Every woman of reproductive age receives menstruation every month. It is “released” from menstruation only during pregnancy, if there are no deviations and the threat of miscarriage, and during breastfeeding for some time.
Normally, each menstrual cycle begins with menstruation, when there is blood discharge. They include a detached endometrial layer, cervical mucus and a vaginal secretion.
Critical days last 3-5 days, and the normal amount of discharge is about 50 ml per day. But sometimes the structure of the discharge varies greatly and there are brown discharge instead of menstruation. What caused this?
Causes of violations
When, instead of menstruation, a woman finds dark brown, even black discharge on a pad, the question arises: is it normal? Especially if there are no monthly periods, only daub.
Consider the most common reasons when there are brown discharge instead of monthly:
- Woman's age
- Surgical interventions
- Lactation period
- Ectopic pregnancy.
Also, external factors can influence the profusion of menstrual flow and their color, such as:
- Climate change
- Improper nutrition
- Exhausting diets
- Lifestyle change
- Oral contraceptives,
- Excessive physical activity
- Nervous stress
- Infectious diseases,
- Metabolic disease.
In each case, daubing instead of menstruation is caused by at least one of the above factors.
If a young girl has a dark brown discharge instead of menstruation during the formation of the menstrual cycle, you should not worry. Within a year since the first menstruation appeared, this phenomenon is observed in many and is considered the norm.
At the age of 45, a scanty brown discharge may portend the extinction of ovarian function, which is the norm during the premenopausal period. Recently, doctors are increasingly stating a fact: for many, a woman has a climax by the age of 37-40.
At reproductive age, scanty brown discharge instead of menstruation can be a disturbing signal of a sexual disorder. Also bleeding instead of menstruation can talk about pregnancy. If the test is negative, it is possible that the period is too small and the test will not show two strips, but the brown daub indicates a threat of miscarriage.
After childbirth, for two weeks, the woman goes to postpartum discharge - lochia. They are also brown and may be clotted. When breastfeeding, menstruation should not be, if the child eats only mother's milk without complementary foods.
After some time, the menstrual cycle is restored and the spotting brown discharge at the first stage of the recovery cycle should not alarm the woman. If there were unprotected intercourse, you should make sure that the test is negative. Ovulation occurs before the first menstruation after childbirth and it is quite possible that a woman is pregnant. If conception has not been confirmed, and a few scanty discharges continue in a row, consult a doctor.
Also, brown daub can be under other circumstances and be considered quite normal, and not only after childbirth.
For example, black clots instead of menstruation may be after:
This is a kind of self-cleaning of the body from surplus after surgery. Allocations can be black and within 10 days. If the discharge is red and has an unpleasant smell, this indicates an infection and it is not worth delaying a visit to the gynecologist.
Ointment instead of menstruation can be caused by severe stress or toxication in case of poisoning.
If the test shows only one strip, you should not be reassured that everything is in order. With an ectopic pregnancy, the test can also be negative, so do not hesitate and you need to visit a gynecologist. The body reacts to an ectopic pregnancy, producing the hormones it needs. But the fertilized egg stuck in the fallopian tube, which has no properties to stretch.
Why then instead of menstruation smears? In fact, it is not menstrual flow. The fetus develops and increases in size, damaging the fallopian tube, which causes black discharge. Ointment can continue not only during the so-called menstruation, but after it.
In addition to scanty discharge, cyclical pains in the lower abdomen are observed during ectopic pregnancy and symptoms of toxicosis can occur. A routine pregnancy test will most often be negative in the early stages. The presence of an ectopic pregnancy is 100% can be checked only with the help of the hCG test. Ectopic pregnancy is life threatening and should be taken very seriously.
Do not be surprised when after menstruation appeared daub, and you just started taking hormonal OK. Before you buy the pill, read the instructions and ask about the side effects, and not just look at the photo on the package. There is nothing interesting, except advertising, no.
From the beginning of hormonal contraceptive use, a dark brown daub goes instead of monthly for 2-3 months. But if spotting lasts longer, visit a doctor. Perhaps these OK do not suit you, and the doctor will advise other contraceptives.
All of the above are not from "your series"? Then just wait a couple of days: before menstruation, brown spotting is the norm. Maybe you just got nervous and you had a delay.
But still, visit a gynecologist-endocrinologist, otherwise the cause of unusual discharge may be inflammation of the uterus, endometriosis, cervitis, and other diseases.
Brown discharge instead of menstruation
Reproductive health is one of the most important issues for any girl. With the advent of menstruation, it becomes easier to control it, since any failure in the operation of this system is manifested either by a violation of the cycle, or by color, smell and the amount of discharge.
What could be the reason for these violations?
It so happens that the girl appears brown discharge instead of menstruation. And naturally, this is a cause for excitement. There can be several reasons for brown menstruation, and it is possible to understand them by comparing some facts.
- For example, brown discharge instead of menstruation may indicate pregnancy, and its possible unfavorable development. This is probably one of the signs of ectopic pregnancy, as well as a symptom of detachment of the ovum from the uterine wall, simply speaking, the threat of miscarriage. Find out whether this is in fact, will help the gynecologist, most likely pre-assigning the woman an ultrasound and analysis of the level of hCG.
- Dark-brown discharge instead of menstruation may indicate the stress of the body. This is what happens if during the past month a girl was a lot nervous, overstrained. Along with this, the answer to the question of why the monthly brown color may be hidden in the girl's lifestyle. Inadequate alcohol consumption, smoking, frequent acute respiratory infections can cause a failure of the ovulation process, which is manifested by a scanty, brownish, menstrual discharge in the middle of the cycle.
- The cause of the brown menstruation can be an airplane flight and acclimatization. This usually does not require special treatment. In this case, in order to restore health, it is recommended to adjust the daily regimen, to rest more, to eat properly and to be less nervous.
- With the problem, when instead of menstruation go brown discharge, those girls face that are protected with hormonal contraceptives. If a woman takes hormonal pills, then such secretions talk about the process of adaptation of the organism to the drug. Such a daub can last for 1-2 months, and then passes. This phenomenon is usually prescribed in instructions for hormonal contraceptives. In the case when a woman is protected with the help of the Mirena, Mirena is replaced by an ordinary menstruation with a scanty brown color, which is considered normal and should not be disturbed.
- Worry is, if the selection of brown instead of monthly appear suddenly in a woman who recently gave birth, underwent an abortion or surgery on the appendages. This may indicate inflammation and possible adherence to infection. In this case, you should immediately consult a doctor.
- There are also situations when hormonal changes become the cause of new secretions. For example, newly born girls who breastfeed a child may note that their periods have become brown and come with clots. Similar symptoms are found in women menopause. In both cases we are talking about hypofunction of the ovaries, about their drying out. But in the case of nursing mothers, this is a temporary phenomenon that passes without a trace with the end of breastfeeding.
In women aged 45-50 years, brown clots instead of menstruation usually signal the withering of their ability to bear children.
What if monthly periods are brown?
For a start, a woman should find out if she is pregnant. It is also worth analyzing the lifestyle and psychological situation, which could undermine health and provoke a failure. The causes of the problem, when instead of menstruation are brown discharge, can be serious diseases of the female reproductive system, such as endometriosis or uterine myoma. Therefore, in any case, it is recommended to consult a gynecologist.
And although today the choice of methods of contraception is large enough, many prefer the natural, though not the most reliable, calendar method. And in order for its effectiveness to be the highest woman, it is necessary to learn how to correctly measure the basal temperature.
With you, too, surely it happened - on the nose of an important event, a vacation or a long-awaited romantic date, and then, as luck would have it, the menstruation must begin! In this case, if you want, you do not want, but you will think about whether it is possible to somehow delay the onset of "these very days."
Few of the women can "make friends" with their menstrual cycle - in fact, often menstruation and strive to interfere with our life plans. So you have to think about how to delay them, move them, or even reduce the duration of the hemorrhage to a minimum.
If you didn’t have time to enjoy the “carefree” gap between the monthly periods, as they have already started on a new one, does this mean that there are some abnormalities in your body and you need to urgently run to the doctor? The answer to this question can not be unambiguous, however, we will try to understand it.
Causes of brown discharge instead of menstruation
Among the most likely causes of such discharge, pregnancy should be called, at the very beginning of which — a few days earlier than the next menstruation should begin, about 5–10th day after conception — on average, 25% of women have brown discharge instead of menstruation. In gynecology, they are called implant bleeding, but it happens once! By the way, for the same reason there are brown discharge instead of menstruation after IVF.
And due to the formation of new blood vessels in the uterine wall, pregnant women sometimes have scanty light-brown discharge instead of menses and nausea.
However, if there is a delay and brown discharge instead of menstruation, as well as if a woman complains that she has a stomach ache and brown discharge instead of menstruation, then pregnancy should be suspected (approximately 3-5 weeks) with obvious signs of partial detachment from the endometrium of the ovum. That is, in fact, it is the forerunner of miscarriage, followed by bleeding. In addition, the onset of pregnancy, accompanied by secretions of this nature, can be ectopic.
Women who give birth know that anything happens in the postpartum period, and if after childbirth instead of menstruation brown discharge, this is normal: it means that the cycle will soon be restored (which happens during breastfeeding).
Symptoms of brown discharge instead of menstruation
The first signs of the entry of a woman in the perimenopause period are manifested by cycle disturbances, when there are scanty dark brown discharge instead of menses. At the same time, as gynecologists note, every third woman after 45-50 years complains of abundant brown discharge instead of menstruation, and the pathogenesis of this condition is associated with age-related extinction of sexual functions and a decrease in the production of hormones by the ovaries.
At a younger age, brown discharge instead of menstruation with a negative pregnancy test can be caused by such factors as: hormonal disorders (lack of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid disease), drastic changes in climatic conditions (when moving to another region), a significant decrease in body mass for a short time. Special risk factors are severe infectious diseases and oncology.
Poor yellow or yellow-brown discharge instead of menstruation with an unpleasant odor, as well as a strong and burning sensation during urination and sexual intercourse are symptoms of infectious inflammation of the vagina during hormonal imbalance (for example, estrogen deficiency in case of ovarian pathologies) or when the mucous membrane of the cervical canal is affected by golden staphylococcus hemolytic streptococcus, mycoplasma, etc.
But long-term brown discharge instead of menstruation (menometrorrhagia with light or rather intensely colored secretions) is caused by erosion, dysplasia or cervical cancer, their appearance may be due to polycystic ovary syndrome. Against the background of a menstrual cycle, such secretions may show endometrial hyperplasia and polyps in the uterus, sarcoma or endometrial adenocarcinoma, and in the presence of bloody clots, endometriosis or fibroids of the uterus.
Complications and consequences
The consequences and complications in the form of these secretions give some antibacterial drugs, but most often - pharmacological agents, having in their composition synthetic analogues of endogenous hormones (estrogen and progesterone).
For example, doctors prescribe Duphaston with didrogesterone for hormone replacement therapy, its side effects include not only skin rashes and itching, but also metrorrhagia (uterine bleeding).
The means of hormonal contraception Triregol (ethinyl estradiol + levonorgestrel) due to the omission of the pill and in cases of discontinuation of use causes bleeding of the uterus or less intense (spotting) bleeding.
So, if after Duphaston, Triregola, there are brown discharges instead of menstruation, know that these are consequences of their use.
Before taking hormonal birth control pills, consult your doctor and carefully read the instructions for the drug. So, often there are bleeding and brown discharge instead of menstruation when taking Jes (with ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone). As indicated in the instructions for this contraceptive, this can occur during the first three months of its use.
As practice shows, there are such discharge after gynecological surgical interventions, after a normal abortion and after a mini-abortion, brown discharge instead of menstruation is also not uncommon. And although the termination of pregnancy by vacuum aspiration is less traumatic than curettage, no one is immune from its complications.
Diagnosis of brown discharge instead of menstruation
It would be more correct to say that it is necessary to establish the cause of this symptom, because any discharge is only a sign of a particular disease or pathological condition.
First of all, gynecologists determine whether the patient is pregnant, as it turns out during the standard examination. Also, the inspection may reveal the presence of pathologies.
Required tests include:
- clinical and biochemical blood test,
- blood test for TORCH infection,
- blood test for hormone levels (genital and thyroid),
- smear from the vagina on the microflora,
- PAP smear from the cervical canal,
- according to indications - biopsy of the cervix or mucous membrane of her body.
Instrumental diagnostics is performed using ultrasonography (ultrasound) of the pelvic organs and hysteroscopy of the uterus (if necessary with a biopsy).
Given the variety of reasons for the appearance of brown discharge, replacing menstrual, differential diagnosis may require the involvement of both specialists in the field of gynecological oncology and endocrinologist.
Treatment of brown discharge instead of menstruation
Women of childbearing age, first of all, you need to use the test to determine pregnancy, and then - regardless of its result - go to the gynecologist.Because only he can confirm the fact of pregnancy and put a woman on record, and non-pregnant patients can prescribe the necessary treatment for brown discharge instead of menstruation, more precisely, the treatment of the disease is the specific cause of this symptom.
It should be noted that today in gynecology, the treatment of such secretions at the beginning of menopause or when hormonal levels decrease in young women, as well as in endometriosis, endometrial hyperplasia or uterine fibroids is based on the replacement of the missing sex hormones. It is hardly advisable to list medicines that can be prescribed in each case, for example, see what drugs are used to treat endometrial hyperplasia.
In case of infections, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics, in case of cervical dysplasia, diathermy or laser cauterization is used, while oncology is detected, surgical treatment, radiation and chemotherapy are carried out.
To maintain women's health, an important role is played by the B vitamins and trace elements (iron and zinc). Therefore, the prevention of inflammatory and hormonal pathologies of the reproductive system should begin with proper nutrition (and eating vitamins and fruits-rich), a healthy lifestyle, a systematic visit to the gynecologist.
Physiological causes of brown discharge instead of menstruation
If the pregnancy has not come to the end of the next menstrual cycle, the mucous membrane lining the internal cavity of the uterus (endometrium) gradually begins to exfoliate and be brought out with the menstrual blood. Normally, this bleeding is regulated by the hormonal system of the woman. If, for one reason or another, the mucous layer does not grow enough or the process of detachment is disturbed, then instead of a normal menstruation a woman may appear brownish discharge.
Normally, a slight brown discharge instead of menstruation can be observed in adolescent girls (during the period when the formation of the reproductive system occurs) and in women at the onset of menopause. However, in nursing mothers, this condition may signal the occurrence of another pregnancy.
Pathological factors leading to the appearance of brown secretions instead of monthly
- Endometritis (inflammation of the inner functional layer of the uterus).
- Stress states and nervous exhaustion.
- Reduced immunity.
- Childbirth or abortion, resulting in injury to the uterus.
- Malignant and benign neoplasms of the female genital sphere.
- Sharp weight loss or anorexia.
- Excessive exercise.
- Injuries or surgery on the internal genital organs.
- Various inflammatory processes.
- Poisoning and poisoning chemicals.
- Endocrine pathologies or hormonal disruptions arising from the use of hormonal drugs.
- Stable smoking and alcoholism.
Diagnosis of hypomenorrhea
In the case when a woman turns to the gynecologist with complaints about the occurrence of brownish discharge instead of menstruation, a specialist should appoint a comprehensive examination, including anamnesis, visual inspection, blood test for hormonal status, ultrasound, smears for flora and cytology, and if necessary, endometrial biopsy.
Only after the cause of this condition has been clarified in the course of diagnostic examinations, the doctor will determine whether the woman needs treatment.
Discharge is normal
Brown discharge is present in the normal course of the menstrual cycle in most women. They appear a few days before menstruation, and then gradually change color, stop smearing and become more abundant. This is due to the physiology of the body - the uterus begins to remove blood a little earlier. They can also smear a few days after menstruation in the event that all the blood did not have time to go along with the endometrium.
If brown secretions have the following characteristics, then they are the norm and treatment is not needed.
- The consistency is uniform.
- There is no unpleasant smell, burning and itching.
- Discharges are scarce, so there are enough panty liners.
- Tint slightly red or brown.
- Appear 2-3 days before menstruation.
- Do not start in every cycle.
If at least one of the parameters is different from the norm, then such secretions should already alert the woman and encourage her to visit a gynecologist. The causes of such deviations can be varied, but in general they can be divided into two large groups: physiological and pathological.
Acceptance of some medications
In the first place, hormones may change from taking hormonal drugs, most often contraceptives. It takes some time for the body to get used to an additional dose of hormones and to adapt to the new conditions. Therefore, during the first couple of months after the start of hormonal contraceptive use, a meager brown discharge may appear rather than menstruation.
But not only this group of drugs can cause the occurrence of violations. The scanty brown discharge that appeared instead of menstruation may be the result of the following medications.
- Antibiotics. In fact, this group of drugs does not directly affect the hormones of a woman, but during treatment they directly affect the vaginal microflora. Long-term treatment with antibiotics without taking probiotics and prebiotics leads to the fact that the beneficial microflora is almost completely destroyed, and this immediately affects the work of the ovaries and uterus. The ovum begins to mature more slowly than it should, which leads to the appearance of scanty brown secretions instead of menstruation.
- Hemostatic drugs. They are most often prescribed by gynecologists for the treatment of severe menstrual bleeding. But non-compliance with the dosage can lead to the absence of menstruation or the appearance of scant brown smears instead.
- Anti-ulcer drugs. Almost always affect the stability of the menstrual cycle and often cause a delay in menstruation with the appearance of brown spotting.
- Antidepressants. When taking these drugs, the profusion of menstruation is significantly reduced. With a long course of treatment, menstruation begins to smear instead of the normal intensity, the color is replaced by no darker and becomes brown. You may also receive a delay of up to 3 days.
Allocation can also change in those women who take steroids, diuretics and psychotropic drugs.
Many women at a young age do not even think that the wrong lifestyle can cause menstrual failures and why this happens. But with such a reason, the easiest way to normalize the cycle is to remove the provoking factors.
- Excessive exercise.
- Work in hazardous industries.
All these factors do not immediately lead to the fact that instead of menstruation begin to smear scarce brown discharge. All changes in the body occur little by little. But over time, when the immune system stops coping with negative factors, a woman will notice changes in her menstrual cycle.
The lack of some necessary for the body of micronutrients first leads to a slight delay in menstruation. But if there is a sharp weight loss or the same sharp set, then the selection disappears completely, and instead of the monthly begin scanty brown discharge. First of all, the darkening of the discharge causes a lack of iron.
Even a simple vacation in a different climate can cause a serious shake of the body. Most often this happens if the climate changes strongly and dramatically, and this mainly happens during flights. Such secretions are not terrible if they end quickly. But if the pseudo periods last more than a week, then you should contact a gynecologist.
Not only nervous shocks, but also great physical exertion causes irregularities in the menstrual cycle. First of all, any tension affects the functioning of the central nervous system, and this entails all subsequent changes. And all these changes are individual. One woman will notice that her period began later, the other - that the discharge became scarce, and the third one will begin to smear brown instead of normal menstruation.
If with such changes there is no pain or other discomfort, then in the first menstrual cycle you should not worry.
Just try to normalize the nervous system with the help of available means. But if the violations in the cycle are repeated, then you should visit a gynecologist.
During puberty in the body the formation of the reproductive system occurs. When the menstrual cycle is completely normal, it will become possible to become pregnant.
But while the cycle is established, failures appear regularly. And the appearance instead of monthly dark or light brown discharge is the norm during the first year after the onset of menses.
Disruptions in the menstrual cycle appear after 40–45 years. This period in a woman’s life is called premenopause. There is a decrease in the production of sex hormones, the probability of pregnancy disappears. Gradually, menstruation all decrease, then disappear altogether. It should be remembered that the timing of the onset of premenopause is not fixed and in some women it can occur at 35 years.
If age-related changes in the reproductive system occur without pain and other unpleasant symptoms, then there is nothing to worry about.
A change in the color of the menstruation may indicate pregnancy, so do not exclude this possibility without analyzing hCG. Ordinary tests from the pharmacy did not immediately show the pregnancy, so they should not be completely believed.
After fertilization, the oocytes begin to secrete, as if to smear, and their color becomes brown or dark brown. This all happens before the delay of menstruation, since pregnancy can occur only during ovulation. That is why the test at first does not show reliable results.
In the very early stages of pregnancy, it is possible to determine its occurrence without a test, if a little aches in the lower part of the abdomen, poor brown discharge or chest pains begin. The smear stops after a few days, if this is actually a pregnancy.
But if such secretions continue for more than a week, and the test shows that a pregnancy has come, then this indicates a low level of the hormone progesterone that threatens miscarriage.
If signs of pregnancy occur, all necessary tests and tests should be sent. This is especially important in order to exclude the likelihood of ectopic pregnancy.
After pregnancy and childbirth, each organism recovers with its speed. But in any case, this does not happen instantly. If a woman quickly transfers a child to artificial feeding, then after a few cycles, periods appear. And during the time before they start, brown scanty exudates appear.
If the foal is on a natural lure, then the whole period the woman has no menstruation. This is the body's natural defense against the onset of the next pregnancy, so that the woman has time to feed the first one. Then, as the child weaning off the breast, discharge will begin to appear, which at first will be scarce and only smear the pads, and in the future normal monthly periods will begin.
Surgical interventions in the reproductive system
The appearance of scanty brown secretions instead of normal menstruation may appear in the first time after surgical treatment of the following organs:
- the uterus, including the cervix,
- fallopian tubes.
Also, such manifestations may appear after an abortion or laparoscopy during ectopic pregnancy.
In any case, after surgery on the organs of the reproductive system, there will be failures in the menstrual cycle, since the body needs some time to adapt. The duration of the adaptation period will depend on many factors and the patient needs to understand why this time is different. This includes the scope of the intervention, the patient's age, the duration of the procedure, the presence of comorbidities and much more. Normal menses should begin as soon as complete healing and recovery occurs.
Inflammatory and infectious diseases
With these pathologies of the reproductive system, mainly light brown hues appear. In addition to them, a woman observes itching, burning, discomfort during urination, fever, the appearance of various inclusions in the discharge.
If you do not start the treatment of these diseases in time, this can lead to very negative consequences for the body. The most common diseases such as chlamydia, trichomoniasis, genital herpes, ureaplasmosis, and clap.
The selection of brown and black instead of menstruation appear in pathologies such as endometritis, endometriosis, polyp and cervical erosion. Usually, with these pathologies, menstruation still begins after a scanty dark discharge. Also, a woman may feel pain, especially during sex. These pathologies can be the cause of infertility in women, so they need to be treated, even if they do not interfere with normal lifestyle.
Benign and malignant tumors in the reproductive system themselves do not affect the parameters of the menstrual cycle. But during their growth, they begin to affect the hormonal balance, which leads to disruptions.
The exudates are dark in color and at first are very thick. Then they begin to appear blotches of pus, pain in the pelvic organs. But usually experienced doctors prescribe tests to detect tumors at earlier stages.
The treatment of these pathologies will be much easier if they are found in the early stages. Therefore, for women who go for preventive examinations, the gynecologist periodically assigns special tests.
With this pathology, there is not only a brown discharge instead of menstruation, but also a sharp pain in the abdomen. Most often, pseudo-monthly lasts up to 5 days, and then normal menstruation begins.
In order to avoid most of the problems with the menstrual cycle, it is necessary to visit a gynecologist at least once a year and undergo the necessary examination. Then, in the case of a single occurrence of scanty brown pseudo-monthly, you will not worry too much, because you will know that the most likely causes of this are physiological.