Diseases of menopause


The onset of menopause and menopause is accompanied by a change in hormonal status. Changes occur primarily in systems that regulate the activity of the ovaries. It should be borne in mind that although the hypothalamic releasing factor is the main regulator of gonadotropic functions, they are also influenced by some extrahypothalamic agents, both humoral and nervous (B.V. Aleshin, 1971). An essential role is played by the level of sex hormones in the blood, since, by the principle of feedback, their excess inhibits the production of gonadotropic hormones of the pituitary gland.

At one time B. Tsondek (1938) distinguished 3 phases of the hormonal state of women during menopause and menopause: hyperfollicular, characterized by the presence in the body of an increased amount of estrogenic hormone, a hypoghormonal phase, in which a small amount of both estrogen and gonadotropins is noted, the hypergonadotropic phase, which is different significant levels of gonadotropic hormones. According to EM Vikhlyaeva, the hypoestrogenic type of changes in menstrual function occurs 2 times more often than hyper-estrogenic.

E. Teter (1968) proposed another division of the menopausal period into phases, which, in his opinion, better reflects the hormonal state of the body at each stage. By the phase I, he attributes hypoluthein, in which the cycles are still ovulatory in nature, but there is already a deficiency of the corpus luteum. At this time, there may be no clinical symptoms or subjective feelings inherent in this period. In phase II, hyperfollicular, the menstrual cycles are already anovulatory. The egg cell dies, the granular membrane hypertrophies, producing an increased amount of estrogen. Phase III - hypofollicular-hypergonadotropic - is characterized by the fact that follicles lose their ability to mature and early atrophy, as a result of which estrogen secretion decreases. In response to a lack of estrogen, the pituitary gland enhances the production of gonadotropins. In the fourth phase - afollicular - fibrotization of the ovaries occurs and their function completely stops. At the same time decreases the level of gonadotropins. A new equilibrium state is established in the body.

With the ovulatory menstrual cycle in the period preceding menopause, the excretion of gonadotropins differs little from that in women of childbearing age (O. N. Savchenko, G. S. Stepanov, 1962, Brown et al., 1958). After the cessation of menstruation, the release of gonadotropins increases significantly and can be at a high level for a long time.

In a complex of changes in the functions of the anterior pituitary gland in women in menopause, in addition to changes in the production of FSH and LH, V. G. Baranov and co-authors attach great importance to the violation of the cyclical nature of their release.

Approximately 6 months before the cessation of menstruation, the titer of gonadotropins increases markedly and keeps at high numbers, mainly during the first year of menopause. In this case, the ovaries produce an increased amount of estrogenic hormones (hyperfollicular phase of menopause according to B. Condek). During this period, as shown by Muller and Bleike (1969), the amount of RNA in the parabasal and superficial layers of the vaginal epithelium cells increases, indicating a stimulating effect of estrogen on its synthesis. Older women have a low RNA content in the vaginal epithelium.

With the onset of menopause, estrogen secretion usually continues (Waard et al., 1972). In the first 2 years, a significant number of them are discovered (E. M. Vikhlyaeva, 1966, V. G. Baranov, M. V. Propp, O. N. Savchenko, G. S. Stepanov, 1969). As the duration of menopause increases, their concentration naturally decreases (O. N. Savchenko, 1965) and reaches a minimum by the end of the 3rd year (N. V. Svechnikova, 1964). The main source of estrogen formation in the postmenopausal period is the adrenal cortex. This is indirectly confirmed by the fact that small amounts of estriol, estrone and 3-estradiol are found in the urine of women in menopause or undergoing a bilateral ovarian surgery, and in some patients with adrenal tumors the content of these hormones is significantly increased.

The adrenal cortex, as well as other endocrine glands, undergoes certain changes in connection with the menopausal period. Some time after the onset of menopause, the adrenal glands increase in size, the excretion of 17-ketosteroids with urine increases, which indicates an increase in the activity of the reticular layer. The glomerular layer contains a large number of lipids. Strengthening the activity of the adrenal cortex is of a compensatory nature, since it produces estrogens and hormones, similar in their properties to progesterone, as well as androgens, which inhibits the increased activity of the anterior pituitary. In this regard, the adrenal cortex is called the second sexual gland, or the gonad of old women.

The release of pregnandiol also changes with the onset of menopause and menopause. Until the menstrual cycle appears, the typical nature of its excretion is maintained (O. N. Savchenko, 1961). After the onset of menopause, the release of pregnandiol is low, without cyclic fluctuations (O. N. Savchenko, 1967), amounts to approximately 50% of the amount that occurs in the childbearing age (Kuhne and Dassler, 1972).

The source of formation of progesterone in menopause is also the adrenal cortex. This confirms the presence of pregnandiol in the urine of castrated women, as well as the release of large amounts of hyperfunction or adrenal tumors.

Genital changes

With the onset of menopause and menopause, the female genitals gradually undergo regressive changes. At first they are hardly noticeable and only some time after the cessation of menstruation, the phenomena of atrophy and an increase in the amount of connective tissue begin to progress.

First of all it concerns the ovaries. All their functions (generative, hormonal, vegetative) gradually fade away. According to Valky and Ponfuch (1974), during aging, the weight of the ovaries decreases by 50% compared to the original.

A number of works have shown that in some women after the establishment of menopause, the ovaries do not lose their sensitivity to gonadotropic hormones, react to their administration with the production of estrogens (Poliak et al., 1968, Scalicky, 1970), that is, they retain their hormonal activity. In this regard, some authors object to the term "age-related atrophy" in relation to an aging ovary (Korte, 1970).

During menopause, follicles are found in the ovaries at different stages of development. In the future, they are less likely to reach maturity graaf bubble, and therefore there is no ovulation and the formation of the corpus luteum. Gradually disappear and these follicles. The ovaries shrink in size, shrink and become dense due to proliferation of connective tissue. Their blood supply worsens. The ovarian artery decreases in diameter. The number of blood vessels decreases. Atheromatous processes and signs of sclerosis occur in them. The metabolism of steroid hormones changes: the ovary is no longer able to convert androgenic hormones into estrogens (the aromatization process is disturbed). In ovarian tissue, metabolism decreases, oxygen absorption and glucose absorption decrease, and lactate production increases (Stabler et al., 1974). At the same time, the sensitivity of the ovarian tissues to the pituitary gonadotropic hormones decreases.

The extinction of the hormonal function of the ovaries cannot but affect the state of the effector organs. In the initial stage of menopause, when the ovaries produce an increased amount of estrogenic hormones, the uterus can even be slightly enlarged and softened. The glands have not changed yet, their lumen is filled with mucus, the mucous membrane keeps ciliary cilia. Over time, the uterus decreases in size due to atrophy of muscle cells, its cavity narrows And shortens, spiral arteries straighten. During this period, polyps, heterotopic growths of the endometrium, foci of fibromatous transformations are often formed in the uterus (P. Ya. Lelchuk, 1973). Muscle contains a large amount of connective tissue. Studies by Dubrauszky and co-authors (1971) showed that there is no change in the architectonics of connective tissue fibers due to menopause, but the number of collagen fibers increases. Not receiving hormonal impulses, the endometrium gradually becomes thinner, its functional layer becomes lower, the cilia disappear, the excretory ducts of the glands narrow and the glands also gradually disappear. Further the basal layer becomes thinner. It is no longer possible to differentiate layers. Ultimately, the endometrium is transformed into an atrophic mucosa. In some cases after the onset of menopause, various signs of endometrial activity are found. This is observed mainly within the first five years (K. N. Zhmakin, E. M. Vikhlyaeva et al., 1966). The cervical canal narrows, the glands stop secreting mucus. The mucus plug that performs the cervical canal in women in the reproductive period disappears, and this is one of the reasons for the frequent inflammation of the endometrium, and sometimes even the accumulation of pus in the uterus in old women (pyometra).

The fallopian tubes become shorter, thinner due to the thinning of the muscle layer, their lumen narrows, the epithelium atrophies and loses cilia. The proliferative activity of their epithelium is absent (Dedes, Krauer, 1974).

The vagina gradually narrows, especially in the upper third, shortens, its arches become less deep. It loses its elasticity, the mucous membrane becomes thinner, it becomes dry, sometimes devoid of epithelium. Reducing the production of estrogenic hormones leads to a decrease in the level of lactic acid and glycogen and a decrease in the number, and then to the complete disappearance of the Dederlein sticks. The number of bacterial flora and leukocytes increases. Vaginal contents, previously acidic, become neutral or even alkaline. This often leads to an inflammatory process - colpitis (colpitis senilis).


The colpocytological picture also changes with age. According to N. N. Mezinova and co-authors (1969), women over 40 years old have a relative decrease in the degree of proliferation of the vaginal epithelium in the second half of the menstrual cycle, manifested in a decrease in the numerical index and a decrease in the pycnosis and eosinophilia indices.

According to the research of M. G. Arsenieva (1973), before the onset of menopause, despite the preserved menstrual rhythm, cyclic changes in the vaginal epithelium are often absent, the eosinophilic and karyopicnotic indices observed during ovulation disappear, and there are no lutein transformations characteristic of a functioning yellow body. The phenomena of atrophy are rare, they are unstable, inconstant, as well as proliferative changes. Some women have a decrease in proliferative changes in the endometrium during menstruation delay, up to atrophy. This may indicate an approaching onset of menopause.

Thus, it is impossible to distinguish any types of smears, characteristic for menopause. This is due to the fact that with menopause, there are still no significant changes in the hormonal function of the ovaries. MG Arsenyev (1973) refers to pathological signs as a highly resistant proliferation and pronounced atrophy.

The presence of atrophic cells in smears taken during menopause indicates an absolute decrease in the degree of estrogenic activity in the body. McLennan M. and McLennan S. (1971), after conducting cytological studies of vaginal smears in women aged 50-75 years, found an atrophic type in 47% of cases. With age, the number of atrophic smears increased. With a lack of estrogen in the blood, the intermediate and basal cells prevailed in the smear. However, there is not always a coincidence between the excretion of estrogens and the vaginal smear pattern. So, on the third menopause, the excretion of estrogen decreases, and the vaginal smear at this time continues to show sufficient body saturation with them (M. G. Arsenieva, O. N. Savchenko, G. S. Stepanov, 1960). Waard et al. (1972), after determining the hormonal balance and colpocytological studies, showed that in some women, mostly overweight, during menopause, there was an increase in estrogenic saturation and a transition of atrophic smear to karyopicnotic. McLennan M. and McLennan S. also found superficial cells in vaginal smears in some older women, but the karyopicnotic index usually did not exceed 5%. According to M. G. Arsenyev (1973), the high karyopyknotic index, as well as the appearance of eosinophilic staining of the cytoplasm of superficial cells in women in deep menopause, should be considered as a result of the existence in the body of a pathological source of estrogenic stimulation.

In addition to the atrophic phenomena, some women have abnormal pigmentation, leukoplakia and kraurosis, which is associated with the development of the sclerotic process. Changes in the structure of the nerve endings were found, and their severity is directly proportional to the duration of menopause (Lotocki, 1969). In the pathogenesis of leukoplakia and vulvar kraurosis, MI Shtemberg (1973) attaches great importance to hormonal regulation disorders. He believes that the functionality of the adrenal cortex is reduced to the greatest extent. In the tissues of the vulva, he found a decrease in the content of corticosteroids, which may indicate a violation of their metabolic processes.

Age-related changes occur in the urinary system. They may manifest as urinary incontinence or frequent urination. These phenomena are caused by atrophic processes in the bladder and mucous membrane of the urethra. In the area of ​​the triangle Lietho observed thinning of the transitional epithelium (B. P. Odintsov, 1972).

The atrophic process extends to the other genitals, including the ligaments and the pelvic floor - shortening, thickening and often ligament thinning occur. As a result, the uterus acquires the position of retroflection, conditions are created for its omission.

Changes in other organs and systems

With age, there is a change in the activity of the nervous system. In healthy women with an uncomplicated climacteric period, moderate functional changes in the cerebral cortex are found, which are characterized by inadequate cortical inhibition and a slight decrease in the mobility of the nervous processes. More significant age-related changes in the activity of the cerebral cortex usually develop after 60 years. Women with a balanced nervous system tolerate menopause easier than those suffering from neurasthenia and psychasthenia, especially associated with various diseases of the sexual apparatus. In patients with climacteric syndrome, more significant shifts in the central nervous system are identified, consisting in a decrease in cortical tone, lability of vascular reactions, inertness of nervous processes, the relationship between the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures is disturbed. The degree of these changes depends on the stage of development of the climacteric syndrome, its duration and severity (E. M. Vikhlyaeva, Yu. F. Zmanovsky, 1964).

Great importance in the occurrence of climacteric disorders is attributed to the hypothalamus, in which the centers of the autonomic nervous system are located and hypophysotropic hormones are produced. Mori with co-authors (1973) in 94% of women with climacteric disorders revealed dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.

Menopause, causing a complex restructuring in the body, requires a known nervous tension. In this regard, a number of women have deviations from the nervous system, namely: the instability of mood, increased excitability, irritability. Often there is a headache, accompanied by general weakness, fatigue. Insomnia appears. In some cases, it depends on the tides, because of which women wake up in the middle of the night. In others - from the inability to fall asleep in the evening due to nervous excitement. Some are worried about itching, especially often in the area of ​​the vulva and clitoris. Sometimes women complain of indefinite pains in various areas of the body: intercostal spaces, limbs, joints. Due to discoordination in the relationship of a number of endocrine glands (pituitary, adrenal glands, thyroid gland), under the influence of neuro-reflex and hormonal influences, the functions of many organs and systems are disturbed.

Происходят сдвиги в обмене веществ - снижаются окислительные процессы, основной обмен, вследствие чего начинают превалировать процессы ассимиляции и откладывается жир в подкожной клетчатке, главным образом на животе и бедрах. Развитие ожирения объясняют также повышением выделения гипофизом антидиуретического гормона, вследствие чего нарушается водный обмен. In more rare cases, there is a noticeable emaciation of women despite good nutrition. The mammary glands increase due to the deposition of fat, while their glandular tissue atrophies and thickens, which often leads to increased sensitivity of the mammary glands and nipples.

Carbohydrate metabolism is also closely associated with obesity. In menopause, diabetes mellitus often develops or progresses to the extent of its latent form. Therefore, when examining women, it is imperative to examine the urine and blood for sugar content. Endocrine-metabolic disorders were detected in 70% of cases (N.V. Svechnikova, 1969).

As a manifestation of general obesity in women in menopausal period, heart obesity also develops, as a result of which the conditions of myocardial blood supply are violated. Cardiac muscular dystrophy occurs, in which part of the muscle fibers atrophies, and therefore the contractile activity of the heart muscle is reduced (DF Chebotarev, 1959).

In the presence of circulatory failure, patients have shortness of breath, palpitations that occur with a certain physical exertion - weight lifting, accelerated walking, etc. In climacteric disorders, these symptoms usually appear suddenly in a state of physical rest of the woman, often during sleep. Climacteric cardiopathy differs from coronarogenic in that chest pains do not stop after taking validol and nitroglycerin, prescribing estrogens and androgens in a ratio of 1: 50 reduces pain in the heart area, leads to normalization of the ECG (S. S. Zakharchuk, GV Brativnik , 1973).

With age, blood pressure rises. According to V. M. Dilman (1968), this is due to an increase in hypothalamic activity. He showed that the process of increasing blood pressure begins between the ages of 40 and 45 years. The question of the relationship between the development of hypertensive syndrome and menopause is not resolved. Different researchers have expressed conflicting views. In any case, a variety of disorders that occur in many organs and systems of the body during the period of aging, including the functions of the endocrine glands, as well as the peculiarities of the neuropsychic state of women during menopause and menopause, are fertile ground for the development of hypertension.

With climax, and especially in the postmenopausal period, women often have pain in the muscles, bones, joints. They can occur both during rest and when moving or pushing. Changes in the skeletal system are associated, on the one hand, with common age-related changes, manifested in the violation of many types of metabolism, including bone tissue, on the other - with the extinction of ovarian function and disappearance of sex hormones, in particular estrogens, which regulating calcium metabolism, increase the activity of osteoblasts and thus contribute to bone calcification (Davis et al., 1970). The use of small doses of estrogen inhibits the development of degenerative processes in the skeletal system.

During menopause and menopause, the progression of latent inflammatory processes in the joints is possible. Of the forms of pathology of the musculoskeletal system inherent in this age, it is necessary to mention arthropathy and osteoporosis. With arthropathies, pain is localized mainly in the knee and shoulder joints, less often in the elbow and wrist. With osteoporosis, bone thinning occurs and its volume decreases, as a result of which the vertebrae are deformed and displaced, and in the case of a pronounced form of the disease, spinal curvature and growth decrease occur. Patients complain of pain in the cervical vertebrae, back and especially strong - in the lower back. The cause of pain is squeezing of the vertebrae and nerve endings. Some patients have an increased excretion of calcium in the blood and urine, which indicates the inability of the bone tissue to retain calcium. X-ray examination shows bone loss.

Often with menopause and during menopause, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are observed. Constipation and flatulence are most common. There are also dyspeptic symptoms in the form of heartburn and nausea. A study of the prevalence of glaucoma and symptomatic ocular hypertension showed a significant incidence (17.5%) of impaired regulation of intraocular pressure during menopausal syndrome. This necessitates preventive examinations for glaucoma of women of a given age period (A. V. Suprun, N. E. Loginova, 1974).

In the postmenopausal period The aging process applies to all tissues of the body. The skin loses its elasticity, becomes flabby. Appear small skin growths, often pigmented. Thinning and thinning hair on the head and in the armpits. At the same time, hair growth is observed in unusual places, in particular on the face, which is explained by changes in the functions of the adrenal cortex and pituitary.

What changes occur in the body during menopause

The climacteric period is characterized by significant changes in the body. This is especially reflected in the urogenital system, cardiovascular and digestive.

The organs undergo changes not only according to physiological indices, but their external characteristics also change:

  • ovaries. Losing their ability to produce estrogen, the ovaries become smaller in size, the tissue is replaced by a connective, the body takes on a destructive form,
  • uterus. The size of the uterus varies depending on the flow of the period of menopause. At the beginning of its course, the organ increases, and in the post-climatic period it decreases significantly. The cervix becomes smaller, the lumen of the tubes grows, they straighten,
  • external and internal genital organs. The size of the labia is significantly reduced, the fatty tissue in them disappears, the skin becomes flabby. The skin of the vagina becomes dry due to the lack of organic lubricant. Pubic hair becomes less frequent
  • mammary gland. Appears chest sagging due to a decrease in muscle tone and atrophy of the glandular tissue. There is a proliferation of connective tissue in the chest. The size changes
  • skin, hair, nails. The skin is deficient in moisture, it becomes dry. Formed pigment spots on the hands, in the neck, on the face. Hair becomes brittle, there is more gray hair, nails break and exfoliate.

In addition, the work of the heart, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine and nervous system is impaired. All these changes are associated with a lack of estrogen, which directly affects the elasticity of blood vessels, blood condition, metabolism and the activity of other hormones.

When menopause is very important to comply calm and balanced lifestyleto make menopausal changes more mild and asymptomatic.

Why do diseases occur during menopause

When the stability of the work of all organs and systems of the female body is controlled by the necessary hormones, their work is harmonious. Fails during menopause due to estrogen cessationwhich is of great importance on the functioning of many organs.

As a result, there is a change in almost the entire body. Against the background of unstable work occurs reduced immune systemwhich protects the body from the pathological effects of bacteria and infections.

It is scientifically proven that deficiency of female genital hormones provokes the development of pathological processes in the body.

Endometrial hyperplasia

The inner layer of the uterus is covered with a mucous layer that contributes to the placement of the egg in the body of the uterus during fertilization. This ensures a normal blood supply to the future fetus and its development.

In the absence of fertilization, the mucosal layer is rejected, which leads to menstruation. If fertilization does not occur, and menstruation is absent, the mucous membrane grows inside the uterus. This process is called hyperplasia.

During menopause, endometrial hyperplasia fraught with neoplasms, including malignant. Therefore, it is necessary to identify pathological processes in time and prescribe therapy.

Uterine myoma

Uterine fibroids are characterized as benign growths in the body of the uterus.

The disease is defined as hormone-dependent, so it is during the period of climacteric changes that increases. risk of nodular tumor formation in the uterine cavity.

Every third woman in the period of menopause is faced with this pathology. The disease is successfully treated by surgical excision of neoplasms.

During menopause, due to a lack of estrogen, the walls of the bladder become thin and weak. The blood supply in the tissues and their immune protection deteriorate, which increases the risk of infection to the pelvic organs.

Mild hypothermia, lack of vitamins and stressful situations can cause the development of cystitis during menopause.

The disease is characterized by symptoms:

  • pain when urinating,
  • lower abdominal pain
  • incontinence.

Pathology is treated with antibacterial or hormone-containing drugs.


The disease is characterized increase mucous cover uterine cavity.

The danger of the disease lies in the rebirth of excess mucous deposits in malignant cell formation. In addition, the formation of cystic and other pathological structures in the body of the uterus is possible.

If endometriosis is detected, it is necessary to conduct an examination and begin treatment.

Other disruption of the systems and organs

A lack of vitamins during menopause contributes to problems with bone tissue, hair and nail structure, and the development of osteoporosis.

Disorders of metabolic processes in cartilage tissues and collagen synthesis provoke development of arthritis and arthrosis.

Risk of menopause cardiovascular diseases and disorders of the digestive system.

For this you need to take care of your health constantly.

Flow characteristics

The most unpleasant aspect of this disease in menopause is its rapid development. This is due to the fact that in this period the vaginal mucosa is thinned, its structure is changed, and the microflora is broken. This is due to the lack of female sex hormones and is a natural process for menopause. But in such conditions, various bacteria take root extremely quickly and develop.

Therefore, the probability of developing this disease in menopause is much higher than outside it. And the spread of infection occurs much faster. Therefore, it is impossible to delay the start of treatment during this period of life.


Vaginitis in menopause develops as a result of contact with the mucous membrane of an infectious or inflammatory agent. In the normal state, the microflora of the mucous is able to fight it with the means of local tissue immunity (as well as with the involvement of general non-specific immunity). And often the immune system manages to conquer inflammation.

But during menopause, tissue immunity is reduced and the mucous membrane is difficult to resist infection. In addition, thin and dry mucous membrane has much more microtraumas, through which the infection is able to infiltrate directly into the blood.

The symptoms of vaginitis are not specific, they often form a standard picture of an inflammatory gynecological disease. Therefore, the main role in the diagnosis is given to visual examination of the vagina and laboratory diagnosis. The following symptoms are characteristic of this disease:

  1. Soreness of the mucous membranes of the vagina, manifested during sexual intercourse or the introduction of a tampon,
  2. Discomfort during intercourse,
  3. Minor bleeding during intercourse,
  4. The increase in the volume of vaginal secretions, their neglect (which is not typical of menopause),
  5. The yellow-green color of the discharge and the presence of an unusual unpleasant odor can signal the progression of the disease.

Sometimes there is another symptom. But the above forms the classic clinical picture.


For accurate diagnosis and prescription of the most effective treatment a number of studies are carried out:

  1. Gynecological examination using mirrors
  2. A smear on the microflora from the vagina, cervical canal and urethra,
  3. Bacteriological seeding of microflora from the vagina,
  4. PCR diagnostics for major urogenital infections,
  5. Complete blood count for the presence of an inflammatory process (indices of ESR may be increased).

When the causative agent of the disease is established, directed treatment is prescribed.

It should be carried out comprehensively. It is necessary to take antibiotics to defeat infection and inflammation. But it is also necessary to take and hormones for the normalization of the general condition (including the state of the mucous membrane, with menopause). As an additional means, you can use traditional medicine.

Hormone therapy

Doctors prescribe the following hormones:

  • Regulon costs about 700 rubles. Apply 1 tablet per day at the same time, the package is designed for 1 month. Do not use during pregnancy, lactation, liver and kidney diseases, brain. The drug must be prescribed by a doctor.
  • Janine - microdose hormonal drug, the cost of 1,100 rubles. It is used in the same way as Regulon, but the packaging is designed for 21 days. Contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women. But in general, has fewer contraindications than Regulon. This remedy cannot be abolished abruptly, since uterine bleeding is possible,
  • Marvelon costs about 600 rubles and is an analogue of Regulon. Packaging is also designed for 28 days, applied one tablet per day Appointed less frequently, as it is considered a bit outdated.

Independently appoint such funds is not worth it. They must select a doctor.


Such antibiotics are used:

  • Amoxiclav - a broad-acting agent, prescribed at a dosage of 875 mg (+125 mg) per day. The course of treatment for about a week. Depending on the dosage form, it costs from 300 to 400 rubles. Contraindications: renal failure, individual intolerance to penicillins and some others,
  • Cefazolin - has a narrower spectrum and is appointed if the pathogen is known. Accepted 500-1000 mg twice a day. Contraindications: hypersensitivity, pregnancy, breastfeeding. It is worth a remedy of 28 rubles,
  • Metrogil costs about 200 rubles. It has a narrow spectrum. You can not take with blood diseases, central nervous system, pregnancy, etc. Appointed by 600-1000 mg per day.

The most effective antibiotic with a minimum of side effects can be selected only after a complete diagnosis.

When the first symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor.

Folk remedies

Traditional medicine also offers recipes to combat vaginitis:

  • Four teaspoons of chamomile poured one liter of boiling water. The composition is used for baths. The more often these baths are used, the better
  • Half a tablespoon of vinegar (not apple) diluted in a glass of water. Mix used for scrubbing,
  • Baths of celandine can be prepared and used as chamomile.

It is important to remember that folk remedies have antiseptic properties, but do not kill the infection. Therefore, it is impossible to recover by applying only them.

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The role of hormones

Insufficient production of female sex hormones after 40 years of age affects the physical and mental state of a woman. The lack of sex hormones in the menopausal period affects the appearance of a woman, helps to reduce libido. Loss of skin elasticity, hair loss, brittle nails, changes in bone tissue and other unpleasant signs of menopause reduce women's self-esteem, leading to a depressive state. At this time, a woman more than ever needs the support of loved ones and the advice of an experienced specialist who will tell you how to eliminate (or reduce) the physical and mental discomfort caused by menopause.

The situation is aggravated if early menopause is caused by surgery: removal of the ovaries, thyroid gland. In this case, the signs of menopause are more pronounced. Reduced muscle tone, vascular elasticity, degenerative processes in bone tissue, changes in the epithelium of the mucous membranes of the urogenital tract, caused by hormonal imbalances, cause the appearance of symptoms such as:

  • the sudden appearance of a feeling of heat, accompanied by a reddening of the face,
  • frequent headaches
  • weight gain
  • blood pressure surges,
  • cardiopalmus,
  • excessive sweating
  • dyspnea,
  • dizziness,
  • insomnia,
  • frequent and painful urination,
  • stress urinary incontinence,
  • thrush,
  • decrease in sexual desire
  • psycho-emotional instability,
  • memory impairment and sharpness of attention,
  • decrease in working capacity.

Climacteric disorders require timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. In some cases, it is symptomatic, aimed at alleviating discomfort.Acceptance of natural phytoestrogens contained in plants, allows you to move menopausal syndrome less painful. If the symptoms of menopause are accompanied by severe pain, intoxication of the body, deterioration of the general condition, an immediate consultation of the gynecologist-endocrinologist is required to study the symptom complex, determine the cause of the pathological phenomenon and assign an effective treatment.

Common diseases with menopause

The list of the most common diseases that occur during menopause include the following.

  1. The appearance of osteoporosis is associated with impaired bone metabolism, a decrease in bone mineral density. This is a chronic progressive disease, which is accompanied by severe pain in the lower extremities and a high risk of fractures. Women with fragile physique, low body weight, tall, genetic predisposition are more susceptible to this disease during menopause. Sharp pain when changing body position or high load, as well as dependence on weather conditions significantly violate the general condition of the woman. The loss of minerals also causes layered nails, thinning and hair loss, and the appearance of dental caries.
  2. Gout is a no less common disease in menopause, which is characterized by the accumulation of uric acid in the joints. Estrogen deficiency, characteristic of this age, causes a violation of the process of excretion of uric acid by the kidneys. Increased concentration of urate crystals in the body provokes the development of hyperuricemia, arthritis, gouty nodes. Unbalanced diet, lack of water in the diet, bad habits and burdened heredity at times increase the likelihood of bone disease during menopause.
  3. Cardiovascular diseases in menopause do not lose their leading position. Pathological changes in the coronary artery system lead to coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, and other cardiovascular diseases. Pain behind the sternum, radiating to the neck, shoulder, back should not be ignored. Coronary artery bypass grafting, stenting, trans-myocardial laser myocardial revascularization are recognized as highly effective methods of treating cardiovascular diseases. Timely surgery extends the life of patients and improves its quality with the onset of menopause.
  4. Sternum pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness can be a manifestation of hypertension. High physical and mental stress, stress, the use of large amounts of salt during menopause, the use of alcohol in toxic doses provoke an increase in blood pressure. The lack of a security regime contributes to the disruption of the blood supply to the brain and can cause a stroke - a life-threatening condition.
  5. Problems with vessels and veins in menopause lead to thrombophlebitis, varicose veins, and trophic ulcers. Reduced reactivity of the organism in menopause, trauma suffered, difficult childbirth, the tendency of blood to form blood clots, infectious diseases increase the risk of the appearance of pathological phenomena.
  6. Disruption of the functioning of the endocrine glands (thyroid and pancreas) leads to the appearance of diseases of the endocrine system: thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, diabetes, obesity. Due to the lack of hormones necessary for the synthesis of enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism disorders, tissue insulin immunity, there is a decrease (or increase) in body weight, a constant feeling of thirst and hunger, weakness, irritability, deterioration of memory and concentration, insomnia.
  7. Insufficient production of steroid hormones during menopause becomes a trigger for the development of gynecological diseases and reduce the quality of intimate life. Violation of the natural microbial landscape of the vagina, dry intimate area provoke microtrauma, infection and the development of inflammatory processes. Bacterial vaginosis, colpitis, thrush and other infectious diseases of the female genital organs are frequent satellites of menopause. Spread of the infection in an ascending way causes salpingitis, adnexitis, endometritis and other diseases of the internal genital organs. Atrophic changes in the endometrium are characterized by uterine bleeding, which can be eliminated by adequate hormonal therapy.
  8. Neuropsychic diseases in the form of vegetative-vascular dystonia, sciatica, lumbago, neuralgia, and others are often associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. This leads to disruption of the processes of water and electrolyte balance, thermoregulation, food and other dysfunctions. Determination of the true cause of the pathological condition and effective treatment restore the lost functions of the somatomotor, endocrine and autonomic nervous system.
  9. Cancers are usually the result of chronic inflammatory processes in the organs of the reproductive system. Infection with pathogenic flora, lack of adequate therapy, stressful conditions cause degenerative changes in the tissues, the formation of cysts, tumors. A scheduled visit to the gynecologist prevents the development of large-scale structural tissue damage, the transformation of tumors into oncology.

How to survive the menopause?

In order for menopause to bring minimal disruption to a woman’s life, preparation for a significant event must begin with the onset of premenopause, when the first signs of exhaustion of the follicular apparatus appear. It is possible to determine the right moment by the characteristic symptoms: changes in the menstrual cycle and the nature of menstruation, appearance, impaired cognitive abilities.

If menopausal syndrome is mild, it suffices to do with the intake of vitamin-mineral complexes, herbal remedies containing natural estrogens. In the case when, at the time of menopause, a woman has chronic diseases, a violation of metabolic processes, she needs the help of one or several specialized specialists. Comprehensive diagnosis of the body, drawing up an individual treatment program is ideal. Only an experienced specialist should be engaged in the selection of the drug, taking into account the individual ovarian reserve, age, genetics, the individual characteristics of the organism.

Regular visits to the gynecologist, timely treatment of identified diseases, the absence of bad habits and stressful situations significantly reduces the likelihood of the appearance of pronounced menopause. Careful attitude to your own health will allow to pass this time period in the harmony of body and soul.

Vagina dryness

As you know, menopause is accompanied by a decrease in the production of hormones such as estrogens, due to the extinction of the functionality of the ovaries. This factor can lead to a feeling of dryness in intimate areas. Dryness of mucous surfaces in the vagina is a natural change in their structure. In medicine, this symptom is another name - atrophic colpitis.

Before the climacteric period, the ovaries with their functionality provided significant support in toning the epithelium and the release of a special lubricant, which did not allow the mucous surfaces to dry.

With the extinction of the ovaries, the mucous membranes begin to thin, and the structure of the microflora in the vagina also undergoes changes. This leads to a decrease in the number of lactobacilli responsible for the normal level of acidity, which is the cause of the appearance of other microorganisms, as a result of the activity of which inflammation develops. Inflammations can lead to the development of vaginitis.

Symptoms and treatment of vaginitis

Symptoms of vaginitis include the following factors:

  • dryness, swelling and redness of the mucous surfaces of the vagina,
  • itching and burning in the intimate area,
  • dirty white discharge
  • discomfort and pain during intercourse,
  • acute burning sensation in the vagina when urinating and flushing with the use of toilet soap.

In case of manifestation of this symptom, one should immediately contact qualified specialists for a full examination and appointment of timely treatment. Pulling time, undergoing manifestations of these symptoms, is not recommended due to the possibility of complications and a high risk of developing a more serious disease.

In order to restore the secretory functionality of the vaginal epithelium and cure vaginitis, it is necessary to use hormone-containing drugs, which include:

  • preparations of creamy texture: Estriol, Evalgin, Ortho-Ginest,
  • preparations in the form of gels: Klimara, Dermestril, Ovestin, Divigel,
  • drugs in the form of vaginal suppositories, which include Estriol, Estrokad, Ovipol, Ovestin.

The treatment regimen for vaginitis is of the same type, and consists in the daily placement of one of the prescribed drugs in the vaginal area for a month. After the restoration of the vaginal microflora, and the elimination of vaginitis, it is necessary to maintain the achieved results by the weekly administration of the prescribed drug into the vagina.

Salpingitis of the fallopian tubes

The development of atrophic obesity can also cause the emergence of a disease such as salpingitis in the chronic form. These are inflammations localized in one fallopian tube or immediately in both. The cause of the development of this disease can serve not only colpitis, but also former sexually transmitted infections, if such were before the onset of menopause, as well as frostbite and a large number of sexual partners.

The chronic course of salpingitis is often more difficult to detect than its initial stage of development. The symptomatology of this disease is very similar in its manifestation to other infections and body poisoning. An exacerbation of the disease may be accompanied by a more pronounced severity of symptoms, which include:

  • aching pain in the lower abdomen, aggravated during urination,
  • feeling weak and tired
  • nausea, which may be accompanied by discharge of vomit,
  • loss of appetite
  • possible chills and a slight increase in body temperature,
  • may cause discharge with a characteristic odor and purulent admixture.

It is necessary to treat the chronic form of salpingitis for a month using the following means:

  • antibiotic drugs, mainly penicillins, among which Ampiox or Ampicillin or Cephalosporin (Cefotaxime) is more commonly used, Kanamycin belonging to the aminoglycoside group can also be used,
  • as antipyretic - Panadol or Paracetamol,
  • Ketorol or Ibuprofen can be used as an analgesic,
  • and also Furozolidone and Imunofan with combined intake of complex vitamins, containing mainly vitamins of group C and E.

After treatment, it is recommended to protect your body from the effects of various infectious processes and to prevent the recurrence of such diseases as vaginitis. The development of vaginitis may contribute to the exacerbation of salpingitis and its re-development.

It is important to remember that such a disease as salpingitis, with late treatment can cause the development of tumors in any of the reproductive organs, which will be the reason for surgical intervention.

Endometrial Disorders

Atrophic processes in endometrial tissues with the onset of the postmenopausal period is normal. Due to the lack of estrogen, the endometrium ceases to function, while its upper layers cease to thicken and be updated monthly, which explains the absence of menstrual flow.

But such a state may be a real cause for concern. Due to the thinning and weakening of the endometrial tissues, the majority of the fair sex may have bleeding of varying degrees of abundance. One of the main causes of such symptoms are:

  • violations in the health of the cardiovascular system,
  • development of diabetes.

With the development of these pathologies, the capillary walls become excessively sensitive to various stresses, which leads to their rupture, and, accordingly, the appearance of blood discharge. Therefore, in the climacteric period, it is recommended to regularly visit qualified gynecologists, and to carry out full control of the endometrial state.

The treatment regimen includes taking the drugs of the group of hormone therapy (hormone replacement therapy), in which estradiol acts as an active component. The following medicines are prescribed for oral administration:

  • Klimonorm,
  • Ovestin,
  • Klymen,
  • Cliogest,
  • Femoston,
  • Estrofem,
  • or Cyclo-Proginova.

These drugs can only be prescribed by a qualified technician. It is not recommended to engage in self-treatment in order to avoid causing more serious harm to health and to avoid the occurrence of more serious consequences.

Synechia in the uterine cavity

In case of pronounced atrophic processes on the surface of the mucous membranes of the vagina, synechiae may form, or sticking together with further fusion of certain sections of the tissues of the mucous surface. With the development of such a process, adhesions of connective tissues, fusion of individual sections and pain syndromes with the formation of inflammation may appear.

To cure a disease such as synechia, can only be through surgical intervention. In case of late treatment, the development of the disease can be complicated and develop into more serious pathologies, the solution of which can serve as a complete elimination of the organ.

Development of adenomyosis

Even before the climacteric period in a woman’s life, the process of endometrial tissue germination in the deeper layers of the uterus can begin in her body. This process may begin to develop with the onset of the premenopause period. This is a hormone-dependent pathology. Therefore, by the time of the last menstrual discharge, the amount of hormones becomes unstable, which can cause the development of uterine adenomyosis.

This pathology is manifested by the appearance of the following symptoms:

  • bleeding
  • pain in the lower abdomen,
  • exacerbation of all signs of menopause.

In such situations, women should undergo a course of hormone therapy, including taking estrogen-progestin drugs, which should be carefully selected by experts. Before starting treatment and three months after recovery, you must also undergo an ultrasound examination.

If the treatment does not give visible results, then this may serve as a basis for the removal of the uterus in order to prevent the development of a cancer.


With the onset of menopause, the risk of neoplasms in the female genital system increases. And all kinds of tumors that are in remission can escalate and begin to progress on the background of hormonal changes. Consider the features of dangerous diseases in menopause in women.

By itself, a cystoma is a benign tumor that is localized on one or two uterine appendages. With the onset of hormonal changes in the body of a woman, associated with the menopausal period, the cystoma can go into a borderline state, the development of which can cause appendage cancer. Therefore it is necessary to constantly monitor the state of the cystoma.

The initial stage of development of this problem does not manifest itself in any way: its presence can be detected only with the help of an ultrasound examination and a medical examination.

With the development of cystoma increases in size and begins to manifest the following symptomatic factors:

  • pain, whining character, giving to the groin or sacrum area,
  • arching sensations in the peritoneum,
  • frequent urination,
  • violation of the chair, accompanied by constipation or the development of diarrhea.

If the leg of the tumor is accidentally twisted, it can cause a sharp pain, an attack of rapid heartbeat, discharge of vomitus and a sharp increase in temperature.

Kistoma should be treated only by operative methods, the nature of which directly depends on the stage of development of the pathology.

Usually, uterine fibroids can occur before menopause. When menopause begins, the pathology begins to enter the regressive stage. Indeed, for the development of this pathology requires a normal level of estrogen, which in this life period of the female body is very small. Due to the low content of estrogen, the process of reducing the size of the uterus itself begins, which leads to shrinkage and further disappearance of myoma.

But there are cases when the uterus does not decrease in size during menopause, and fibroids begin to contribute to the manifestation of the following symptoms:

  • uncharacteristic bleeding from the vagina,
  • decrease in hemoglobin,
  • endometrial layer enlargement,
  • увеличение в размерах яичников, что может стать причиной развития новообразований на данных органах.

Если миома возникла до наступления климакса и имеет не регрессирующий характер, то климактерический период наступит позднее, чем при регрессирующей опухоли либо ее отсутствии. Such a tumor does not decrease in size even with the onset of menopause, but only continues to grow. If the tumor is predisposed to self-resorption, then its reduction in size is observed even a couple of years before the onset of premenopause.

The proliferation of fibroid cells can cause the formation of a cancer. Therefore, if, when examined by a gynecologist, he notices any factors predisposing to the malignancy of fibroids, then a decision is made to promptly remove the tumor along with the uterus.

In order for menopause not to cause health problems, it is necessary to listen carefully to all symptoms, and to promptly eliminate all inflammations and other pathologies with the help of special preparations designed to ensure a mild menopausal period. Only in this case, the onset of a new period in the life of a woman will be comfortable and not foreshadowing despondency.

Interesting and informative video on the topic:

Prevention of the occurrence of pathologies

In order to prevent the development of pathological processes during menopause, you should follow some rules:

  • follow the power. It is necessary to enrich your diet with iodine and calcium in order to prevent diseases of the musculoskeletal system, as well as failure of the thyroid gland,
  • eliminate fatty foods from the diet. This is necessary to ensure the elasticity of blood vessels and reduce cholesterol deposits on their walls in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases,
  • systematically take vitamin complexes.

In addition, it is recommended to systematically walk in the fresh air, lead an active lifestyle with the inclusion of physical (moderate) exercise, not to get involved in smoking and alcohol.

Regular visits to the gynecologist will help eliminate the development of severe pathological processes not only during and after menopause, but also long before its onset.


Thus, diseases with menopause is more the result of neglect of their health before the onset of hormonal adjustment.

An important factor in the prevention and early detection of pathological processes is a systematic examination by a doctor.

Do not self-diagnose the disease, and even more to treat them, especially during menopause. This can lead to complications and serious consequences.

Gynecological diseases with menopause

Climax - a time of great change. And like any transitional period, it is accompanied by a weakening of the body's defenses. Vaginitis in menopause becomes one of the manifestations of a decrease in immunity and termination of hormonal activity. He may be a precursor of other gynecological diseases.

Read in this article.

What does vaginal discomfort mean?

The feeling of dryness in the perineum and vagina, found in the early years of menopause, is not at all a consequence of poor hygiene. This is a natural change in the structure of the mucous organs caused by a decrease in the volume of estrogen. It also has the names of atrophic colpitis or senile.

Female hormones previously maintained epithelial tone, its ability to secrete lubricant. With their lowering, the mucous becomes thinner, but most importantly, the vaginal microflora changes. Lactobacilli that maintain normal acidity, no longer cope with this due to a quantitative reduction. Their place is taken by other microorganisms, as a result, the vaginal mucosa becomes inflamed.

Vaginitis is found during menopause due to the occurrence

  • Dryness, swelling and redness in the vagina,
  • Burning sensations and itching
  • Off-white discharge
  • Soreness during intercourse.

What to do with vaginitis?

Many women are sure: if vaginal discomfort has natural causes, it is not dangerous. According to statistics, only 1.5% go to a doctor with this. And in civilized countries, 30–40% of menopausal women struggle with vaginitis with medication. Does this mean our people are healthier? Rather, such a frivolous attitude indicates an underestimation of the consequences.

Since, first of all, a decrease in estrogens causes colpitis during menopause, treatment is directed to maintaining their level. It should start before the first noticeable signs appear. To restore the secretory ability of the vaginal epithelium, hormonal means of local exposure are used:

  • Evalgin creams, Estriol, Ortho-Ginest,
  • Gels Ovestin, Klimara, Divigel, Dermestril,
  • Candles Estrokad, Orto-Ginest, Estriol, Ovestin, Ovipol Clio.

One of the designated agents is placed in the vagina in the first month of therapy once a day. Then, to maintain normal microflora and condition of the mucous, it is enough to do this weekly.

Inflammation of the fallopian tubes

One of the ailments that can be caused by atrophic postmenopausal colpitis is chronic salpingitis. It is an inflammatory process localized in one or both fallopian tubes. Contribute to its appearance in the age of menopause and previously transferred infections, including venereal, hypothermia, frequent change of partners.

Chronic salpingitis is more difficult to detect than the initial form of the disease. Its symptoms are similar to signs of other infections, poisoning, they appear sharper during the exacerbation:

  • The aching pain in the lower third of the abdomen, which becomes stronger when urinating,
  • Constant fatigue, weakness,
  • Lack of appetite, nausea, sometimes vomiting,
  • Periodic slight increase in body temperature, chills,
  • Sometimes there may be a discharge with an admixture of pus.

Previously transferred infections lead to the development of inflammation of the fallopian tubes in women during menopause

Treatment of the chronic form of the disease is delayed up to a month and includes:

  • Antibiotics, selected depending on the pathogen. Penicillins (Ampicillin, Ampioks), cephalosporins (Cephalexin, Cefotaxime) or aminoglycosides (Kanamycin) can be administered,
  • Antipyretic (Paracetamol, Panadol),
  • Painkillers (Ibuprofen, Ketorol),
  • Furozolidone,
  • Immunomodulators (Imunofan), vitamins E and C.

Salpingitis can lead to the formation of tumors of the reproductive organs, which will require surgical treatment.

Endometrial changes: normal or illness

A different balance of hormones is not limited to a direct effect on the vagina and vulva. The uterus mucous membrane develops differently. Postmenopausal endometrial atrophy is common. Due to the absence of sex hormones, it ceases to develop cyclically, its upper layer does not thicken, is not replaced once a month, which leads to the absence of menstruation.

But this natural state can also be a source of anxiety. Due to the thinning and weakness of the endometrium, some women experience bleeding. Contribute to this problem with the heart and blood vessels, diabetes. When they are the capillaries are sensitive to the slightest voltage, hence their ruptures and bleeding. Therefore, monitoring the state of the endometrium should be regular and thorough.

Treatment consists of hormone replacement therapy, and it will not be limited to topical preparations. Assign orally funds with estradiol:

Fusion of tissues in the uterus

Postmenopausal synechiae of the uterus also occur due to the weakening of the organ mucosa, if atrophy is strongly pronounced. The adhesions of connective tissue are formed, some parts grow together, causing soreness, inflammation. Premenopausal synechiae can block the cervical canal. Rare monthly discharge while not able to go outside, resulting in inflammation.

And if atrophic changes of the endometrium are corrected by hormonal preparations, synechiae are treated only surgically. The pain caused by them, are unbearable, and the process can go further and develop into an even more dangerous disease in which the organ will have to be removed.

Adenomyosis and menopause

Germination of the endometrium into the uterus may begin even before the onset of menopause. Not uncommon and its occurrence in the age of premenopause. The disease is hormone-dependent, and on the approach to the last menstruation the amount of substances in the blood is unstable. This can be a factor that provokes adenomyosis in menopause.

In this period, the disease usually does not show noticeable symptoms due to a decrease in the volume of sex hormones, subsides. But in some it causes bleeding, pain in the abdomen, in general, intensifies the severe signs of menopause. In such cases, the woman is prescribed hormone therapy with estrogen-progestin drugs, which must be carefully selected, accompanied by an ultrasound at the beginning of treatment and after 3 months.

The lack of results, especially the progression of the disease dictates the need to remove the uterus, as in this case there is a risk of cancer.

New growths on the reproductive organs often appear exactly at the age of menopause. And if they were diagnosed before, they are able to be activated due to changes in the hormonal status.

Often with menopause, tumors are found on the ovaries, one-or two-sided. Kistoma in menopause can be reborn from benign to borderline and further to cancer. Therefore, to monitor its existence is necessary especially carefully.

At first, the cystoma does not show obvious signs of its presence, and it can be found only upon examination, undergoing ultrasound. As it increases, it causes the appearance of:

  • Aching pain in the abdomen, responding in the groin or sacrum,
  • Feelings of bursting in the peritoneum,
  • Frequent running to the toilet "in a small way"
  • Constipation or, on the contrary, diarrhea.

Twisting the lesions of the neoplasm provokes instantaneous sharp pain, rapid heartbeat, vomiting, and a jump in temperature.

It is necessary to treat the cysts quickly because of the threat of its rebirth. The nature of the intervention is determined by the stage of development.

Malignant neoplasms of the ovaries

Ovarian tumors in women with menopause are not always benign. “Bad” cells found in organs are more frequent and appear at this age, and not at a younger one. Therefore, it is important to monitor the condition of the ovaries regularly. In 100% of cases, the initial stage of the disease is successfully treated. With the development of the chances of recovery are reduced, but do not disappear.

At the initial stage of a malignant neoplasm, a woman may feel:

  • Mild pulling pain in the side of the abdomen,
  • The severity of the anterior abdominal wall,
  • Periodically appearing and disappearing wandering pains,
  • Disorders associated with urination and stool. But this feature appears less frequently than the previous ones.

At a later level of development of the disease, weakness is felt, for no apparent reason, the weight goes away, but the stomach may grow. Pain becomes stronger.

The primary cause of ovarian cancer is often an overlooked benign tumor. If she showed up, it is necessary to monitor her condition and not to refuse treatment offered by the doctor. Reborn in cancer, the tumor may require removal of not only the diseased organ, but also the fallopian tubes, the uterus itself.

We recommend reading an article on the symptoms and treatment of cystitis in menopause. You will learn about the causes of the development of the disease and its manifestations, ways to relieve inflammation and prevent relapse.

Uterine fibroids during menopause usually regress. For the development of neoplasms, female hormones are needed, which are currently being quantitatively reduced. The size of the organ itself naturally decreases, and the nodes of the tumor collapse and disappear.

But in some cases this does not happen. Such postmenopausal uterine fibroids exhibit the following symptoms:

  • Discharge from the genital tract with blood,
  • Low hemoglobin, visible by blood test,
  • Thickened endometrium
  • Enlarged ovaries, often with neoplasms on them.

Climax with non-regressive nodes usually occurs later than in other women, that is, after 51 years. If fibroids tend to self-resorption, it begins to decrease even at the stage of premenopause, 1-2 years before the last menstruation. A non-progressive neoplasm shows no signs of reduction, on the contrary, it grows or maintains its former size.

Most women understand that vaginitis caused by menopause cannot be ignored. But some stubbornly continue to relieve symptoms only folk remedies. A more serious examination and monitoring of the state of other reproductive organs are not at all concerned. This is a mistake that later will necessarily force a solution to more serious problems. A minimal attention to yourself with a visit to the doctor, the use of modern medicines will help make the new segment of life healthy and comfortable.

It is also necessary to monitor them, for this period the occurrence of many gynecological diseases is typical. Therefore, it is worth knowing the allocation during menopause, which are possible in a healthy woman.

Endometriosis in menopause and its manifestations. Causes of endometrial growth during menopause. . And yet there is a positive moment at this age - the decline of some gynecological diseases, depending on sex.

How are the critical days during menopause and what is menopause? 4. Flowering, menopause (from the Greek meno - month and pausis - pause) - a stage in a woman's life between the recovery age and the onset of aging.

More about the climax after surgery. There are gynecological diseases in which an operation to remove organs is the only way out. They can overtake at any age.

Why blood should not be. Diseases that trigger bleeding after menopause. . This is also likely, since a decrease in hormonal activity provokes not only gynecological problems.

Bleeding can also occur due to hormonal changes that have occurred on the basis of gynecological diseases, which are. Drug therapy. Often, with menopause in women, the symptoms are aggravated, and more serious treatment is required.

Bone problems

In adulthood, both women and men begin losing bone minerals. In women, this process accelerates after 45 years and is most active in the first decade after menopause. The main consequence of demineralization is osteoporosis. It appears as follows:

  • Bones become thinner and weaker. First of all, it concerns the spongy bones - vertebrae, ribs, pelvic bones, wrists. However, over time, the process also affects the tubular bones of the limbs. Thus, in older women, the risk of fracture of even the strongest bone, the femoral bone, increases.
  • Teeth become more prone to caries, are destroyed.
  • Nails become brittle.
  • Hair thin and fall out.

Osteoporosis is associated with the fact that with a decrease in the level of estrogen, the balance of dying processes and the formation of bone tissue is lost. Sex hormones slow down the destruction of bones and stimulate osteoblasts - the cells that produce bone tissue. The degradation of bones leads not only to an increased risk of fractures, but also to their deformation - the vertebrae flatten, the vertebral column is bent, scoliosis and growth can be reduced.

The degree of development of osteoporosis varies depending on the individual characteristics of the organism. Primarily this is affected by the initial amount of calcium in the bones. It depends on heredity, quality of nutrition in childhood and adolescence, lifestyle, physical activity, body weight, and the presence of bad habits. Increase the stock of mineral in adulthood will help courses of calcium with vitamin D3, improves its absorption. In any case, a woman by 55–60 years will lose 2-3 times more calcium than a man. After another ten years, the amount of mineral can fall to half from the original.

Joint diseases

Dysfunctions of chondrocytes (the main cells of cartilage tissue) and a decrease in the amount of collagen, mainly manifestations of aging, are also accelerated due to a lack of estrogen. Together with the weakening of immunity, this leads to inflammation of the articular cartilage and such diseases during menopause in women as arthrosis, arthritis, dysplasia and hernia.

Climacteric arthritis manifests itself softly - the main symptom is a nagging pain dependent on the weather or an acute pain syndrome with sudden movements. With arthrosis and pain may not be - the disease is diagnosed in this case only during a routine examination, a general blood test. Arthritis is usually affected by phalanges. Their joints may swell slightly, but there is no increase in temperature or redness.

Another common disease is gout, in which uric acid accumulates in the joints. It is connected with the fact that without estrogens, the kidneys begin to remove this metabolic product from the body worse. Symptoms of gout are similar to signs of arthritis - pain, swelling, and sometimes redness. Localization is different - with gout, the joints in the feet become inflamed.

Heart and Vascular Diseases

After menopause, the risk of the following diseases increases:

Most often, menopause leads to an increase in blood pressure, which can become persistent and go into hypertension. Это наблюдается, вместе с разными видами аритмий, почти у трети женщин, достигших менопаузы.

Симптомы гипертонии при климаксе в основном стандартны: головная боль, головокружение, тошнота, боли в загрудинном пространстве. There is also a feature - women are more sensitive to sodium salts, which leads to water retention in the body and swelling of tissues in the upper half of the body. Therefore, after menopause, it is recommended to limit the intake of salty foods.

A common consequence of climacteric hypertension is an increase in the size of the left ventricular myocardium. This can lead to serious cardiovascular diseases: angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. In addition, due to the persistent increase in blood pressure increases the risk of circulatory disorders in the brain.

Sclerosis (the transformation of the main tissue of blood vessels in the connective), according to recent studies, is the result of hormonal disorders. However, menopause is not the only factor influencing the development of this disease. The consequence of problems with the vessels is the deterioration of their elasticity, the fragility of the walls, varicose veins of the lower extremities. This can lead to thrombosis, trophic ulcers.

The effect of menopause on blood

When menopause stops the effect of estrogen on the liver and kidneys, normally cleans the blood. Because of this, its composition changes - first of all it concerns the lipid composition. The ratio of high and low density cholesterols changes - the latter becomes larger. The content of triglycerides increases. The blood becomes more viscous, the concentration of fibrinogen increases, which leads to an increased formation of blood clots.

It is an increase in the amount of harmful lipids in the blood that leads to atherosclerosis. However, this is not the only effect of menopause on the composition of the blood - there are fewer different hormones and enzymes in the blood, since menopause affects the endocrine system.

Endocrine system

During menopause, the function of not only the sex glands, but also of other organs of internal secretion is disturbed. First of all - the thyroid and pancreas. This leads to such diseases:

  • hypothyroidism
  • hyperthyroidism, or thyrotoxicosis,
  • diabetes.

Hypothyroidism is an insufficient synthesis of thyroid secretion. These hormones are necessary for the normal production of various intracellular enzyme proteins. Hypothyroidism is manifested in a change in skin tone and thickening, swelling of tissues, an increase in body weight, and a decrease in mental activity.

Thyrotoxicosis is a pathology with a reverse hypothyroidism effect. Basically it has psycho-emotional consequences: irritability, mood swings. Body weight decreases without loss of appetite. Physical and mental exhaustion is felt, insomnia is possible. Hyperthyroidism can lead to diabetes, the latter also becomes a separate effect of menopause.

Menopause, as a rule, occurs with type 2 diabetes, in which the disruption of the pancreas is combined with insulin resistance of the tissues. The latter is the result of a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, arrhythmias, vascular disorders and other negative effects of menopause. Manifestation of diabetes mellitus in increasing the concentration of glucose in the blood, weakness, thirst and causeless hunger.

Gynecological diseases

Lack of hormones affects the state of the reproductive system, both directly and indirectly, by weakening the immune defense. The first is manifested in the restructuring of the genital organs, the second - in the appearance of inflammation and other gynecological diseases.

Due to the cessation of the effect of estrogen on the vaginal mucosa changes its microflora. The consequence of this is vaginitis. It manifests itself in discomfort, dryness, burning and itching in the vagina, pain during intercourse, white mucous secretions.

Salpingitis is inflammation of the fallopian tubes, which is a complication of vaginitis. It can affect both one and both fallopian tubes. Symptoms of the disease are the same as for other infections - pain in the lower abdomen, fatigue, fever. Sometimes there are purulent discharge.

Atrophy of the endometrium can lead to bleeding. Factors contributing to the development of pathology are problems with the cardiovascular system and diabetes. Sometimes there is a complication of weakening of the vaginal mucosa - the fusion of tissues. Adhesions in the uterine canal block its lumen, which leads to inflammation. This complication is treated only by surgery.

Adenomyosis - endometrial germination in the uterus, which can be observed as after, and shortly before menopause. Hormone therapy helps to cope with the disease; if the treatment does not work, a hysterectomy may be performed due to the risk of developing cancer.

Neuropsychiatric disorders

The effect of hormonal changes on various parts of the nervous system leads to the following diseases:

  • vegetative dystonia (VVD),
  • lumbago, sciatica, radiculitis and neuralgia - a consequence of inflammation in the pelvic region,
  • encephalopathy,
  • circulatory disorders in the brain,
  • violations of the sensitivity of the skin in the limbs and abdomen.

VSD and other autonomic disorders - a consequence of dysfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary. IRR leads to problems with different systems of the body, as well as to psycho-emotional disorders.

Encephalopathy becomes a consequence of changes in the kidneys (increasing the content of potassium and nitrogen in the blood) and an increase in blood pressure. The disease manifests itself in headaches, nausea and vomiting, nervous ticking, mental retardation, anxiety.

Impaired blood circulation in the brain is also a consequence of hypertension. Symptoms are similar to signs of encephalopathy. With this pathology, a woman can lose consciousness, fall into a coma. A complication of the disease is cerebral vein thrombosis.

Oncological diseases

Due to the deterioration of the immune system, increased sensitivity of tissues to various influences and a general body disorder during menopause, the likelihood of tumor growth increases. First of all it concerns the genital organs - tumors are formed in the uterus, mammary glands, ovaries. If cancer has already occurred before, they can come out of remission or begin active development during menopause.

Oncological diseases include:

  • Cystoma. By themselves, they are benign, but can be reborn into cancerous tumors. At an early stage, a cystoma does not manifest itself at all - it can only be determined during a routine inspection or an ultrasound examination of the small pelvis. As it grows, the tumor can cause pain, squeeze the bladder and lower intestines.
  • Cancer tumors. Their symptoms include pain, heaviness in the abdomen, urinary disorders, weight loss. Cancer is successfully treated if it is diagnosed in its early stages.
  • Uterine fibroids. Unlike other tumors, this one during menopause is reduced in size, as it requires estrogens to grow. If this does not happen, menopause may come later.

For the successful treatment of oncological diseases, it is necessary to undergo regular examination by a gynecologist.

Thus, menopause can cause a wide variety of diseases. They affect the entire body, and they are all interrelated. To prevent diseases from leading to serious complications, it is recommended to be constantly monitored by doctors during menopause.