The process of ovulation occurs with a certain frequency, depends on the duration of the menstrual cycle and ranges from 21 to 35 days. During ovulation, a mature egg leaves the ovarian follicle and is ready for fertilization. This physiological process in women begins from the moment of puberty and ends with the onset of menopause. If the egg is not fertilized, menstruation occurs within 14 days.
Symptoms of ovulation indicate the readiness of the female body to conceive and, depending on the individual characteristics, can be expressed weakly or brightly.
- lower abdominal pain,
- increased sexual desire
- increased secretion of mucus in the cervix,
- change the color of selections.
Pain in ovulation is not felt by all women. There is pain as a result of minor bleeding, when a follicle ruptures, it bursts and follicular fluid comes out of it along with small blood clots.
Feeling pain during ovulation - is this normal?
Small pains during ovulation of a cutting, stabbing or cramping character can be observed in the lower abdomen, in the area of the ovaries. The pain lasts for about an hour, sometimes they worry for a day or two. If you have severe pain, contact your gynecologist. Due to the fact that a mature follicle comes out every month from a different ovary - left or right, pain is also observed on the right or on the left.
The presence and appearance of pain during ovulation, doctors explain the contraction of the uterus and fallopian tubes during the outflow of fluid from the bursting follicle. After ovulation, pain is less common.
Increased sexual desire caused by pain during ovulation, as if prompted by nature that the most favorable period for conception.
For liquid discharge, a woman can determine that ovulation has begun. Discharge appears several hours before ovulation and may be present for a couple of days.
The characteristic ovulation reddish and pink color of secretions allows you to set the approximate days of ovulation. If the blood discharge is abundant, then it may be associated with uterine bleeding that is dangerous for the body and should consult a doctor.
What is dangerous lack of ovulation
In the absence of ovulation, pregnancy is not possible, and hence the appearance of a child.
Ovulation is absent when:
- due to hormonal disturbances,
- when menopause occurs,
- when the body reacts to certain medications.
As soon as the first signs of ovulation appear, a test is performed to verify this. Test conditions are listed on the packaging and are similar to performing a pregnancy test. If you suspect a lack of ovulation or to establish the exact date in each cycle, you can use a reusable digital test.
A normal menstrual cycle is crowned by the maturation of an egg cell ready for fertilization. Often this natural process is accompanied by pain. For some women, such pains pass unnoticed, for others it is a long-awaited signal of the onset of ovulation. At the same time, the ability to distinguish between pain in ovulation and pain associated with any disease will help in time to recognize the disease and consult a doctor. It is necessary to learn to recognize what causes pain.
Ovulatory syndrome or pain during ovulation include a complex of symptoms associated with the release of an egg from the follicle and is usually accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen during ovulation from one side or the other.
Causes of pain in the ovaries during ovulation
The main reason is the breakthrough of the follicle, the release of the egg from it, which causes pain. Minor bleeding stops spontaneously after 1-2 days. Very painful pains in the side during ovulation or back pain may be experienced by women who are more sensitive to pain or when the pelvic spikes occur. The bleeding is explained by a drop in the level of estradiol, a slight detachment of the endometrium.
Strong pain during ovulation - a cause for concern?
Usually the pain does not require treatment to specialists. But not always the pain in the lower abdomen in the middle of the cycle is evidence of ovulation. Often the pain may be associated with appendicitis. In cases of severe pain, accompanied by fever, which lasts more than 12 hours, urgently should consult a doctor.
Can I relieve pain during ovulation?
Acceptance of painkillers prescribed by the attending gynecologist, well helps to cope with severe pain. Well help to relax and relieve pain syndromes plentiful drinking and calm atmosphere. Sometimes oral hormone pills are recommended as contraception and suppression of ovulation.
1. What is ovulation?
Ovulation is a medical term for the process of release of a mature egg from the ovarian follicle.
It usually occurs in the middle of the current menstrual cycle, and more precisely, almost 2 weeks before the beginning of the next menstrual period.
Changes in the body, observed during the menstrual cycle, depend on the action of hormones.
Already from the first day of the monthly follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which is produced in the pituitary, triggers the growth of several follicles in the ovaries.
They grow daily, increasing by 1 mm in diameter, until a large-sized follicle stands out among them - the dominant one, in which the egg cell matures.
From the first day of menstruation to the release of the egg takes about 7-22 days (usually 14).
The ovulation phase lasts about three days. At this time, a significant increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) is observed in the blood, which is also responsible for the production of the pituitary gland.
Under the action of this hormone, the enzymes necessary for breaking the wall of the follicle and prostaglandins are activated.
As a rule, rupture of the follicle with the subsequent release of the egg occurs within a day after the maximum release of LH into the blood.
A decrease in estradiol levels during this period may contribute to pain.
A broken follicle may bleed for some time, and the blood that has entered the abdominal cavity gradually resolves.
The part of the blood that, together with the egg cell, penetrates the fallopian tube, is brought out, giving the vaginal discharge in these days a slightly pinkish or brownish tint.
Another reason for the appearance of blood streaks in the discharge is a rather low level of estradiol, due to which rejection of a part of the endometrium can occur.
If conception did not occur, the level of sex hormones decreases and the process of renewal of the uterine mucosa - menstruation - is launched.
About the approaching ovulation can be judged by the nature of the discharge from the vagina, they become abundant and resemble egg white - the same gel-like and viscous.
Although this symptom is fairly accurate, it can be misleading in the presence of infection. In this situation, you may not notice the cyclical changes in the discharge.
The following symptoms can tell about ovulation:
- 1 Minor bleeding that begins 2-3 days after the egg is released.
- 2 Increased sexual desire and sexual sensitivity.
- 3 Pains below, in the lateral parts of the abdomen (their localization depends on the location of the dominant follicle).
- 4 An increase in the inguinal lymph node to the size of an average pea on the side of ovulation.
- 5 Swelling of the vulva just before the release of the egg.
1.2. Laboratory signs
The laboratory signs are more reliable:
- 1 The nature of mucus from the cervical canal - the alignment of a clear thick fern smear pattern on the day of ovulation.
- 2 Basal temperature measurement. During this period, it rises by no less than 0.40 degrees and lasts for 3-4 days (this is called a jump in basal temperature). This phenomenon is associated with the production of progesterone.
- 3 Positive ovulatory test. There are special tests that allow you to determine ovulation by urine (identify the peak of luteinizing hormone), saliva (reusable, based on the phenomenon of crystallization of saliva in the form of "fern leaves").
- 4 Determination of the level of LH in the blood. The release of the egg occurs in the next day after reaching the peak of LH.
2. Is painful ovulation normal?
In medicine, painful ovulation is one of the intermenstrual pain syndrome, in which pain occurs on the 10-18th day of the cycle.
Ovulatory pain is usually a variant of the norm. In foreign literature they are called Mittelschmerz.
Why do they arise? The main reasons are called:
- 1 Increase overall pain sensitivity on the background of a drop in estrogen levels.
- 2 Ovarian surface tension in the area of growth of the dominant follicle.
- 3 Fallopian tube cuts.
- 4 Swelling and rupture follicle.
- 5 Abbreviations located in the ligament apparatus and the ovaries of smooth muscle cells, due to increased levels of prostaglandin F2-alpha. Its number increases during the surge of PH.
- 6 Bleeding from a torn folliclewhen blood irritates the peritoneum.
Natural Ovulation Pain have the following characteristics:
- 1 Lower abdominal pain, often pain localized in the ovary, right or left.
- 2 By nature stupid, pulling or stitching, sudden. Sometimes they are described as tingling in the right or left ovary, as a spasm in the pelvic area. Usually sensations arise against the background of well-being.
- 3 Observed every cycle or non-permanent, their duration does not exceed 1-3 days.
- 4 Pain may be minor, less so severe that it is possible hospitalization for "appendicitis" or with a preliminary diagnosis of "ectopic pregnancy", "ovarian apoplexy".
- 5 Increased pain observed in the presence of adhesions in the pelvis or other chronic diseases, such as oophoritis, adnexitis, etc.
2.1. How can I eliminate pain?
Moderate pain during ovulation is normal and usually does not require medical treatment.
For severe pains as prescribed by a doctor, you can take analgesics (Ibuprofen, Paracetamol, Nimesulide) and antispasmodic drugs (No-spa). In some cases, spasms can be removed by applying a hot water heater to the stomach.
You can not warm the abdomen, if there are tumors, acute inflammatory processes or other serious diseases of the abdominal organs.
2.2. Pains that should alert
Abdominal pain can be caused by pathologies that are not associated with ovulation, just their occurrence coincided with this period. Other causes of pain are:
- 1 Acute appendicitis. The pains are located in the lower abdomen on the right.
- 2 Acute sigmoiditis.
- 3 Acute and chronic adnexitis.
- 4 Ovarian cysts.
- 5 Adhesive disease.
- 6 Ectopic pregnancy.
- 7 The movement of the stone in renal colic, when it is located in the lower part of the ureter.
- 8 Tumors located near the ovary.
In these cases, it is important not to leave the situation unattended, the necessary gynecological and surgical examinations.
You can suspect that the pain is associated with another disease, if you have additional symptoms:
- 1 Bloating and flatulence, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.
- 2 Dry mouth.
- 3 General weakness, fatigue.
- 4 Pallor of the skin.
- 5 Excessive sweating.
- 6 Heart palpitations.
- 7 Lower blood pressure.
- 8 Temperature increase.
- 9 Pain in the lower back, back, upper abdomen or near the navel.
- 10 Pain gives to the bladder, groin, rectum.
- 11 Spotting reminiscent of menstruation.
- 12 Rash.
3. When to consult a doctor?
Medical consultation is mandatory in the following cases.:
- 1 The pain came first. This must be done in order not to miss a serious pathology. Usually, after an examination by a gynecologist, an ultrasound of the pelvic organs and the abdominal cavity is prescribed.
- 2 Change in character pain syndrome.
- 3 Picture of acute abdomenwhen it is painful to stand, sit or lie down straight, and the abdominal wall is tight and tense.
4. Morbidity in other phases of the cycle
As already mentioned, on the eve of ovulation pain occurs when the ovarian membrane is stretched by a growing dominant follicle.
2-3 days after the release of the egg, they are caused by peritoneal irritation and contraction of the fallopian tubes.
The pain that occurs during the second phase of the cycle is usually due to premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
When PMS discomfort is a minor symptom, breast tenderness, deterioration of general condition, swelling and psycho-emotional disorders: irritability, tearfulness, sensitivity, irascibility, suspiciousness, increased sleepiness, aggression come to the fore.
All other causes of pain are usually associated with any pathologies of the genitourinary, digestive, nervous and genital systems.
What explains the causes of pain during ovulation?
Irritation on the abdominal wall caused by bleeding from the ovary, provokes pain and is the main and main cause of pain. Depending on the body and the degree of bleeding, there is a varying degree of pain. In addition, pain associated with the size of the distance between the ovaries and the abdominal wall. Pain during ovulation is not a pathology, it is associated with features of the reproductive system and physiological features.
For some girls, the feeling of pain during ovulation is not at all familiar. Therefore, the appearance of weak pain in the middle of the menstrual cycle, they simply do not attach importance. A significant part of the female population with one hundred percent accuracy of the characteristic pain, regularly repeated from month to month, without any tests can determine the time of exit from the egg follicle. If intermenstrual pain is associated with ovulation, then doctors recommend oral contraceptives to suppress pain and allow you to control unwanted pregnancy.
Do I need to contact a specialist if my stomach hurts during ovulation?
Most often do not require the attention of specialists. However, you should be aware that not every pain may be associated with ovulation. The appearance of pain may be one of the signs of a serious illness requiring specialist attention.
- severe pain
- having nausea or fever,
- unbearably strong, up to loss of consciousness pain,
- presence of headaches and dizziness,
- the appearance of shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea,
- with painful urination,
- duration of pain more than two days.
An important reason for visiting the doctor is the high intensity of pain in the middle of the cycle. After the consultation, the doctor will take the most effective treatment methods.
In case of any pain you should pay due attention to your health. Sometimes people pay little attention to their state of health, do not react to the symptoms of diseases present and do not realize that these diseases can be life-threatening. Many diseases do not manifest in our body from the first days, but in the end it turns out that time is lost and it is too late to heal. Each disease has its own specific signs and appearances, called symptoms of the disease.
The first step in the diagnosis of any disease is the definition of symptoms. In order to prevent a terrible disease in time, to maintain a healthy mind in the body it is necessary to systematically undergo medical examinations.
Types of ovulations
There are timely, premature and late ovulation.
Premature ovulation is characterized by an early release of the egg, even before the onset of the middle of the menstrual cycle. This can cause intense sexual intercourse, stress, exercise, diet, hormonal imbalance or illness. Quite often, premature ovulation may occur due to attempts to lose weight and nervous tension.
With an unstable cycle, it is very difficult to draw a conclusion about the timing of ovulation, since the entire hormonal system works in an unstable mode.
When planning a pregnancy, it is necessary to take into account the duration of ovulation and the duration of the viability of the sperm. The egg cell lives only one day, while the life expectancy of the sperm cell is measured in two to three days. From this it is easy to calculate that the sperm should get into the uterus of a woman no later than 24 hours after ovulation or 2-3 days before it.
To determine the day of the cycle on which ovulation occurs, the number of days from the onset of menstruation in one month to the onset of menstruation in another month should be calculated. The middle of this period with an adjustment of plus or minus two days and will correspond to the time of ovulation. At the 28th day size of the cycle, the middle falls on the 14-15 day, respectively, on the 17-18th at the 35-day menstrual cycle.
Pain present during ovulation, having a dull or dull character, of low intensity and duration is normal. The sensation of pain can be observed from a few minutes or throughout the day. Иногда может иметь острый характер.Pain characteristic of ovulation does not pose a danger to the body and only are evidence of the normal functioning of the ovaries.
Nearly one in five women encounters painful manifestations of ovulation, which are felt inside the pelvic bone in the lower abdomen two weeks before menstruation. Sometimes women use a warm heating pad to relieve pain, which can alleviate suffering. But the help of a hot-water bottle is effective only if the pain is really associated with the onset of ovulation. Otherwise there may be unforeseen situations leading to irreparable harm to one’s own health.
The reasons why the ovary hurts after ovulation can be very different. The cause of pain can be an ovarian cyst, as it grows, pain attacks become more frequent. Often women experience chest pain after ovulation. Should I worry in this case? According to experts, this is a consequence of the natural reaction of the body. In preparation for a possible pregnancy, the glandular breast tissue begins to grow.
This process is provoked by an increase in the concentration of estrogen in the body, a decrease in which is observed immediately with the onset of menstruation. Breast tenderness is often accompanied by lower abdominal pain, bleeding, short-term nausea, increased sexual activity, a change in basal temperature, an unstable mental state. With the onset of menstruation or pregnancy, the sensations of pain go away.
If pain is present even after the completion of menstruation, to prevent the disease of mastopathy, you should contact your doctor. If there is pain in the lower abdomen after ovulation, the doctor determines the connection between the pain and the menstrual cycle, pregnancy or any disease. Acute, severe pain is inherent in acute pathology and most often requires immediate surgical intervention. This may be due to peritonitis, perforation, bleeding, organ rupture.
The presence of constant aching, dull pain in the lower abdomen with a gradual increase is usually characteristic of inflammatory processes.
More about the term "ovulation"
The menstrual cycle continues from the first day of the beginning of menstruation to the first day of the next menstruation cycle. The duration of this process is individual and in normal condition is 21-35 days. The ideal cycle in gynecology is considered to be the menstrual cycle, corresponding to the full lunar cycle (lasting 28 days). The cycle itself consists of several subsequent phases:
The follicular phase depends on the effects of estrogen and is fully regulated by them. Estrogens are involved in determining the dominant follicle in the ovary, from which a future egg cell is subsequently formed. The duration of this phase is about 12-18 days and depends on the length of the entire cycle. With an ideal menstrual cycle (28 days), the follicular phase is 14 days. In the last stages of the follicular phase, the follicle (dominant) reaches its maximum development, becomes tense and ready to burst.
This phase is the shortest in the entire menstrual cycle and lasts only 12-36 hours. At this time, the estrogen level in the woman’s body drops, making the main follicle burst and release a mature egg that is ready for fertilization. A characteristic feature of this stage is that the level of both estrogen and progesterone is at a rather low level (estrogens stop being synthesized by follicle-stimulating hormone, because the dominant follicle and egg inside it have already matured, progesterone has not yet begun to be synthesized under the influence of luteinizing hormone, because the yellow body , replacing the main follicle, has not yet formed).
During this period of the cycle, progesterone synthesis begins to increase in the body, the effect of which provokes proliferative processes in the uterine mucosa, thereby preparing it for implantation of a fertilized egg. If fertilization is not carried out, then by the end of the luteal phase the level of progesterone decreases (menstruation of the corpus luteum occurs), the functional layer of the endometrium begins to reject, which leads to menstruation.
Thus, ovulation is the immediate process of the release of an egg cell that is ready for fertilization at the moment of rupture of the dominant follicle. Painful ovulation in gynecology is called Mittelschmerz syndrome, or ovulatory syndrome.
Signs of ovulation
Ovulation (from the Latin "egg") is characterized by characteristic signs, so every woman who experiences pain or discomfort during this stage of the cycle can accurately determine its beginning:
Pain in the left or right side.
Pain occurs in one side. Differentiation of the parties depends on which ovary is involved in the menstrual cycle (in most cases, there is right-sided pain, since the right ovary is better supplied with blood and innervated, and is also in close proximity to the appendix).
Most often, the pains are minor and cause mild discomfort. However, in some cases, women experience colic, stabbing or cutting pain. The duration of such sensations lasts from 1 hour to 1-2 days. The intensity of pain depends on:
pain threshold - the higher the threshold, the less pain a woman experiences during ovulation,
the presence of gynecological pathologies contributes to increased pain,
a temper of character - women who are more emotional are experiencing brighter painful sensations.
Thus, the period of ovulation itself is rather short-term, and soreness in the lower abdomen can persist for 1-2 days. Since each menstrual cycle (and ovulation, respectively) can involve only one of the ovaries (they function alternately), then the pain will be localized directly in the area of the ovary involved.
Quite rarely, however, it may be that both ovaries are switched on at once, two eggs are matched at the same time. Usually, with successful fertilization, this situation ends in multiple pregnancies. Painful sensations in this case may be present on both sides or manifest as a diffuse pain of a whining character across the lower abdomen.
Sexual attraction, or libido during ovulation to a certain extent increases, which is inherent in the nature of the female body (ovulation is the most favorable moment for conception, and accordingly the continuation of the genus).
Before the start of ovulation, at the very moment of its commission and for a few more days, the nature of the vaginal secretions changes. Their consistency becomes thinner, more volatile (similar in appearance to egg white). Such changes in secretions are required in order to facilitate the penetration of spermatozoa into the uterus and further to fertilize a mature egg. The characteristic consistency of vaginal secretions to some extent in the enlarged cervical canal greatly facilitates the process of sperm transport into the uterine cavity.
Change the color of selections.
During the ovulation process and for a short time after it, there may be a change in the color of the discharge. They become pinkish or there may be a few blood drops on the laundry. This is due to the fact that there is a small detachment of the endometrium (estrogens stop being produced, and progesterone is not yet synthesized).
Soreness of the mammary glands.
During ovulation, breast tenderness and tenderness may be present. This is due to the fact that the mammary glands are prepared for pregnancy and subsequent lactation. Mastodynia (pain in the chest during ovulation) is short and ends before the formation of the yellow body.
Ovulation pain can occur for several reasons. Before the egg leaves the follicle, the latter must mature and increase substantially in size.
The large size of the follicle puts pressure on the ovarian capsule, which provokes painful sensations before the onset of ovulation.
After the dominant follicle has reached the required size and degree of development, its rupture occurs and the finished egg leaves the abdominal cavity.
When the follicle ruptures, in addition to the egg cell, a certain amount of fluid penetrates the peritoneal cavity, which irritates the parietal peritoneum. In addition, the capsule of the ovary is damaged, small blood vessels burst in its wall. Due to the use of even a small amount of blood, peritoneal irritation also occurs.
Such nagging pains can disturb a woman even 12-48 hours after the completion of the ovulation stage. However, after the absorption of follicular fluid and blood in the abdominal cavity, the pain disappears.
Since the peristalsis of the fallopian tubes is activated when the egg cell enters the abdominal cavity, in order to successfully capture the egg cell ready for fertilization and to ensure that it will meet with the sperm cell, it can be sustained as a result of this process.
An indirect sign of future pregnancy is pain in the middle of the cycle.
However, in some cases, pain during ovulation is more pronounced. Such a manifestation is due not only to the fact that a woman has a lower threshold of sensitivity, but also the presence of gynecological pathologies, for example:
adhesive pelvic disease that occurs in the presence of chronic inflammatory processes after surgery in history or in the presence of endometriosis,
adhesions interfere with the normal reduction of the fallopian tubes, the ovary is tugged, and in some cases there is even a consolidation of the capsule of the ovary, which leads to an increase in pain.
Types of ovulation
In gynecology, there are several types of ovulation:
Premature ovulation is that the maturation and release of the egg from the follicle does not occur in the middle part of the cycle, but earlier. This may be due to several factors:
endocrine pathology and hormonal disorders,
various diseases, including gynecological,
strong emotional distress and stress
increased physical exertion on the body or weight lifting,
excessively violent intercourse.
The etiology of late ovulation includes various hormonal problems, which include menstrual disorders.
In the presence of the types of ovulation described above, painful sensations occur not in the middle part of the cycle, but much earlier, or, respectively, much later, which often causes a woman to see a specialist. Therefore, the indirect signs of a possible future pregnancy can be attributed to pain in the middle part of the cycle.
When discussing the topic of ovulation, one should not overlook such a problem as lack of ovulation or anovulation. Anovulation is normally observed only in women in menopausal and premenopausal age, as well as in pregnant women. Also, ovulation will be absent when taking contraceptives of hormonal action.
If a woman of reproductive age suffers from a lack of ovulation for several cycles in a row, you should pay attention to it, because if there is no ovulation, it means that there is no egg, which in turn makes it impossible to become pregnant.
In most cases, the cause of anovulation is hormonal disruption in the body, which should be stopped when conducting proper therapy, and a woman gets a chance to become pregnant. In order to clarify the dates of ovulation, it is enough to use special tests for ovulation or perform an ultrasound scan, where the doctor will accurately determine the matured dominant follicle and its exit from the egg cell (it is obvious that the ultrasound scan must be performed repeatedly in the intended framework of the ovulation process).
How to make it easier?
No matter how confident a woman is that the onset of pain in the left or right lower abdomen is related to the process of ovulation, you should not resort to self-treatment, it is best to seek help from a doctor. It is important to remember that the pain syndrome, which coincides in time with the middle of the menstrual cycle, can be caused by the presence of pathologies and not only gynecological ones.
During the examination, the doctor should exclude other possible causes of pain and prescribe the best treatment option.
In the case when ovulatory syndrome bothers a woman in each cycle, doctors recommend trying to be as relaxed as possible these days, avoid stressful situations and stick to a diet.
Medical nutrition should limit foods and dishes that are able to overload the gastrointestinal tract, enhance intestinal motility and, accordingly, exacerbate pain syndrome, provoke flatulence and excite the central nervous system. First of all, it refers to strong tea and coffee, chocolate, white cabbage and legumes, fatty and spicy dishes.
Warm baths with aromatic oils or medicinal plants will also help ease the soreness. It is also allowed to apply heat to the lower abdomen - this reduces the force of contractions of the tubes and the uterus and soothes the pain. However, such therapy is possible only in the absence of surgical diseases and acute infectious processes.
Among the drug painkillers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that can not only block the production of prostaglandins, but also relieve inflammation and pain (Ketoprofen, Naproxen, Indomethacin, Ibuprofen) are the most popular.
Also, antispasmodics ("Spazmalgon", "Spazgan", "No-shpa") are distinguished by a positive effect.
If ovulatory syndrome is permanent, the gynecologist may recommend the use of oral contraceptives that help block ovulation and, accordingly, prevent the occurrence of pain. However, if a woman is planning a pregnancy, the use of such funds should be excluded. You also can not use hot water bottles on the lower abdomen, use any medications on the days of ovulation, as this may lead to a deterioration in the quality of the egg.
In some cases, very intense pain may occur in the middle part of the cycle. The presence of severe pain in the ovary in the groin from either side may be a sign of an emergency condition:
ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome drugs
torsion legs cyst,
acute inflammation of the appendages.
Each of the above conditions is a pretext for providing emergency medical care, and most often even the need for surgical intervention. Thus, the delay can not only lead to a worsening of the situation, but also cause a fatal outcome. You can not wait very intense expressed pain and try to alleviate it yourself, you need to immediately call an ambulance.
When it is worth sounding the alarm
An emergency appeal to a doctor should be performed in the presence of pronounced pain in the lower abdomen and / or in the event of the following symptoms:
history of endometriosis, surgeries, acute gynecological pathologies,
when taking drugs that stimulate ovulation,
the appearance of blood discharge from the vagina, regardless of the degree of their intensity,
the occurrence of intense nausea or vomiting,
increase in body temperature and hold it for more than an hour,
the presence of pain for more than 2 days.
Briefly about ovulation
In the ovary of a healthy woman, a dominant follicle with an egg cell, which begins its development from the end of menstruation, matures every month. The period of its growth takes about 15-20 days, after which the germ cell is released from it - this is the ovulatory phase. This period is important for every woman, because only then it is possible to conceive a child, but if it does not occur, the endometrium, together with the egg, leaves the body.
The ovulatory phase normally lasts 5-6 days and begins after the egg leaves the follicle.
During this period, the woman does not feel discomfort. Many girls do not even realize that ovulation occurred in their bodies, since there are no special “symptoms”, except for a slight increase in the breasts, a rise in body temperature of 0.2-0.5 degrees and an increased appetite.
But sometimes the ovulation period is accompanied by discomfort and painful sensations in the lower abdomen, in the mammary glands, which is associated with impaired health.
Causes of ovulatory pain
Pain during ovulation is not a physiological norm, although at its beginning there is a rupture of the follicle, which can be called a microtrauma. But the damage at the exit of the egg is insignificant, it affects the thin capillaries and a small area of the epithelial layer 5-6 cells thick. Организм быстро справляется с этой проблемой, и сильного дискомфорта быть не должно.
Овуляторные боли имеют такие причины:
- bleeding disorder,
- воспалительные заболевания половой системы,
- онкологические заболевания половой системы,
- новообразования в молочных железах.
With poor blood clotting after a follicle rupture, bleeding can be more abundant and prolonged, it will cause inflammation in the ovaries, which can cause pain during ovulation.
In inflammatory and infectious diseases of the reproductive system (uterus, ovaries and appendages), after the rupture of the follicle, an infection can begin to develop in it, and the waste products of bacteria or viruses will irritate the mucous membranes - hence ovulatory pain.
Ovulation causes a change in the balance of hormones: a woman increases the blood levels of prolactin and progesterone, which prepare the body for the onset of pregnancy. One of the main effects of the first active substance is an increase and compaction of the mammary glands, so if there are tumors in them, during the ovulation period there are painful sensations in the breast. Progesterone causes compaction and an increase in the endometrium in the uterus, and when a woman develops cancer of the reproductive system, she can experience quite a lot of pain during ovulation.
Localization and nature of pain
Pain during ovulation can be localized in different places and have a different character - it depends on the cause of discomfort. The main areas of pain are lower abdomen, chest, lower back, less often a woman has a headache.
If a girl has poor blood clotting, the pain during ovulation will be localized in the lower abdomen to the right or left (depending on which ovary is involved in the development of the follicle), while the discomfort has a pulling non-acute nature, the temperature may rise to 37 37.5 degrees.
Usually painful sensations appear abruptly after a follicle rupture and disappear in a few hours.
If severe pain during ovulation is a result of inflammatory or infectious processes in the female reproductive system, the pain will be in the lower abdomen and lower back. At the same time, the sensations are quite acute, accompanied by weakness, fever, headache, a feeling of distention in the ovarian region. It may take a long time for the lower abdomen to hurt, it depends on the protective abilities of the body - how quickly it suppresses inflammation in the torn follicle.
Ovulation is accompanied by discomfort if the woman has cancer on the genitals or mammary glands. In this case, the painful sensations are concentrated in the chest and lower abdomen, they have a pulling or aching character, are cutting. Symptoms often continue until the end of the ovulatory phase, or even menstruation, until hormones return to normal.
Pain after ovulation
Not only ovulation can be accompanied by unpleasant sensations. Painful symptoms often occur after it, and this may occur due to such reasons:
- the beginning of the detachment of the endometrium,
- sharp increase in estrogen.
Pain after ovulation in the detachment of the endometrium - the mucous layer of the uterus - occurs only in girls with increased sensitivity, since normally this process is painless. The discomfort will be aching in nature and located in the lower abdomen.
If the woman does not have fertilization during the ovulatory period, the level of estrogen begins to rise. Because of this, the accumulated endometrium exfoliates, and together with the germ cell, it comes out. An upsurge in hormone concentrations can cause pain after ovulation, which will disturb not only the ovaries, but also the chest. Typically, such discomfort disappears after a few days, when the body adapts to the level of estrogen.
When to see a doctor
Pain after ovulation and during it should not bother a woman, so when they occur, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist, especially if the discomfort is acute and is accompanied by high fever. The doctor will conduct an external examination, ask to be tested for hormones and blood biochemistry, as well as send an ultrasound of the pelvic organs, because with these procedures you can easily find the cause of the painful ovulatory phase.
You should not tolerate unpleasant symptoms, because they signal violations in the body, the neglect of which in the future will negatively affect the functioning of the female reproductive system. For example, she may start menopause early, or she will have difficulty conceiving a child.
During or after ovulation, pain should not bother a woman, since this process is not accompanied by extensive tissue destruction, but sometimes discomfort occurs due to poor blood clotting, infections in the reproductive system and for other reasons. If painful symptoms appear during the ovulatory phase, it is necessary to visit the gynecologist and understand their cause.