of complex consequences.

Treatment of colpitis is outpatient, in case of serious complications, stationary conditions are needed.

The disease is treated with anti-trichomonas of general effect, used orally (Trichopol, Fazizin, Trichomonacid) and local, in the form of ointments, emulsions, irrigation solutions (Furazolidone, Gramicidin).

Antibiotic therapy is prescribed in accordance with the results of bacteriological seeding, which shows the sensitivity of the microbe to a particular drug. The most effective in the fight against trichomonads is the group of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NIMZ). These include Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Ornidazole and others.

Simultaneously with the pills used anti-inflammatory candles Hexicon, Neo-penotran.

For washing the vagina, genitalia are prescribed local antiseptics (Miramistin, Chlorhexidine, Dioxidin).

Chronic trichomonas colpitis requires an increase in immunity (Immunal, Echinacea extract).

After the course of anti-trichomonadic, antibacterial agents, it is necessary to restore the microflora. To do this, use candles Vaginorm, Bifidumbakterin, drops Hilak Forte.

Prescriptions for traditional medicine can be used in parallel with the main drug therapy on the recommendation of the attending physician.

A pregnant woman is shown inpatient treatment of pathology under strict medical supervision. Antitrichomonas drugs are strictly prohibited for use. Antibiotic therapy. The group of macrolides is considered the safest during this period - in the first trimester, Josamycin and later Azithromycin can be used. From the second trimester, Terzhinan vaginal tablets are prescribed.

Irrigation of the vagina is carried out by antiseptics - up to 12 obstetric weeks Betadine, then Miramistin. Also, with the permission of the doctor, you can wash off with a decoction of chamomile, mint, calendula.

Rules for successful therapy:

  • mandatory treatment of all partners at the same time,
  • full sexual peace
  • lean diet,
  • complete elimination of alcoholic beverages (beer too),
  • unquestioning fulfillment of all the doctor’s instructions,
  • strict adherence to medication.

If patients fulfill all the rules, then there will be a complete cure. The course of therapy, depending on the stage, ranges from 1 to 4 weeks.

The criterion for cure are negative test results over three menstrual cycles.

Diagnosis of trichomonas colpitis

The doctor puts the preliminary diagnosis during the physical examination. To confirm it, take swabs from the vagina (sometimes also from the rectum). The pathogen is detected using one of the laboratory tests:

  • PCR,
  • bacteriological seeding,
  • method of cytology.

According to the testimony of a gynecologist can refer a woman to a dermatovenerologist and urologist.

Causes of Trichomonas colpitis

In Trichomonas colpitis there is only one reason - the invasion of the vaginal mucosa of the infectious agent after sexual contact with a sick partner, or with a carrier partner.

Also Trichomonas colpit has a single provocative factor - unprotected sex with “unreliable” partners. Statistics say that such connections increase the chance of getting trichomonas infection four times.

Out-of-sex infection is rare. As a rule, this is possible in little girls when in contact with infected linen or washcloth or in newborns from sick mothers.

Trichomonas retain viability only in the conditions of the human body, outside of it they quickly (within 2-3 hours) die, because they need a temperature of 37 ° C and high humidity to maintain vital functions. Some strains may exist asymptomatically in the human body (carrier), but cause illness in a partner in the case of sexual transmission.

After being introduced into the vaginal epithelium, trichomonads synthesize a toxin, detrimental to the surrounding tissues and allowing the infection to overcome the resistance of local immunity. The stronger the mucous membranes resist the spread of infection, the brighter the clinic vaginitis. Accordingly, if the immune defense is weak, Trichomonas colpitis can proceed like subacute inflammation.

One of the most unique features of Trichomonas, distinguishing them from other infectious agents, is the ability to "absorb" many opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms. As a monoinfection, trichomonas colpitis occurs only in 10.5% of the cases. Trichomonas vaginalis can turn into a kind of reservoir for ureaplasma, chlamydia, staphylococci, gardnerellas, gonococci, fungi, and other microbes. Therefore, most often the cause of Trichomonas colpitis, especially chronic, is a mixed infection with the leading role of Trichomonas.

Symptoms and signs of Trichomonas colpitis

The first symptoms of infection of the mucous membranes of the vagina appear 3–5 days after infection, that is, after sexual contact with a sick partner or carrier partner. Recently, an increase in this period of up to two weeks has sometimes been observed, which may be due to the intake of antibacterial drugs or a distortion of the immune response to the infection.

Acute trichomonas colpitis has a specific symptom indicating the cause of inflammation already at the stage of initial examination - extremely abundant whitening of the characteristic “foamy” type with a very unpleasant odor. The appearance of the secretions is determined by pathogenic microorganisms, in addition to the trichomonads involved in the inflammatory process. Monoinfection gives white a yellowish shade, if other pathogens are present in the vaginal discharge, it becomes greenish. Perhaps the appearance of blood impurities in the composition of the vaginal discharge, which is explained by inflammatory damage to small blood vessels.

Produced by trichomonad toxins strongly irritate the mucous membranes of the vagina and vulva, so the inflammation is accompanied by a feeling of itching, burning and discomfort. Severe swelling of mucosal infections caused by infection causes pain in intimate intimacy.

Trichomonas colpitis is a multifocal pathology. Trichomonas vaginalis has the ability to move independently. On its surface there are special formations - flagella, capable of waving "tremble" and to ensure the movement of the microorganism. This feature of the structure ensures the rapid spread of infection in the urogenital tract, provoking inflammatory changes in any of its departments.

When involved in the inflammatory process of the urethra and bladder, the patient appears painful, frequent urination. Other consequences of Trichomonas colpitis, associated with the migration of the pathogen beyond the vagina, are manifested by the clinic of cervicitis, endometritis, salpingoophoritis.

Diagnosis of trichomonas colpitis begins with clarifying the patient's complaints and pelvic exam. On examination, signs of acute inflammation are clearly visualized in the vagina: the mucous membranes are swollen, loose, sharply hyperemic, and may bleed slightly when in contact with the instruments. On the walls, and especially in the arches of the vagina, there is a significant amount of viscous, foamy yellow-green discharge with a sharp unpleasant odor. In severe acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the vagina, sometimes point hemorrhages (hemorrhages) are sometimes seen. Also, they can sometimes be seen on the surface of the cervix, which becomes similar to strawberries. "Strawberry" cervix as a visual characteristic of Trichomonas colpitis appears only in the case of extremely severe acute inflammation of the mucous membranes.

Chronic trichomonas colpitis is characterized by mild symptoms. A small amount of whiter does not cause significant irritation of the vagina and vulva, so there are either no subjective symptoms or they are mild. This form of trichomonas infection is the most unfavorable in terms of the development of complications and transmission of the pathogen to sexual partners.

For the laboratory diagnosis of Trichomonas colpitis used vaginal discharge, urethra and cervical canal.

Chronic trichomonas colpitis requires a more thorough diagnosis, since it is necessary to identify not only monoinfection, but also to determine the composition of the entire microbial association that causes the disease. An additional laboratory search is carried out using back-up, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), PCR - diagnostics.

A colposcopic examination helps assess the condition of the mucous membranes and cervix in any period of the disease.

Trichomonas colp during pregnancy can cause serious consequences. Having a high penetrating ability, the infection can get into the surrounding structures of the fetus and provoke their inflammation. There is evidence of the relationship of trichomonas infection with premature birth, late discharge of water, low birth weight, but there is no reliable evidence of direct infection of the fetus.