Cervical canal: what it is, the role and function in the body


Pregnancy is the most exciting and important period in the life of any woman. At this time, the work of all organs and systems of the body is aimed at preserving the life of the unborn child. The cervical canal is no exception. What it is? This is one of the most important departments of the internal genital organs of the woman, which connects the vagina and uterine cavity. During childbirth, the cervical canal (the photo is presented below) opens and forms, together with the vagina and uterus, a single birth canal.

Cervical canal - what is it and what are its functions?

The main function of the channel is to protect against infection and ensure the penetration of sperm into the uterus during ovulation.

The uterus is completely sterile. This is possible due to the mucous membrane of the channel, in which a large number of cells that produce mucus is formed. Its chemical and physical properties are directly affected by the level of female sex hormones. At the beginning of the menstrual cycle, as well as at the end, the mucus has a more viscous consistency and has an acidic environment. Viscous mucus acts as a cork and closes the cervical canal of the uterus. In an acidic environment, as it is known, microbes die, and spermatozoa lose mobility and become incapable of fertilization. Due to the acidic environment, infection cannot penetrate the uterine cavity. In the middle of the cycle, the level of estrogen (female sex hormones) is maximum, due to this, the mucus becomes thinner and acquires an alkaline environment. It is during these few days that the sperm have the opportunity to fertilize a mature egg.

Congenital abnormalities

Improper organ formation can trigger various abnormalities:

Formation of the second cervical canal. This anomaly is observed when, during development, all internal genitals double: two uteri with appendages, two cervix and two cervical canals. There can be one vagina, although development of the second is also possible. This pathology may not interfere with normal pregnancy and normal delivery. Surgical intervention is required if this anomaly is the cause of infertility.

Atresia or fusion of the cervical canal. In this pathology, the functional connection between the organs is broken, the vagina is not communicated in any way with the uterine cavity. For this reason, during menstruation, blood will collect in the uterus, this can lead to peritonitis (inflammation in the abdominal cavity) or rupture of the fallopian tubes or uterus. Also, with such an anomaly, spermatozoa cannot enter the uterine cavity, which can provoke sterility. In this situation, surgical intervention is inevitable.

Cervical canal - what effect does a pregnancy have on it?

With the onset of pregnancy, the cervical canal (what it is, already discussed above) changes color from pale pink to bluish. It is this feature allows the doctor to diagnose pregnancy in the early stages. After conception, the hormone progesterone begins to be produced in the ovaries, due to which mucus in the cervical canal becomes even thicker and stronger. Thanks to the mucous plug that closes the canal, the future baby is reliably protected from the penetration of pathogenic microbes. The cork departs shortly before delivery, in some women in two weeks, in others - in two or three hours. A woman may observe yellowish or clear mucus, sometimes with streaks of blood. Before the onset of labor, the diameter of the cervical canal expands to 10 cm.

From this article you learned about such an important part of the cervix as the cervical canal: what it is and its main functions in the female body.

Cervical canal: 6 signs of polyps

Vagina is connected to the uterus with the help of the cervical canal. Pregnancy is an exciting stage in the life of every woman. When a woman gives birth, the cervical, cerebral canal is opened, and the VMP is closed, together with the vagina and the uterus is formed of a single birth canal, the child can freely pass through the birth canal. During this period, all organs and systems work for the good of the future baby. Not an exception and the cervical canal.

Functions and what is this cervical canal

The main function of the channel is to create protection against pathogenic microbes and to ensure the passage of spermatozoa into the uterine cavity when ovulation occurs. The uterine cavity is completely sterile. This happens because there is a special mucus on the mucous canal. Its quality is affected by the level of female sex hormones. At the beginning of menstruation, as well as at the end, mucus has the thickest consistency and an acidic environment. This mucus is a kind of cork that closes the uterus.

In an acidic environment, as is well known:

  • Dangerous microorganisms are dying
  • Sperm can't move normally
  • Fertilization is impossible.

Due to the fact that the medium in the channel is acid uterine, the cavity can not be infected. In the middle of the cycle, the amount of estrogen at the maximum, so the mucus dilutes, and the medium in the channel becomes alkaline. It is during this period that the representative of the weaker sex can become pregnant, the egg cell has matured, spermatozoids can fertilize it.

With the advent of pregnancy, the cervical canal changes shade from pinkish to bluish.

This moment allows the gynecologist to understand that a woman is pregnant. After fertilization of the ovary, the woman’s hormone, progesterone, is secreted in the woman’s body, causing fluid to condense in the cervical canal. Before the onset of delivery, the diameter of the cervical canal becomes approximately 10 cm wide.

Signs of cervical polyps during pregnancy

An internal decidual polyp may adversely affect the course of pregnancy and the possibility of conceiving a child. The fact is that due to the formation of a polyp, the composition of the mucus of the cervix varies.

This pathological condition can cause a polyp to form on the cervical canal.

Sperm cells will not be able to reach the egg because of inflammation in the neck. A polyp in the canal can trigger miscarriage, abortion, or fetal death inside the mother. If the inflammatory process has developed strongly, failure can form (the canal looks like a funnel-shaped, V-shaped). What are the symptoms of a cervical polyp?

Symptoms of cervical canal polyps during pregnancy is heavy bleeding.

Recognize a polyp can be on such grounds:

  • Blood from the vagina at a time when there should be no monthly
  • Very profuse flow of blood during menstruation,
  • Isolation of blood during menopause,
  • Unpleasant smell discharge (evidence of infection),
  • Bleeding after having sex,
  • Pain in the lower abdomen.

Causes of polyp formation - a high level of female sex hormones, general hormonal failure, infection of the genital organs, problems with the immune system. After the polyp is removed, ovarian function may not be often disrupted. Doctors diagnose and prescribe hormone therapy, which happens to be delayed for six months. Usually, scraping goes away without consequences, but nevertheless, doctors recommend treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs for one and a half weeks.

After the removal of the polyp, the woman can still successfully become pregnant, the fertilized egg is ready for fertilization during the period of ovulation. Conception can begin immediately, as the blood discharge will be after the operation. But it would be wiser to first pass the histology, ultrasound (cervicometry) and consult a gynecologist. For the study used obstetric pessary. Studies prescribe and in the event that the uterus is slit-like.

When the cervical canal is closed - what does it mean

During a visit to the gynecologist, some women face the fact that the cervical canal is closed, but they cannot understand what it is and what it means, why this is happening. Therefore, it will be correct to dwell on this issue in more detail. Why is the channel closed? This condition in gynecology is called atresia, which literally means - there is no hole.

With such a pathology there is no communication between the vagina and the main female organ.

Why is the channel closed? Usually, this pathology does not make itself felt for a very long time, despite the fact that it often forms in the womb or in young girls. Only when puberty begins, do parents begin to worry about the fact that the girl's period does not start for a long time. But this does not mean that such young women do not have cyclical changes. In such situations, blood accumulates directly in the uterine cavity, which provokes the development of hematometers. Such a pathological condition is observed when the channel is closed completely. How to treat? Yes, it is necessary to tell about the methods of therapy.

The only way to close is surgery:

  1. If the distance is partially preserved (the channel is ajar), the opening is performed using a bougéing (expansion) of the part that is closed.
  2. With complete closure, a procedure such as recanalization is performed. A new channel is made with a laser. Make a narrow channel wider.
  3. With the diagnosis of recurrent atresia, an implant can be inserted into it, which will not allow re-merging.

The channel will not be closed, on the contrary it will be expanded and this is the norm. Dilatation of the cervical canal may be performed. It is very important to perform the disclosure, as further conception depends on it.

If the cervical canal is expanded, what does it mean

Often, the representatives of the weaker half as a result of the inspection read the information that the channel is enlarged (overly open), but what this means to them is incomprehensible. It will be correct to understand this question. What is the rate of expansion? It should be noted that the norm is considered such a condition of the cervix in which it is open or closed, for a length of more than 3 cm. Usually, it has the same diameter (width) along the entire length. Its length is 4 cm.

The diameter may change before ovulation, when its size is slightly expanded.

For examination of the cervical canal should consult a specialized doctor

It is necessary for the correct penetration into the uterine cavity of sperm and fertilization of the egg. For what reasons can the channel be expanded? Usually, this condition is observed during the development of pathology, which is transmitted sexually. In order to determine the infection, the doctor takes a swab from the vagina and makes an analysis. Separately, it should be said about such a situation, when the channel expands during the carrying of the child. At this time, such a phenomenon can be triggered by the excessive pressure of the child on the organ. Because of this, the development of cervical insufficiency is observed.

Channel correction is performed in 3 ways:

  • Therapy with hormonal drugs,
  • Pessary installation,
  • Surgery.

This pathological condition causes spontaneous miscarriage. When diagnosing it, they monitor the state of not the canal part, but completely the neck over time using ultrasound diagnostics data. Is it possible to narrow the extended channel? Such a need arises only if the woman is in position. Surgery is not often resorted to, only when previously taken measures have been ineffective.

The accepted norm of the length of the cervical canal during pregnancy

What should be the external cervical canal in the period of carrying a child in the norm? The secret (fluid) secreted by the epithelium creates a so-called mucus plug. The purpose of mucus, as already noted above, is to protect the developing fetus from various microbes.

The length of the channel for a woman who has not yet given birth, normally is 40 mm.

A woman who has already given birth or had an abortion, has a different length and width of the channel. However, there is one more important factor - what the outer jaws of the canal look like. If it is pink before conception, then after the onset of pregnancy it becomes a bluish color (cervix gapes). The most important moment is that this part of the cervix does not become inflamed, otherwise its function to hold the fetus and prevent miscarriage may be impaired. How to measure the length of the cervical canal? During the examination, the gynecologist carefully monitors the condition of this area, which closes the female organ during the child's bearing. The length of an important part of the cervix during the gestation period is a long period that remains unchanged.

Just before delivery:

  • The channel becomes short,
  • Pulls up
  • The neck itself becomes soft, so that the child can move freely along the birth canal.

On the eve of the delivery, the cork comes out of the mucus, it is rejected or a couple of weeks before the birth or even 4-5 hours. But even if everything goes without problems, women do not always notice this moment, because the plug of mucus can also disappear when the pregnant woman goes to the toilet. Also, the cork can be torn off for several days, then spotting can be noticed on the bedding.

The cervical canal is closed - what is it?

While undergoing a gynecological examination, some girls are confronted with the fact that the cervical canal closes, but they do not understand what it is and what it means. Let's look at this violation in more detail.

What is cervical atresia?

A similar phenomenon in gynecology is called "atresia of the cervical canal," which literally means the absence of a hole. With this violation, the message between the vagina and the uterus is completely absent.

How is pathology manifested?

As a rule, such a violation does not make itself felt for quite a long time, despite the fact that in most cases it is formed in utero or in girls at an early age.

Only with the onset of puberty, parents begin to be anxious about the relatively long absence of menstrual flow. However, this does not mean that cyclical changes in such girls do not occur. In such situations, there is an accumulation of blood directly in the uterus, which subsequently leads to the development of hematometers. Similar is noted when the cervical canal is closed along its entire length.

How is the treatment carried out?

Having told about the meaning of such a conclusion as “the cervical canal is closed”, it is also necessary to name the methods of treatment of this disorder.

The only method for this pathology is surgery. If the communication between the uterus and the vagina is partially preserved, then close connection of the cervical canal is performed (dilation).

When fully planted, a procedure such as recanalization is performed. She suggests making a new channel with a laser. With the diagnosis of recurrent atresia of the cervical canal, an implant can be inserted into it, which prevents subsequent contact of the walls and their fusion.

There are several situations where the cervical canal can be expanded. In some of them this is the norm, in others it is a violation. Our article will help to understand, we will carefully consider this state.

Hormonal contraceptives are distinguished by a high degree of protection, convenience and ease of use. Then we will talk about oral contraception - about pills, because they are produced under a huge number of trade names, and it is easy for a woman to become confused in such a variety.

Hormonal impairment affects not only the functioning of the organs of the reproductive system, but also the coherence of the body as a whole. Since such a failure is typical for most women, each should know the signs of this problem in order to take action in time.

Breast pain occurs for various reasons, because it is important to distinguish between cyclical pain, which is associated with the female cycle and pathological pain caused by diseases of the mammary gland.

Cervical canal: diseases and treatment

Healthy cervical canal

The cervical canal is considered an important element of the reproductive system.

Many women start thinking about its presence and functions only during the period of pregnancy, when the state of pregnancy depends on its condition. Like any other organ, this canal undergoes various diseases, of which the cervical canal polyp and inflammation of the cervical canal are particularly prominent. In order to ensure women's health and maintain the reproductive system in good condition, all diseases in this organ should be identified in a timely manner and measures should be taken to treat them.

Anatomical and physiological features

From the anatomical point of view, the cervical canal is a spindle-shaped portion of the uterine cervix, connecting the vagina with the uterine cavity through the external and internal openings (throat). Inside this channel is covered with a cylindrical epithelium that is capable of secreting mucus - cervical mucus or hydrogel, which is based on glycoproteins. Длина цервикального канала в нормальном состоянии (у нерожавшей женщины) составляет в среднем 35-45 мм, а диаметр – порядка 6,5-8,5 мм.After delivery, under various influences, as well as under the influence of a number of factors, these parameters may change. The inner and outer sheds create natural constrictions to hold the plug inside the canal, and during pregnancy they also hold the fetus.

The physiological tasks solved by the cervical canal are very important for the functioning of the reproductive system and the protection of the uterine cavity from infection. The most important function is to create a protective mucous plug in the uterine neck, which prevents the penetration of the infection. At the same time, the cork has a porous structure, and the pores tend to expand during the period of ovulation, which ensures uninterrupted passage of spermatozoa and eggs.

The production of mucus in the epithelium is a hormone-dependent process. The amount of the secret and its composition is entirely dependent on the intake of female hormones, i.e. regulated by the pituitary gland of the brain. The composition of mucus varies significantly depending on the stage of the menstrual cycle. At the beginning of the cycle, the secreted composition has a pronounced acidic environment, which is detrimental to most pathogenic microorganisms, which prevents their penetration into the uterine cavity. In addition, during this period, the preserved spermatozoa lose mobility and ability to fertilize.

The picture changes dramatically during ovulation, when estrogen levels increase significantly. The produced mucus acquires an alkaline character and a liquid consistency, which for several days provides free access to the sperm cells to the ova, i.e. It maximally supports the process of fertilization during ovulation. Upon completion of this stage, active production of progesterone begins in the ovaries, which turns cervical mucus into a viscous mass. The resulting plug becomes durable and securely closes the entrance to the uterus, thereby protecting the embryo from any infections.

Cervical Canal Inspection

Features of the channel during pregnancy

The role of the cervical canal increases significantly during pregnancy. The health of the developing fetus and the course of pregnancy largely depends on its condition. From the very beginning of the conception process, the cervical canal provides the task of a reliable locking element. On the cervix there is a ring formed by muscle tissues, which normally allows quite reliably cover the pharynx. It is the narrowing in the area of ​​the throat that keeps the fetus during the entire period of pregnancy and does not allow miscarriage to occur. A high muscle tone is maintained until the birth.

The mucus plug during this period protects the fetus from infection. The stopper leaves shortly before delivery. At the same time, this process is strictly individual in nature and is not an indicator of any violations. Before childbirth, the length of the cervical canal is shortened, and the diameter increases by 25-35 mm, reaching a full opening (about 100 mm) in the period of childbirth. At this point, the uterus and vagina becomes the only way to exit the fetus.

One of the types of dangerous pathology during pregnancy is the expansion of the cervical canal and pharynx. As a result of this phenomenon, an important function is lost - retention of the embryo in the uterine cavity, which poses a real threat to miscarriage. Often, such an anomaly is recorded on the 15-19th week of pregnancy, when there is an active growth of the fetus and its movement. The main causes of pathology:

  • excessive formation of male-type hormones that reduce the muscle tone of the cervix,
  • pregnancy with multiple embryos
  • injuries and abnormal fetal development.

The threat of miscarriage in this case, as a rule, is eliminated by treatment in a hospital. In particular, drug therapy is used to strengthen the tissues of the uterine cervix. Quite often, a reinforcing ring is installed - a pessary, which is subsequently removed before delivery (36-38 weeks). Sometimes applied operational impact, by suturing.

Scraping the cervical canal

Possible congenital abnormalities

Significant problems in terms of reproductive functions in women can occur with congenital malformations of the cervical canal. The practice of gynecology identifies 2 typical areas of congenital abnormalities: the formation of two channels and obstruction or atresia of the canal. In the first case (very rare), a dual reproductive system occurs with duplication of the uterus and its cervix. In this case, a normal pregnancy is possible, but with the development of infertility only surgical treatment is possible.

Atresia of the canal is the absence of communication between the vagina and the uterus, which leads to infertility and the accumulation of menstrual flow in the uterine cavity, up to its rupture. Both atresia and blockage (obstruction) of the canal are considered dangerous pathologies, which are fraught with serious complications. This pathology requires surgical intervention.

Common pathologies

The functions of the cervical canal can disrupt various diseases and processes that develop under the influence of external and internal factors. The following characteristic pathologies can be distinguished:

  1. Diseases of inflammatory nature. The most common representative is endocervicitis - an inflammatory reaction of the mucous membrane of the infectious type. Pathogens can be pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. Most often, the etiological mechanism is based on a sexually transmitted infection (gonorrhea, chlamydia). Bacteria - staphylococcus and streptococcus - can provoke the disease. The exact pathogen is determined by examining the strains for bacposus from the cervical canal and smear microscopy. Treatment is based on the appointment of an antibiotic.
  2. Stenosis of tissues. Channel stenosis is caused by its critical narrowing blocking the passage. Real clearance may decrease so much that reproductive functions are completely impaired. The most common causes of this disease are postoperative complications, injuries, inflammatory processes and the lack of proper treatment of the inflammatory response.
  3. Polyps in the cervical canal. This pathology is quite often found in this localization. Polyps are a benign formation that very rarely cause oncology. However, their presence causes obstruction of the canal and often causes infertility. The only treatment is surgical removal of a cervical polyp. At the same time, when a polyp of the cervical canal is treated (removal), the reviews come in large numbers with a positive assessment of the effectiveness of the method. It should be borne in mind that, in addition to the true polyp, pregnant women sometimes have a false formation, the so-called decidual polyp. This temporary formation, caused by a sharp hormonal imbalance, does not require special treatment, and disappears by itself when the hormonal background is normalized.
  4. Cervical tumors. In addition to polyps, other tumor masses can form in the cervical canal: fibroids, fibroids, hemangiomas, fibroids, leiomyomas. They also have a benign character. Symptoms of such formations can be the following manifestations: bleeding, urinary problems, bowel problems, pain syndrome. The degree of manifestation depends on the growth of the tumor and the degree of channel overlap. Treatment - surgery. In addition to benign tumors, adenocarcinoma may be associated with cancer. This disease has a high degree of aggressiveness.
  5. Cyst. Cystic lesion of the cervical canal (Nabot's cyst) refers to benign neoplasms. Its etiology is associated with blockage of the iron ducts, resulting in the formation of isolated cavities filled with mucous secretion.

The study of the content of leukocytes

One of the informative methods for diagnosing the disease is the examination of smears of cervical mucus on the content of leukocytes in it. When leukocytes are detected in the cervical canal, the rate is about 10-12 pieces in a smear. Increased leukocyte levels indicate the development of an inflammatory response. In this case, an active inflammatory process can cause an increase in their number to 120 units. The greatest number is found in sexually transmitted infections. It should, however, be borne in mind that a certain increase in their level is recorded during pregnancy.

A decrease in the number of leukocytes below the norm also cannot be considered a normal phenomenon, since it indicates a decrease in security and vaginal atrophy. In elderly women, the level of leukocytes in a smear can be reduced to almost 0.

What is the cervical canal

The cervical canal is the link of the female reproductive system, which is located in front of the cervix. Speaking in detail, this part of the female body begins after the internal uterine level, and ends at the beginning of the cervix, which in turn passes into the external uterine level and into the vagina.

The cervical canal is growing gradually. He begins his development from the very birth of a girl, and ends after her puberty.

The location of the cervical canal allows you to control childbirth at the very beginning. Thanks to this structure, the uterus can open correctly and gradually. The cervical canal is covered with a tissue that secretes mucus. She plays a crucial role during pregnancy.

Such a component, as the cervical canal performs several important functions. They allow you to make the conception of a child.

Cervical canal function:

  • Through the cervical canal during menstruation, blood passes from an unfertilized egg,
  • The cervical canal is a true "sperm pipeline",
  • In this section of the female body, sperm cells interact with the female secretion, which starts reproductive processes and allows the sperm to fertilize an egg.
  • At conception, the cervical canal changes its shade from whitish-pink to bluish, allowing the gynecologist to determine the success of conception.

However, sometimes the cervical canal ceases to perform its functions, and conception becomes problematic. Usually, this is due to various pathologies and diseases of the cervical canal. There are a lot of them, but we will give you a list of the most common.

Cervical Canal Disease:

  • Narrow and wide cervical canal,
  • Cervical canal occlusion or cervical occlusion,
  • Polyp, cancer and myoma of the cervical canal,
  • Fetal egg in the uterine canal,
  • Elongation and shortening of the cervical canal,
  • Cervical insufficiency.

This is not all the pathologies of the cervical canal, which are currently studied. They may develop due to infection, be congenital or appear as a result of injury. Any of these ailments often means infertility for women.

Cervical fluid

Cervical fluid is very similar to gel. It is she who is largely responsible for the success of conception. This substance consists of a number of proteins and carbohydrates.

Interestingly, after the first pregnancy, the cervical canal remains slightly ajar. That is why mothers of two children claim that the second birth is more easily tolerated than the first.

Cervical fluid constantly moves epithelial villi. It can flow towards the uterus or vagina. This process depends on its viscosity, which is controlled by hormones. This process is the basis for calculating the best days for conception.

Properties of cervical fluid on different days of the menstrual cycle:

  1. After the period passes, there is no mucus in the canal, and it remains dry. At this stage, the success of conception is unlikely.
  2. After four days, after the end of menstruation, sticky mucus appears in the cervical canal. At this time, conception can turn out, but it happens very rarely.
  3. On day 8, the mucus acquires the texture of a light cream. At the same time its color becomes whitish or yellowish. The probability of conception at this point is quite high.
  4. On day 12, the mucus becomes like a snot. At this point, the conception of a child will happen for sure, provided that women and men do not have infertility.
  5. On day 19, the mucus is thick and viscous. Usually it doesn't even stand out. At this time, conception is again unlikely.

So, to get pregnant with a woman is not so much time. However, this is subject to a healthy cervical canal.

Symptoms of narrowing the cervical canal

Sometimes, a woman is diagnosed with stenosis. This problem threatens with sterility. Indeed, in this case, the sperm will not be able to get into the uterus and fertilize the egg.

During pregnancy, the mucus of the cervical canal hardens and turns into a cork. Cork closes the cervix, not allowing the child to fall out of the womb.

Stenosis occurs when a narrowing of the uterine canal is diagnosed, or when it is completely closed. However, such a problem does not mean that you will never have a child. Early treatment will help to deal with this problem.

Symptoms that the slit-like cervical canal has:

  • During menstruation there are severe pains.
  • When there is no menstruation, painful cramps periodically appear,
  • Soreness after or urination,
  • Blood does not flow during menstruation, but accumulates in the cervical canal,
  • Monthly accumulate in the uterus, which causes the hematoma,
  • Unreasonable nausea and vomiting may occur,
  • Semi-fainting or fainting
  • All properties of the intestine and urea change.

With this disease, all the symptoms need not be present. In the early stages of the disease, you can only experience severe pain during menstruation. There are reasons for narrowing the cervical canal. They are studied in sufficient detail, and therefore no doubt.

Causes of cervical canal narrowing:

  • Abortion,
  • Side effect after using certain medications,
  • Cervical cancer,
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Trauma, as a result of exposure to silver nitrates or electrocoagulation,
  • Various medical interventions in the uterus, for example, scraping.

This is not all the causes of the disease, when the uterus is closed. But in most cases the cervical canal is narrowed precisely because of them.

What if a narrow cervical canal

The first step is a detailed examination using ultrasound and MRI. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctor prescribes a treatment that should widen the passage and solve the problem of infertility.

Treatment of cervical canal narrowing:

  1. Bougienage is performed by a special bougie with different nozzles. The instrument is inserted into the cervix under general anesthesia. After the procedure, a woman is prescribed a number of antibacterial drugs to avoid the occurrence of inflammation. When a disease recurs, the procedure is repeated.
  2. If, after several procedures of dilation, the cervical canal is again narrowed, then laser recanalization is applied. In this procedure, the fused layers of the channel are evaporated. However, this treatment is not suitable for those who have blood diseases and tumors in the uterus.
  3. If none of the methods is effective, an implant is inserted into the uterus, which expands the cervical canal.

Such procedures are performed under general anesthesia. They are quite painful, but effective.

Cervical canal during pregnancy: expansion

Dilatation or expansion of the cervical canal is a very terrible pathology. At the same time, it is necessary to fear it before and after conception. If such a diagnosis is made when the woman is not pregnant, then this may indicate a disease of the uterus. In this case, the doctor prescribes several tests.

What is suspected when opening the cervical canal:

  • Uterine fibroids,
  • Ovarian cyst
  • Endometriosis,
  • Adenomyosis
  • Cervical chronic type.

The cervical canal also expands when smoking and taking medications with harmonies. Also, such an accident can happen for natural reasons, before menstruation. During pregnancy, such a deviation is especially dangerous. Most of all, cervical dilatation is undesirable in the early stages.

However, towards the end of the second trimester, the cervical canal under the weight of the fetus may increase in size. That is why multiparous women need to be especially attentive to their condition.

Interestingly, often this disease affects girls who expect a boy. The production of estrogen hormones affect the uterus.

How to behave if the cervical canal is ajar

There are several ways to treat cervical enlargement. It is necessary to analyze in detail each of them in order to determine the effectiveness of each.

Uterus enlargement treatment:

  1. The first option is drug treatment. In this case, all actions of the doctor will be aimed at eliminating the uterus tone and relieving the symptoms of the disease.
  2. Surgical technique involves suturing the cervical canal. It is done under general anesthesia, and the stitches are removed only after one month after the birth of the child.
  3. It is also possible to insert a special ring. It ensures that the cervical canal is open.

These methods are used during pregnancy. Usually, all actions take place under anesthesia, so as not to experience pain.


Цервикальным каналом называется внутренний участок шейки матки, который объединяет полость детородного органа и влагалище. В медицине его принято называть зевом, так как он представляет собой отверстие. During menstruation, menstrual blood is brought out through the pharynx into the vagina, and in the process of unprotected sexual intercourse, the male sex cells penetrate into it - the spermatozoa.

The diameter of the outer and inner throat, located in the cervical canal, averages 2-3 mm. During a gynecological examination, the external pharynx of a nonparturiating woman looks like a point. After childbirth and abortion, the pharynx has the appearance of a specific slit.

The length of the cervical canal is approximately 4 cm for women who have not given birth and 7-8 cm for those who have a history of birth or abortion. The mucous membrane lining the walls of the cervix of the cervix is ​​called endocervix.

How does the cervical canal change during pregnancy

When pregnancy occurs, the cervical canal acquires a characteristic bluish tint instead of the usual pink. Often it is for this feature that the doctor determines that the woman is in position.

After conception, a dense mucus plug forms inside the cervical canal, which for the next 9 months becomes a protection for the baby. Mucus is actively produced by endocervix. Cork becomes a reliable barrier to pathogenic bacteria and viruses that threaten from the outside.

Shortly before the onset of labor, the stopper moves away, thereby freeing up the birth canal. This event can occur both 2 hours before delivery, and 2 weeks - it is difficult to predict exact dates. The stopper has the appearance of a yellow or clear mucus with streaks of blood. Not all women notice her discharge, as more often she leaves the womb of the expectant mother in parts, in the form of small mucous secretions. Read more about how the mucus plug disappears during pregnancy →

The rate of the cervical canal during gestation

Normally, the external pharynx of the cervical canal and the cervix itself during pregnancy are closed in a tight ring. This allows the woman's body to hold the fetus inside the uterus throughout the gestation period.

When the female body begins to prepare for childbirth, there is a gradual softening and smoothing of the cervix, aimed at facilitating the passage of the baby through the birth canal. At the same time, the expansion of the cervical canal begins, which during pregnancy remained tightly closed. With the onset of contractions, the cervical canal opens gradually from 1-2 to 10 cm. Read more about how the cervix opens before childbirth →

Depending on the degree of opening of the cervical canal, doctors determine the estimated time of delivery and the anatomical readiness of a woman for them. When the width of the cervical canal reaches 10 cm, a single birth canal is formed, consisting of the uterus, cervical canal and vagina.

If the cervical canal is enlarged

Ultrasound of the cervical canal during pregnancy may find that it expands ahead of time. Sometimes pathology is found during a routine visit to the antenatal clinic.

During the examination on the chair, the gynecologist may notice that the pregnant woman has a slit-shaped cervical canal and the opening has begun (the cervix passes the doctor's finger). This means that preterm labor can begin at any time. Usually this situation occurs after the 20th week.

Why does this condition occur? Firstly, the reason may be hormonal imbalance - the presence in the body of an increased level of male sex hormones that stimulate cervical ripening.

Secondly, we can talk about a multiple pregnancy, and therefore serious pressure is created on the neck of the reproductive organ. Thirdly, injuries and pathologies of the development of the cervical canal itself can be causes.

If you do not see a doctor, pregnancy can be lost. The treatment is carried out in the hospital. When providing timely assistance, the prognosis for gestation before the term remains favorable.

The main function of the cervical canal is the preservation of pregnancy. If for some reason the body does not cope with the goal, pathologies may arise that threaten the expectant mother with premature onset of labor.

Cervical insufficiency

If the cervix of the cervix is ​​enlarged, and there is still a lot of time before the expected birth, we are talking about cervical insufficiency. In this case, the reproductive organ cannot perform the functions assigned to it and retain the fetus. With such a diagnosis, many women face at 18-20 weeks of pregnancy, at this time the child begins to gain weight intensively.

Normally, the length of the cervical canal during pregnancy at a period of 20 weeks is 5-7 cm, and the diameter is not more than 6 mm. If these indicators do not meet normal criteria, for example, the cervical canal is shortened to 2-3 cm, the doctor puts the threat of miscarriage or premature birth. More about the length of the cervix weekly →

The causes of pathology are hormonal disorders, multiple pregnancy, anomalies of the cervical canal. To prevent miscarriage, the woman is prescribed medications to strengthen the cervix, and an obstetric pessary is installed. If these methods are ineffective, the doctor places surgical sutures around the cervical canal. Suture removal is practiced before the onset of labor.

Polyp pharynx

Polyp of the cervical canal during pregnancy, found during the examination, may scare the expectant mother. But first it is necessary to find out the nature of the disease in order to find out which polyp is being spoken - true or decidual. For this, the gynecologist assigns colposcopy to the expectant mother, as well as histological and cytological examinations.

The decidual polyp is, in fact, a pseudo-polyp or polypoid formation that appears solely against the background of pregnancy and disappears on its own after childbirth.

The decidual pseudopolype is the result of a hormonal imbalance in the body. It does not require surgical removal, they try not to touch it at all, only antiseptic treatment is possible. Psevdopolip itself disappears after the birth of a child or begins the reverse process of development in the first days after birth.

The true polyp of the cervical canal during pregnancy is less common. Usually such pathology appears even before the onset of conception, and it actively interferes with it. If a woman wants to get pregnant, surgical removal of a true polyp is recommended, as well as the necessary course of drug treatment. Only then can you plan a child.

But sometimes a true polyp of the cervical canal develops after conception, already during pregnancy. In this case, try not to touch him, waiting for the birth of the baby. At the same time, throughout the entire period, any changes in education are carefully monitored to prevent complications.

Only in serious situations such a polyp can be removed against the background of carrying a child. This is possible provided that a woman’s life is in danger.


This diagnosis means that there is inflammation in the cervical canal caused by infections. The disease is diagnosed during the examination, while the doctor takes a smear from the cervical canal and sends it to the laboratory.

Depending on the type of pathogen, a specialist selects the necessary course of treatment. In future mothers, it is preferable to use local drugs - vaginal suppositories or capsules that have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Medicines are selected based on the duration and type of infectious disease. To prevent infection of the fetus to treat endocervicitis necessarily.

The concept of the cervical canal and its role in the female body

The outer throat, like the inner one, has a diameter of not more than 2-3 mm, it reaches 40 mm in length. In a woman who has no children, the hole has the shape of a dot, after delivery or abortion, the throat becomes slit-like and extends to 70-80 mm. The walls of the pharynx are lined with mucous layer - endocervix, which performs the following functions:

  • Formation of the barrier. The mucus in the passage of the cervix is ​​an obstacle to pathogenic microflora. Thanks to this fluid mucous membrane viruses and bacteria do not penetrate into the uterus.
  • Removal of uterine secretions. During menstruation, as well as after the birth of the baby, blood, mucus and afterbirth are removed through the cervical enlargement.
  • Creation of conditions for the penetration of sperm in the period of ovulation. Under the action of hormones, the acidity of the cervix mucous membrane changes, its expansion occurs. Thanks to these temporary changes, the male cells are able to reach the goal.
  • Participation in the generic process. With the expansion of the cervical canal at the time of birth, the baby gets the opportunity to safely leave the uterus. Full disclosure of the cervix can be seen in the photo.

How does endocervix change while carrying a child?

After fertilization and throughout pregnancy, the shade of the structures of the cervix changes, it becomes bluish. Changes occur inside the cervix as well, since the moment of conception a plug of mucus begins to form, which is intended to protect the embryo and fetus from the external environment. Mucus is produced by endocervix.

The width of the cervical lumen in women is 7-8 mm, regardless of the presence of pregnancy. However, in future mothers form of the throat can have distinctive features. The form is also influenced by the number of births, the health of the hormonal system, diseases of the reproductive organs.

When a woman wants to make sure that the pregnancy has come, she turns to a gynecologist, who first examines her, and then sends her to an ultrasound. This method allows you to see the embryo attached to the wall of the uterus, its size. In addition, using an ultrasound examiner, the specialist evaluates the parameters and condition of the cervix to identify possible risks of miscarriage or premature birth.

In normal position, the ends of the throat should be tightly closed. The length of the cervical canal during pregnancy is within 35-40 mm. About the imminent onset of labor, an obstetrician can also judge by the condition of the throat.

Norms of the length and width of the cervical canal at different stages of pregnancy

In the early stages of pregnancy, the length of the cervix, like that of the canal, does not differ from the same parameter in an ordinary woman. Changes become noticeable from 16 weeks. So, by the 19th week of carrying a baby, the length of the neck can reach 39 mm, at 21 weeks the length increases to 40 mm. The maximum length of the cervical canal is observed by a period of 29 weeks.

Then, the reverse process gradually takes place, and the lumen decreases slightly until approximately 32 weeks. For a period of 30-33 weeks, its normal value is from 30 to 33 mm. From 33 to 36 weeks of pregnancy, the cervix is ​​lengthened again. The range of normal lengths on this period is 33-36 mm.

Then, until the end of gestation, the length of the cervix will decrease. This means that the body is preparing for the appearance of the baby. The closed ends of the throat open, there is a softening of the cervix tissue. Before the birth of a child, the pharynx opens to a certain extent, and the baby gets the opportunity to go through the birth canal.

To ensure that delivery does not occur prematurely, gynecologists often perform cervical examination. Of particular importance data on its length are in the period preceding childbirth.

Diagnostic methods

In identifying pathologies of the cervical canal, an examination of the cervix is ​​performed, this examination is performed in a comprehensive manner, which allows a differentiated approach to diagnosis and the choice of the optimal list of therapeutic measures. A visual inspection with the help of mirrors allows the obstetrician to see the external pharynx. As a rule, if the presence of polyps is fixed in the vaginal area, then they are also present in the cervical cavity.

During the examination, the doctor takes smears from the patient in order to assess the presence of pathological bacterial microflora and to identify existing diseases, among which are often found:

  • inflammatory processes
  • benign changes in the mucous membrane,
  • slight metaplasia of the cervix, if the altered cells are present only in the surface layer of the epithelium,
  • moderate degree of metaplasia with deeper penetration into the epithelial layer of dysprastic formations,
  • deep metaplasia in the defeat of the epithelial cover without the penetration of cells into the basement membrane,
  • precancerous conditions
  • malignant tumors.

During pregnancy, expectant mothers are diagnosed several times with ultrasound. A feature of ultrasound examination of pregnant women is cervicometry. The specialist measures the thickness and length of the cervix. When abnormality is detected, the midwife decides which state correction methods to use.

Possible abnormalities and their causes

The cervical canal of the cervix is ​​one of the objects of close observation by gynecologists when working with pregnant women. This is explained by the fact that not only the birth of the baby depends on his condition, but also the ability to bear the child, because Violations of the cervical canal are often factors that cause miscarriages and premature labor.

The most common pathology channel:

  • endocervicitis,
  • pathological lumen narrowing,
  • cyst,
  • tumors,
  • cervical insufficiency,
  • expansion of the internal os, which should be closed.

Endocervix dilation

If the cervical canal is expanded in a patient who is not carrying a baby, then she needs to be examined to detect diseases of the uterus. The causes of the expansion of the cervical canal are often such pathological conditions as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, cystic lesions of the ovaries, chronic cervicitis, adenomyosis. Cervix lumen can be expanded due to hormonal drugs and smoking.

Closed channel

When the doctor determines that the cervical canal is closed during diagnosis, he may assume that the lumen of the cervix is ​​closed. In this case, the conception of a child is almost impossible, since the narrow lumen completely closes the path to the egg cell to the sperm.

Channel congestion can be either complete or partial. The reasons are:

  • surgery with curettage of the uterus,
  • non-professional treatment of cervical erosion,
  • the presence of polyps
  • oncologic neoplasms,
  • diseases of the mucous membrane of the channel.

Signs of congestion of the cervical canal:

  • too little discharge during menstruation,
  • soreness during menstrual bleeding,
  • groin pain,
  • heaviness in the vagina
  • pain in the bladder.

Pathological processes in the female body

The functions of the cervical canal may be impaired for other reasons. The state of the channel is influenced by both external and internal factors. Common cervical disease:

  1. Inflammatory processes. The mucous membrane of the canal is inflamed due to the penetration of sexually transmitted infections, and a disease such as endocervicitis occurs. It can occur under the influence of fungi, viruses or bacterial microorganisms.
  2. Polyps. These formations are benign, but often cause female infertility. In future moms, a false decidual polyp is sometimes diagnosed. Its appearance is the result of a hormonal abnormality. When the hormone balance is normalized, such a polyp passes by itself.
  3. Cervical tumor formations: fibromyoma, hemangioma, myoma, fibroma. These benign tumors are treated by surgery.

What to do when violations are detected?

If violations of the shape or size of the cervical canal are detected, the gynecologist, after the examination, should refer the patient for additional examinations. A woman should be tested for genital infections, diseases of the urinary system, a smear for the definition of malignant tumors in the early stages of their development. In addition, colposcopy and biopsy are performed.

If during the examination the doctor finds any formations in the cervical cavity, he will be curetting the mucous layer of the cervical canal in the area where the tumor is found. Next, the resulting cells from the cervix will undergo a thorough histological examination, which will allow to make a conclusion about the nature of education and its danger to the health of the patient.

Preventive measures

In preparation for conceiving a child, a thorough examination should be carried out in order to identify existing violations and take measures to eliminate them. This will make it possible to avoid complications during pregnancy and carry out a healthy baby.

The future mother should constantly monitor the hygiene of the intimate area, not to neglect the scrubbing and timely change underwear. Doctors advise pregnant women to avoid douching for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes, because This method negatively affects the cervical canal, increasing the risk of injury and infection.