Abundant menstruation for some women are the norm. Severe bleeding is considered a feature of physiology, the device of the genital organs and blood vessels. But most often they occur in pathologies due to metabolic disorders or hormonal levels. Even if there are no pains, and the cycle is regular, it is advisable to visit a doctor to understand how serious the deviation is, how to make blood loss in menstruation less noticeable.
- What should be the normal amount of menstrual flow
- How to measure blood loss
- Factors that can increase menstrual flow
- Causes of pathological abundant menses
- Hormonal disbalance
- Pathology of pregnancy
How to measure blood loss
A convenient way to determine blood loss and its compliance with the norm is to count the number of absorbent sanitary pads that a woman has to use every day during her period. Summarizing the number of pads consumed per day, you can find out how much approximately the blood is lost for all days:
- Blood loss is considered “very easy” if the pads need to be changed 1-2 times a day (this corresponds to 6-9 g of secretions containing blood and mucus).
- For "light discharge" you need to use 3-4 pads per day (change every 6-8 hours, which corresponds to about 10-12 g).
- In case of “moderate” blood loss, the pads need to be replaced once every 4 hours (13-15 g / day is released).
- "Abundant" are the discharge, in which the pads should be changed every 3 hours (up to 18 g of blood is lost per day).
"Very large" blood loss is when the gasket flows every 1-2 hours. In this case, medical assistance is already required, since there is a clear pathology.
Factors that can increase menstrual flow
The amount and consistency of discharge are individual for each woman. They depend on the hereditary and congenital features of the structure of the uterus, blood clotting, metabolism, temperament, lifestyle, nutrition system, body build, age. The following factors can affect the nature of discharge:
- Use of hormonal contraceptives. They are taken to suppress the maturation of the egg and ovulation according to a strictly defined pattern. Violation of the regimen leads to more menstruation than usual.
- Installing the intrauterine device. In the first 3 months, periods can be longer and more abundant, until the body gets used to the new hormonal background.
- The use of duphaston and other therapeutic hormonal drugs. The termination of their admission leads to a sharp increase in the level of progesterone and the beginning of abundant blood flow after a few days.
- Taking anticoagulants and other drugs that can reduce blood clotting.
The intensity increases if during their course the body is subjected to increased physical exertion, if the woman is experiencing emotional stress.
Menstrual bleeding increases after an abortion or surgery on the uterus, as well as after childbirth. Not only the hormonal changes, but also the disturbance of the state of the inner surface, which stimulates more intensive development of the endometrium, is to blame. Occurrence of adhesions or cicatrices in the uterus leads to clots in the menstrual flow, resulting from its stagnation.
In adolescents within 2 years after the onset of puberty, as well as in women during the onset of the first climacteric changes as a result of the instability of the hormonal background, heavy bleeding alternates during menstruation with scanty. Menstruation comes with delays or, conversely, too often.
Elevated estrogen levels lead to excessive growth of the endometrium and increased bleeding during menstruation. Disturbance in the production of hormones from the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland and other endocrine organs, the use of contraceptives and hormonal drugs, metabolic disorders and other factors cause hyperestrogenism.
Pathology of pregnancy
Sometimes during pregnancy due to a lack of progesterone, menstruation does not disappear. If the period comes with a slight delay, and the bleeding is then abundant and painful, it may mean that a miscarriage occurred at the earliest time.
Menstrual-like bleeding can also be severe with an ectopic pregnancy.
Increased profusion and painful discharge of blood occurs with endometriosis, the presence of uterine tumors (fibroids and cancer), the appearance of neoplasms in the ovaries, polyps in the endometrium, or the cervix. Inflammation of the endometrium is also a cause of changes in its structure and increased bleeding during menstruation.
Often, with diseases and hormonal disorders, menstrual periods pass into uterine bleeding, which also appear between them. The danger of excessive blood loss is that the level of hemoglobin decreases due to the loss of iron. Sometimes, urgent medical care is required to stop the bleeding, even complete removal of the endometrium (curettage of the uterus).
Signs of anemia are nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, headache, fainting, drop in blood pressure.
If there is too much bleeding, leading to a deterioration of general well-being and loss of working ability, it is first necessary to consult a doctor and find out the cause of such an anomaly. Examination by ultrasound, hysteroscopy to study the state of the endometrium, the detection of diseases of the uterus and ovaries. A blood test allows you to identify hormonal disorders, the presence of inflammatory processes.
In accordance with the results of the examination, treatment is prescribed, general recommendations are given on how to reduce the abundance of menstrual bleeding. With hormonal disorders, oral contraceptives (mercilone, rigevidon) or progesterone drugs (duphaston, urogestan), drugs that suppress the production of estrogen in the ovaries (pregnil) are prescribed. Homeopathic remedies (mastodinon, remens) are used to regulate hormonal background.
Hemostatic drugs that regulate blood clotting and strengthen the walls of blood vessels, such as etamzilat, ditsinon, vikasol (a synthetic analogue of vitamin K - a natural coagulant) are used. To strengthen the blood vessels it is necessary to take vitamin preparations containing vitamins C, K and group B.
Used drugs that enhance the contraction of the uterus (oxytocin, pituitrin). They help to make the monthly shorter. To increase hemoglobin level, iron preparations are prescribed (maltofer).
A warning: All of these tools are used only on prescription. Failure to dose leads to vascular thrombosis. Instead, you can take decoctions of nettle, shepherd's bag, water pepper (1 tablespoon. Grass infused in 1 cup boiling water). They are consumed 3 times a day, 50 ml.
With severe bleeding during menstruation, it is recommended to abandon the use of strong tea and coffee, stay under the hot rays of the sun. To relieve bleeding and pain, a cold heating pad is briefly applied to the lower abdomen.
Uterine bleeding - symptoms, causes
Uterine bleeding in medicine is called dysfunctional uterine bleeding - this is abnormal abnormal blood discharge from the uterus. They are one of the most striking manifestations of hormonal dysfunction in women. Because the main cause of uterine bleeding often lies in the violation of the production of female sex hormones. This pathology can be in any woman, at any age, so uterine bleeding is classified according to age criterion as follows:
- Uterine hemorrhages at the age of 12-18 years - during puberty or juvenile age
- During the reproductive age of 18-45 years
- In menopause 45-55 years, when ovarian function dies away
Symptoms or signs of uterine bleeding are expressed either by significant discharge of blood during menstruation, or by an increase in the duration of menstruation, as well as acyclic bleeding or metrorrhagia, when menstruation is absent for 6–8 weeks or more, and then bleeding of varying intensity develops.
How to independently determine uterine bleeding - symptoms of blood loss
At any age, a characteristic symptom of bleeding in a woman is prolonged heavy discharge, lasting more than a week with signs of anemia, confirmed by a blood test and the following symptoms:
- Weakness, fatigue
- Dizziness, headaches
- Paleness of the skin
- Hypotension - low blood pressure
- What it means copious discharge is when a tampon is filled or the pads get soaked in an hour, if you have to change the pads even at night. Sometimes a woman is not able to go to work, can not do household chores, and most of the time is forced to lie down and rest.
- In addition to intensity, bleeding discharge is characterized by the presence of a significant number of blood clots.
- Bleeding is also considered the release of blood after sexual intercourse.
- If menstruation lasts more than a week with significant lower abdominal pain and lower back pain.
Uterine bleeding at the age of 12-18
In this period, uterine bleeding appears in almost 20% of all gynecological pathologies in girls, this is due to a violation of the formation of hormonal regulation for a number of reasons:
- Mental or physical injuries are provoking factors.
- Hypovitaminosis, malnutrition
- Impaired function of the adrenal cortex and thyroid gland
- Various serious childhood infectious diseases also affect the appearance of signs of uterine bleeding in adolescent girls - influenza, chronic tonsillitis, chickenpox, measles (see symptoms of measles in adults), mumps, whooping cough (signs of whooping cough in a child), etc.
- If the girl was born to a mother with a complicated course of pregnancy and pathological childbirth.
- Rarely, but there are cases when bleeding disorders are caused by bleeding disorders or tuberculosis of the female genital organs.
Causes of uterine bleeding in women of reproductive age
In the childbearing age, this pathology among all gynecological diseases accounts for only 5% of cases. As a rule, uterine bleeding is accompanied by ovarian dysfunction, the causes of which are a number of provoking factors:
- Stressful situations, chronic neuropsychic tension, overwork
- Occupational hazard, living in cities with developed chemical and metallurgical industry
- Changing of the climate
- Various inflammatory and infectious diseases of the female reproductive system, which lead to thickening of the ovarian capsule, as well as reduce the sensitivity of their tissues to gonadotropins, as well as:
- Chronic endometritis, endometriosis of the uterus
- Polyps and malignant neoplasms of the cervix and the uterus itself
- Ovarian tumors
- Surgical or medical abortion, miscarriages, ectopic pregnancy (signs)
- The use of drugs that cause dysfunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland.
Uterine bleeding menopause
This is the most common pathology that occurs in women during the premenopausal period - 15% among all gynecological diseases of this age category. This is due to the natural decrease in gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary gland, therefore, during the period of menopause, the release of hormones occurs irregularly, disrupting the cycle of ovulation, the development of the corpus luteum, folliculogenesis. Particularly often, uterine bleeding is accompanied by menopausal syndrome - in 30% of cases, when the signs of menopause in women are marked and intense. With characteristic for menopause, progesterone deficiency. hyperestrogenism and growth of the endometrium develops.
If a woman at the age of 45-55 has uterine bleeding, other pathologies that can cause them should be excluded, so the woman should be hysteroscopy twice - before and after diagnostic curettage. The most common causes of uterine bleeding in this case are:
- Uterine myoma
- Uterus polyps
- Rarely - hormone-active ovarian tumors
Common causes of uterine bleeding
- Thyroid dysfunction - with diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, the risk of uterine bleeding symptoms increases.
- Violation of hormonal levels. This is the most common cause of uterine bleeding in young girls and women after 45 years. With a normal hormonal background, when the balance between progesterone and estrogen is optimal, blood loss during menstruation is usually minimal. When this imbalance is broken, uterine bleeding occurs.
- Diseases of the circulatory system. With a decrease in platelet levels, as well as with other blood diseases, bleeding in women is also possible.
- Uterine fibroids. Especially heavy bleeding opens in women with internal uterine myoma, when the only way out is surgery.
- Adenomyosis. This disease is characterized by splicing of the inner and muscular layer of the uterus, menstruation with adenomyosis becomes painful, long and abundant, since the menstruating area increases significantly.
- Polyps. These are benign formations that often occur in women of childbearing age. With a significant number or size, their removal is indicated, since they are the cause of uterine bleeding and painful menstruation.
- Ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, premature detachment of the placenta. These complications during pregnancy have recently become quite common in women. In case of any bleeding during pregnancy, a woman should immediately call an “Ambulance”, because the bleeding can threaten the life of not only the baby, but also the expectant mother.
- Malignant neoplasms of the genital organs. This is the most serious cause of possible bleeding, and regardless of the localization of the tumor - the uterus, cervix, ovaries, for any bleeding a woman should first of all exclude cancer, because nowadays cancer tension increases with each passing year and no longer has clear age limits. Oncology is found in very young women as well as in menopausal women.
- Breakthrough uterine bleeding. This reason is directly related to the use of intrauterine contraceptives - coils or taking hormonal contraceptives. Especially increases the risk of bleeding after a simultaneous intake and contraceptives, and anticoagulants (aspirin). Breakthrough bleeding may be minor, at the beginning of the use of hormonal contraceptives, as an adaptation to the drug. In these cases, you should review the dosage or cancel the drug, if this does not help, then you should look for another cause of uterine bleeding. Also, blood loss occurs on the background of damage to the uterus intrauterine device, while it should be removed as soon as possible.
If something unusual occurs during menstruation, in the middle of the cycle, during pregnancy or during the premenopausal period, at the slightest suspicion of incipient bleeding, the woman should immediately contact her gynecologist for advice, examination and determination of the true cause of uterine bleeding, since only knowing the exact diagnosis can begin adequate and timely treatment.
For emergency symptomatic treatment of uterine bleeding, experts recommend the following hemostatic agents: etamzilat, vikasol, dicinone, aminocaproic acid, calcium supplements.
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Monthly and bleeding - differences and characteristic signs
All the fair sex is well aware that menstruation is a normal physiological process. However, not everyone can always distinguish normal menstruation from pathological uterine bleeding. Неправильная диагностика, позднее обращение в больницу ставит под угрозу возможность иметь детей в будущем. Кроме того, это опасно развитием массивного маточного кровотечения, что без своевременного медицинского вмешательства приводит к летальному исходу. Так как отличить месячные от кровотечения?
Bleeding during menstruation is normal
Blood excretion during the normal menstrual cycle has its own characteristics well known to every girl:
- Monthly duration is from 3 days to 1 week and does not exceed the specified time.
- Monthly come after a certain period of time (from 21 to 35 days), which is individual for each girl individually.
- Menstruation begins with scanty, bloody bleeding. For 2-3 days there is more heavy bleeding, which by the end of the month comes to naught.
- The color of the bloody discharge at the beginning is scarlet, then bright red. At the end of menstruation, the blood becomes maroon or black.
- During normal menstruation, blood clots depart, however, in a small amount and mostly for 1-2 days of menstruation.
Important! Every girl is important to know the difference between normal menstrual and pathological bleeding. So you can see a doctor in time if you suspect uterine bleeding.
You also need to know that with normal monthly for one day requires no more than 4 pads. In this case, menses are considered physiological volumes, not abundant.
Pain symptoms are present only at the beginning of menstruation, then the pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen go away. Pain is easily stopped by the use of antispasmodic and painkillers, they do not interfere with the performance of usual, everyday tasks.
Pathological uterine bleeding: signs
To distinguish bleeding from menstruation, pay attention to the nature of bleeding, their number and time of occurrence. Uterine bleeding is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Premature or late onset of "menstruation."
- Excessive bleeding. Up to 10 or more pads are required per day.
- Blood excretion lasts more than a week, the volume of blood loss does not decrease.
- During menstruation, a large number of blood clots are bright red.
- Menstruation accompanied by symptoms of weakness, fatigue. There is drowsiness, thirst and dry mouth, excessive sweating. The girl, as a rule, complains of intense pains in the lower abdomen of a sinking-down or pulling character. Pain syndrome can be so painful that it makes you take a forced position: with your knees brought to the stomach. The pain interferes with the performance of daily activities.
Blood tests for such patients show anemia due to blood loss. The girls lose their hair, break their nails, any physical exertion causes shortness of breath. The color of the skin becomes a marble (porcelain) shade. The skin is moist to the touch.
Important! When the above symptoms appear, consult your gynecologist to conduct a complete diagnosis of the reproductive system. Otherwise, infertility or complications such as infection may occur over time.
There is one more condition about which girls need to know - copious periods. They are distinguished by regularity (they come through the same period of time), however, the volume of blood loss exceeds the normal level. This is a variant of the norm, however, it is better to see a gynecologist. The fact is that heavy periods often indicate pathology in the uterus. This is a kind of alarm warning of the development of the pathological process.
Diseases causing the development of heavy periods include:
- Uterine fibroids.
- Polyps of the uterus and cervix.
- Chronic uterine infections.
- Frequent abortions in the anamnesis.
- Incorrect position of the uterus (antiflexion, retroflection, bends and partitions).
- Systemic diseases of the blood coagulation system.
To normalize bleeding during menstruation, it is enough to cure the underlying disease, if this is possible.
How to distinguish menstruation from bleeding after childbirth
Bleeding after childbirth is a normal physiological process. Normally, a woman has at least 4 weeks postpartum, there is a release of spotting bleeding - lochia. Distinguishing bleeding from lochia is pretty simple:
- Bleeding proceeds with copious discharge of blood (lochia — scanty).
- The color of the blood when bleeding is scarlet, bright red (in lohii it is rusty, brown, or colorless).
- Lochias have a peculiar odor.
- Lochia is separated without blood clots.
Bleeding after pregnancy carries a particular danger to a woman’s life. Accompanied by symptoms of general weakness, headaches, low pressure. Women complain of lower abdominal pain.
First aid and treatment for bleeding during menstruation
If you suspect that bleeding has begun, immediately provide complete rest for the victim. Exercise during this period is strictly prohibited. Put cold on the lower abdomen, let the patient drink plenty of water. After the ambulance arrives, the doctor determines the patient management tactics and indications for hospitalization in the hospital.
Treatment can be either conservative (exclusively with the help of hormonal and hemostatic drugs) or surgical (curettage of the uterus, laparotomy with ligation or embolization of the bleeding vessel).
Recommended for review:
Short monthly: causes, diagnosis, treatment
Monthly cycle and basal temperature: a table of average physiological values
Menstrual cycle and contraceptive drugs
Intestinal colic in newborns: what to do to mom and what first aid to give to the child
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What is the difference between menstruation and bleeding?
Critical days are not the most pleasant moments in the life of most women. Migraine, abdominal pain, lower back - are frequent companions of menstruation. Knowing how to distinguish menstruation from bleeding, you will be able to respond to the situation in a timely manner by contacting a medical institution for routine or urgent advice. What are the main differences between the natural physiological process and the pathology that threatens health?
Causes of intrauterine bleeding
Any loss of blood is dangerous for the body. More than a third of cases of uterine bleeding are not related to the normal functioning of the female reproductive organs. Most pathologies are not life-threatening, however, they often cause a general deterioration in health, lead to anemia and a decrease in iron in the blood. Sexual life suffers, social activity of women is reduced. What are the causes of failures in the body and how to distinguish menstrual from pathological bleeding:
- Termination of pregnancy (abortion), regardless of the medical records or the desire of the woman.
- Consequences of cesarean section.
- Diets, starvation, leading to intoxication.
- Hormonal disorders.
- Vitamin deficiency, micronutrient deficiency (especially iron).
- Blood disorders associated with worsening of coagulability.
- Stressful situations, prolonged depression - the reason for the absence or sudden appearance of uterine discharge.
- Infectious diseases.
- Weight lifting, heavy “male” work.
- Gynecological problems and inflammations.
- Neoplasms (benign / malignant).
Classification of uterine bleeding and their symptoms
Bleeding from the uterus in medical practice can be divided into 3 types:
- Normal Doctors refer to the natural physiological process only monthly.
- Conditionally normal bleeding. Often occur during or immediately after ovulation. In this group, a number of gynecologists include an implantation type of bleeding in pregnant women, which can be distinguished by the time of onset - for 7 days of conception and for an insignificant amount of blood secreted.
- Pathology. Occur in reproductive age, after the onset of menopause, in girls who have not reached puberty. Are divided into:
- functionalities that can be distinguished by failures in the pituitary gland and the entire endocrine system,
- organic (vaginal, uterine) caused by neoplasms: polyps, hyperplasia, endometriosis,
- systemic, caused by autoimmune or chronic diseases.
Symptoms of bleeding from the uterus that are not related to the normal menstrual cycle:
- The abundance of secretions. The average rate of blood loss in menstruation does not exceed 50-80 g throughout the cycle. Excess rates - a way to distinguish menstruation from bleeding.
- The frequency of replacement gaskets. Changing hygiene products more often than once per hour is a reason to contact a gynecologist.
- Failures of the menstrual cycle. Sudden onset of menstruation, delay may be caused by serious gynecological diseases.
- Distribution of blood loss during menstruation. For normal menstruation, small “smears” are characteristic during the first two days, then an increase in the amount of blood lost and the process is suspended until complete. Bleeding can be distinguished by the presence of one of the stages: prolonged meager discharge, severe blood loss (as in 3-4 days).
- The color of blood. During menstruation, bleeding is dark red or brownish. Scarlet color and the presence of a characteristic odor are inherent in most bleeding.
- Clots. During menstruation, blood clots form in the woman’s body. Therefore, if during monthly blood clots come out, you should not be afraid. Doctors consider such a phenomenon as the norm. The presence of pathologies suggests the absence of a similar phenomenon.
Differs in a long period or uncharacteristic, profuse blood loss. Often occurs in women of climacteric age, with puberty of the girl. The deficit / excess of progesterone or estrogen, hormones produced by the endocrine system, necessary for the functioning of the female genital organs and the normal cycle of menstruation, are the impetus for the onset. In most cases, hormone therapy is prescribed for treatment.
Dysfunctional bleeding is divided into:
- Ovulatory. An “abnormal” cycle will help to distinguish them from menstruation: a long, very scanty discharge throughout the month and longer or shorter periods with a blood loss of 90 g and an interval of more than 35 days.
- Anovulatory. Characteristic external signs are: large blood loss, cycle failures, weakness, lack of appetite, drowsiness. Recognizing this type of pathology in clinical practice is possible during a gynecological examination, on the basis of laboratory tests, ultrasound.
Juvenile bleeding in most women occurs in seasonal form. Characteristic features are: the absence of the process of formation of the corpus luteum (ovulation) due to hormonal disorders. More than 90% of diseases occur in girls of puberty. There are frequent cases of juvenile pathologies in girls before puberty, caused by neoplasms.
About a third of breakthrough-type bleeding is caused by uterine damage caused by the intrauterine device. Arise on the background of the use of contraceptives, hormonal contraceptives. For treatment are necessary: a visit to the gynecologist, including an examination, laboratory tests, changing the dosage of contraceptive preparations or removing the helix.
How to distinguish menstrual from profuse bleeding? This type of pathology is characterized by a large loss of blood, scarlet color of discharge, resembles menstrual pain in symptoms. The period of occurrence varies. Requires immediate hospitalization. Treatment involves surgery - cleaning (curettage) of the uterus. This metrorrhagia is very difficult to distinguish from menstruation.
Bleeding with menopause
Endometrium, uterine fibroids, polyps and other neoplasms are often characteristic of women in menopause. Decreased production of estrogen, progesterone leads to the absence of menstruation or cycle failure. How to distinguish menstruation from bleeding in women after 45 years? Painful sensations during sexual intercourse, an interval between cycles of more than 90 days, or persistent discharge are typical symptoms.
Any bleeding in women after conception is a threat to the life, health of the mother and baby. The exception is the implantation view. Having found bloody discharge of a bright color, the future mom should immediately contact the antenatal clinic or call an ambulance. Bleeding during pregnancy is accompanied by symptoms:
- paroxysmal pain in the lower abdomen, resembling contractions,
What is bleeding during menstruation
Monthly - the only type of uterine secretions of blood, characteristic of the healthy functioning of the reproductive organs of women. The onset of menstruation coincides with the puberty of girls from 11 to 14 years. Monthly bleeding accompany women for most of their lives, ending during menopause or when carrying a child. During the menstrual cycle, there may be signs indicating inflammatory processes or physiological abnormalities:
- A significant number of clots, uncharacteristic for women.
- Very dark (closer to black) color of discharge or bright scarlet shade.
- Increased blood loss.
What is the difference between menstruation and pathology?
During menstruation, most women experience slight pain in the abdomen and pelvic organs. How to distinguish menstruation from bleeding:
- cycle - no more than once every 21-30 days,
- by the interval between bleeding - the minimum is 21 days, the maximum - 36 days,
- according to the abundance of secretions - the increasing nature of lochies during the first 3 days followed by a decrease on the 5th day allows us to distinguish between periods,
- by age - bleeding can occur in girls who have not reached puberty,
- by sensation of pain - periods are characterized by slight discomfort or lack of pain.
Bleeding from the uterus after childbirth is a natural process of recovery of the body. Postpartum lochia can last up to 50-60 days. The reason is the separation from the uterus of the placental body. The following signs should cause alarm in this period:
- unpleasant smell
- bright color, no clots,
- temperature rise,
Being the norm, in 40% of cases in pregnant women, menstruation continues during the first month of pregnancy. This type of monthly bleeding is called implantation bleeding and is associated with the destruction of the uterine lining when the embryo is implanted after fertilization. A visit to the gynecologist will help determine the absence of pathology threatening a pregnancy or premature birth.
How to stop excessive bleeding during menstruation
Scarlet blood during menstruation, heavy discharge with clots, worsening of well-being with suspected bleeding is a reason for going to the doctor. Menstrual flow sometimes cause not only discomfort, but also lead to anemia, vitamin deficiency, drowsiness, apathy. In such cases, taking medications that promote blood clotting, reduce bleeding is the only way to normalize health:
- "Ditsinon." It is released without a prescription, contributes to blood clotting. Among the side effects, there is an increased likelihood of blood clots, so frequent use is dangerous.
- "Trinix". It refers to the number of drugs of the last generation. Daily dosage should not exceed 250 mg. Quickly stops severe bleeding during menstruation.
What to do if uterine bleeding is suspected
In cases where a woman does not know how to distinguish between menstruation and uterine bleeding, if you suspect a pathological form of their occurrence, you should immediately seek help from an ambulance specialist. When waiting for specialists to reduce blood loss, you must:
- go to bed so that the legs are above the body,
- a hot water bottle, “dry” ice will help reduce blood loss,
- drink in small portions of sweetened water, warm tea to avoid dehydration.
Causes of bleeding during menstruation
If during critical days menstrual bleeding is accompanied by unnatural symptoms, doctors consider this a pathology caused by a disease, injury or external factors.
The main reasons why it can open:
- hormonal imbalance,
- hematoma (during pregnancy)
- neoplasms in the ovaries or uterus,
- problems with blood clotting,
- inflammation or infection of the genital organs,
- lack of vitamins
- aborted pregnancy
- approximation of menopause.
Neoplasms can be benign (polyps, uterine fibroids) or malignant. Намеренное прерывание беременности практически в 100% случаев также вызывает выделения крови, которые девушки часто путают с наступившей менструацией.
Causes of bleeding during menstruation can be directly related to age-related changes. In addition to the adjustment on the background of menopause, emit also:
- bleeding from babies (they pass naturally in a couple of days),
- discharge associated with puberty (11-18 years).
The latter are often associated with emotional and psychological overload inherent in girls at a young age.
Depending on the cause that caused the bleeding during the critical days, there are such types of them.
- Dysfunctional. Most often associated with hormonal stress. It is subdivided into ovulatory (in women of reproductive age, often associated with abortion) and anovulatory (the onset of menopause, due to the duration can cause anemia).
- Juvenile. It also ranks climacteric, with the difference that juvenile is inherent in girls of reproductive age. Characterized by a lack of ovulation, symptoms often warn of the presence of a tumor.
- Breakthrough. Caused by the intake of contraceptives, or a violation of the intrauterine device.
- Profuse It resembles menstruation, but the discharge is very strong and does not appear only during the period of critical days.
- During pregnancy. A signal of an arising pathology, often a hematoma becomes the cause.
During pregnancy, some women experience bloody discharge. If small strokes, like during menstruation in the first weeks after conception, are a normal process, then severe bleeding that occurs during the 2nd trimester and later can mean a serious pathology. A hematoma that occurs under the influence of various factors and threatens the future existence of the fetus becomes a frequent occurrence. It is of two types:
- retrochorial (detachment of the fetus from the chorion), a period of 7 weeks 16 weeks,
- retroplacental (detachment of the fetus from the placenta), the period of 16 weeks.
In any case, to determine why the problems started, you need to consult a doctor. But not all women can accurately determine that they have started bleeding.
Signs of bleeding during menstruation
Often a woman cannot say with precision whether she has bleeding or it is a heavy flow. To determine whether menstrual bleeding has occurred, it is necessary to trace whether a woman has characteristic symptoms and signs:
- the blood that is excreted exceeds the volume of 80 ml,
- critical days last longer than a week
- irregularity of discharge
- with the onset of menopause or before puberty.
How to distinguish bleeding from menstruation
How to understand, began monthly or bleeding? In fact, it is not difficult. The discharge that comes to a woman every month can be distinguished by the following factors:
- the color of the blood is dark (almost scarlet with bleeding),
- volumes of discharge 50-80 ml
- for the entire period of critical days, it takes up to 10 pads (and not every new hour),
- the cycle lasts at least 21 days
- duration of discharge 3-7 days.
If the blood is almost non-stop and longer than a week, most likely it is abundant bleeding during menstruation and you need to consult a doctor, you may need urgent treatment.
What to do
Ignore bleeding during menstruation, as, indeed, in any other period, it is impossible. In addition, it is a signal of problems in the body, the blood loss itself has serious consequences. If you detect suspicious symptoms, you should immediately go to the hospital to determine the diagnosis and, accordingly, to choose the right method of treatment.
The first action should be an examination by a gynecologist. If a woman has bleeding during menstruation, this diagnosis is usually prescribed:
- blood test (general, for hormones, biochemical),
- Analysis of urine,
- ultrasound procedure,
According to the results of the examinations, it will be clear on the profile of a specialist that the disease has arisen: a gynecologist, an endocrinologist, a surgeon or another. For the most part, treatment consists of the fact that a woman is prescribed a medicine that reduces excretion, vitamins. If the reason that the woman began to open bleeding, is menopause, in order to reduce their prescribed drugs with progesterone.
If the drugs are ineffective, they can prescribe cleaning to remove the damaged mucous membrane from the uterus.
If you ignore the bleeding during menstruation, and it was caused by a benign (and even more malignant) tumor, it can go so far as to require surgery, up to the removal of the uterus.
If discharge occurs during pregnancy and a hematoma has caused it, ignoring the problem can cause a miscarriage. Hematoma is treated most often in the hospital.
If according to the results of examinations there were no serious pathologies, how can calcium gluconate treatment be prescribed?
But if there is no opportunity to immediately get to the doctor, and the blood comes out in huge quantities, it is better to drink the drug, which reduces the selection.
But such funds can not be taken regularly only as an ambulance, in the case when the blood leaves the body at a rapid rate.
Such means include, for example, Vikasol and Ditsinon. But the second, for example, is prohibited with thrombosis. The dosage of these drugs (and similar) is extremely limited, you need to read the instructions very carefully, and it is better to consult at least with a pharmacist at the pharmacy, and better with a doctor before taking it.
Recipes of traditional medicine
Use of folk remedies is possible only after the diagnosis has been conducted by a qualified doctor and he is not at all against such means of therapy. In the case when stress, fatigue, lack of useful elements have become the cause of poor health, this method of treatment can be applied, and the release of blood can be reduced with the help of such folk remedies.
- Boil 2 tablespoons of nettle with boiling water, leave for 10 minutes. Strain and drink for two visits on an empty stomach.
- Instead of nettle, you can use the "shepherd's bag", taking the same way.
- Mix crushed peppermint leaves and raspberries. Brew like tea, and start drinking three days before the onset of menstruation and until the very end of it every day.
Still, if a similar problem has arisen, during menstruation it is better to give up the hot shower, visits to the bath, sauna and gym. It is also advisable to avoid stress, to lie more with your legs elevated, to use soothing teas and other well-known methods and methods, including traditional medicine.
The condition in which menstruation bleeding and other symptoms of disease occur simultaneously cannot be ignored. The causes of this problem can be different: from the effects of taking drugs to the formation of a malignant tumor. Therefore, at the very first suspicions that critical days have been delayed or that the discharge is not the same as usual, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor.