Of particular importance at the beginning of pregnancy is the implantation of the ovum to the wall of the uterus. This phenomenon is always, as stated in medical sources, accompanied by bleeding, which in obstetrics are called implant bleeding. This process can be alarming for a woman, especially if the pregnancy was planned. Therefore, it is very important to know how long implantation bleeding lasts, in order, if necessary, to pay attention to the warning signs that something is wrong.
Why does bleeding occur during implantation?
Upon arrival to the endometrium - the mucous membrane of the uterus, the fertilized egg loses its protective layer, which leads to the exposure of the trophoblast, through which the fetus is attached to the endometrium. At the same time, the trophoblast retains its important function and in the future it will take an active part in the formation of the placental membrane of the embryo.
Now for the most implant bleeding. As it was said earlier, after fertilization of the egg, the organism of the expectant mother begins to actively prepare for the implantation of the embryo and its bearing. As a result, the endometrium becomes more friable, cell proliferation is observed and, as a result, blood flow increases in the mucous tissues of the uterus. In the process of attaching a fertilized egg to the endometrium, part of its cells at the site of implantation is damaged. And it is this phenomenon called implant bleeding.
This, in fact, explains the discharge after implantation. But in fact, it looks a little different. Imagine how tiny a fertilized egg is in size and what area it will occupy in the mucous membrane of the uterus - these are a few millimeters. Therefore, in fact, the number of cells that can be damaged during the attachment of a gestational egg to the wall of the uterus is so small that no more than 2 drops of blood are released. And even then, not all women observe this notorious implant bleeding.
On which day of the cycle is implant bleeding?
From the moment of fertilization of the egg and before it attaches to the wall of the uterus, it takes about 5-7 days. The duration of the “journey” of a gestational egg depends on the following factors:
- state and vitality of the ovum,
- the functionality of the fallopian tubes,
- hormonal levels in the body of the future mother.
If we take the averaged data from medical studies, then the implantation of the embryo falls on a period of 6 to 12 days after conception. There are even such cases when the attachment of the ovum occurs 2-3 days before the beginning of the next menstrual cycle.
On the very process of implantation of the embryo to the endometrium may take from 2 hours to several days. On average, the introduction of the blastocyst into the inner wall of the uterine cavity occurs within 40 hours. During this time, the gestational cell membrane is embedded in the mucous tissue of the uterine cavity, thereby taking root to the maternal organism. And at this particular time a woman may feel some symptoms of implantation, which we will talk about a little later.
In this case, the process of introducing a fertilized egg can either pause or start up again. And if a woman keeps a calendar, which monitors the basal temperature, then the so-called implant dropping will be observed on the graph.
It should also be said that, depending on the physiological characteristics of the organism of the future mother, the implantation of the embryo may be early or late:
- With early implantation, the ovum is fixed in the wall of the uterus 7 days after conception. Such cases are extremely rare in medical practice ends in successfully carrying a child. As a rule, a week the endometrium does not have time to prepare for the "reception" of the gestational cell. At the same time, the probability of early implantation, although small, is present.
- In the case of late fixation of the fetal cell, the process occurs on the 10th day after conception. Most often this happens during artificial insemination. If we are talking about natural conception, then late implantation is a surprise for future parents, especially for those who are planning a pregnancy and is looking forward to the appearance of the first signs of conception.
Difference of implantation bleeding from menstruation
Many marital women who first encounter IC take it as the beginning of menstruation. In view of this, being already pregnant, the woman continues to lead her normal life, without worrying about her health and the health of her future baby. Therefore, it is important to know what are the differences between menstruation and IC:
- The first and most important sign that a new life is emerging in the body is the nature of secretions. When IR is observed scanty discharge, more similar to the daub of brownish color. During menstruation, this bleeding will be more abundant, intense and prolonged.
- The duration of the IR can be up to 2 days, whereas the menstruation lasts from 4 to 7 days, which largely depends on the individual characteristics of the female body.
- The next distinguishing feature is the date. As a rule, the menstrual cycle has a certain number of days and if it is regular and stable, then the bleeding in the middle of the cycle may indicate any changes in the work of the female reproductive system.
- Changes in basal temperature. The process of implantation of the embryo is accompanied first by a decrease in temperature, and then by its increase. In the case of menstruation, temperature jumps are not observed.
Speaking in general terms, the process of attachment of the ovum during IVF and in the case of natural conception is practically no different. At the same time, there is one distinguishing feature: due to the fact that fertilization and the initial development of the embryo took place in artificially created conditions - as a rule, 5 days are used for cryo-transfer; conditions. That is why in 35% of cases women do not become pregnant after the IVF procedure, which is caused by the death of the embryo.
Other signs of implantation
In addition to the so-called implant bleeding, the process of attaching a gestational cell to the wall of the uterus may be accompanied by a number of other signs:
- pain in lower abdomen,
- fever - this symptom can be observed immediately after conception,
- decrease in basal temperature
- general malaise,
- mood swings.
Immediately I would like to clarify that not all women have implantation accompanied by any symptoms. Therefore, you should not completely rely on such signs. If you suspect a pregnancy is better to do a test or visit a gynecologist.
Instead of concluding, I would like to say the following: loudly, the term “implant bleeding” refers to minor bleeding caused by the implantation of the blastocyst of the ovum into the uterine lining mucosa. And even then, not all women notice IC. If there are signs of pregnancy and they are supported by such secretions, then you should consult a doctor in order to confirm your “interesting position”.
Did you or your friends encounter such a thing as implant bleeding? If so, does it really happen, as stated in the medical literature?
What does implant bleeding look like?
Such bleeding is characterized by the appearance of minor mucous blood clots or clear drops of blood, and is noted at the time when the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterine wall. The clarity of this process is not observed in all women, in most cases, such discharge remains without proper attention.
The color of the discharge can vary from pale pink to brown, this factor depends on the overall health of the body of each individual woman. The duration of implant bleeding is from one hour to several days, but the second option is quite rare and can be regarded as a manifestation of pathology. Often, implant bleeding is confused with the first day of menstruation, so that it goes unnoticed.
In any case, such secretions require an immediate appeal to a specialist as they can be provoked by other reasons, for example, diseases or abnormalities of the structure of the genitourinary system. Among the particularly unpleasant causes can be noted the rejection of the embryo in the early stages or dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
How many days does implantation bleeding last?
The duration of implantation bleeding is purely individual. In cases where its duration exceeds several days - a woman needs urgent hospitalization. All other manifestations of the process are considered normal. To consider such a selection as a categorical sign of the onset of pregnancy is impossible. In gynecology, such bleeding is considered one of the earliest reports of fertilization, but it is not always so. At the time of conception, implantation bleeding will manifest itself even before a woman can notice a significant delay or a pregnancy test.
This bleeding has absolutely no effect on the usefulness of pregnancy. Almost 10% of the total number of pregnant women encountered this phenomenon and observed it from one hour to two days, and only a few weeks later they realized that they were expecting a baby.
It should be noted that only a fully mature egg can be fertilized, that is, conception occurs either during the ovulation period itself or immediately after it. In an average healthy woman, ovulation occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle. For example, your cycle consists of 30 days, then ovulation will be observed from 13 to 16 day. But by this time it is necessary to add another 7-10 days, during which the mature egg migrates to the site of attachment through the fallopian tubes. The introduction of the egg into the uterine wall falls on the 25-28 day of the menstrual cycle.
Causes of implant bleeding
Based on the above facts, it can be argued that the moment of implant bleeding falls just a week before the expected date of menstruation. In the event that regular bleeding occurs within a specified period - the pregnancy did not come, and if a woman has a delay - they talk about a possible conception.
Such a discharge is not in itself negative, if the woman has no gynecological diseases in the history. This is a completely normal and regular phenomenon for an adequately functioning organism, since immediately after the introduction of the egg into the uterine wall, a massive hormonal storm begins. The main thing that needs to be done by a woman who has noted such a discharge, is to consult a specialist and exclude the possibility of other vaginal bleeding.
It is imperative to pay attention to the characteristics of secreted mucus. The causes of implantation bleeding are not at all pathological, and therefore discharge should be rare, and the color of a blood clot can not be darker than blood during menstruation. Lighter - yes, darker, down to crimson and dark brown - no. Blood excretion is caused by the objective process of partial destruction of the vascular network in the walls of the uterus during implantation of a fertilized egg.
The sensations that a woman experiences during implant bleeding are also extremely important. Especially pulling and cutting attempts in the pubic area. The pain must be weak. The reason for this is spasm of the uterine muscles, immediately after the introduction of the egg.
When keeping a diary of daily basal temperature readings - the elevation curve can change significantly at the time of implantation bleeding. When fixed, the temperature rises up to 37.5 ° C. But at the same time, a week after successful ovulation, the temperature decreases significantly, and this is a direct sign of fertilization.
In the menstrual calendar, it is important to note the date of the last natural bleeding. During the normal cycle, which ranges from 28 to 30 days, ovulation is noted on average for 16 days. Successful fertilization of the egg will lead to its implantation in the wall of the uterus after one and a half weeks. Based on this, a woman can easily calculate the exact date of introduction.
For conception, it is better to choose a few days before, and a few days after ovulation. But it is best to consult in advance with the fertility specialist, who will help to establish the exact time, the most suitable for fertilization.
How to distinguish implantation bleeding from menstruation?
There are several ways to determine implantable bleeding. All of them have a sufficient level of credibility and are often used by women in home practice.
Standard menstrual bleeding usually begins with modest discharge, which becomes more abundant every day, and then their frequency and intensity declines again. In some cases, implant bleeding manifests itself just a few days before the onset of menstruation, or even during it. It is necessary to pay attention not only to the amount of blood released, but also to its color, and even - the smell.
In addition to the above, bloody lumpy discharge from the vagina, which is noted in the middle of the cycle, can signal the presence of such diseases and pathological conditions:
Chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis and other infections transmitted through unprotected sex,
Candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, endometriosis. Among the symptoms of these diseases are often noted moderate bleeding,
Ectopic pregnancy, which, in addition to the release of blood-containing clots, is also characterized by severe pain in the lower abdomen, urge to vomit, headaches,
Miscarriage in the early and first trimester,
Damage to the lining epithelium during intercourse,
Excretions may become a symptom of hormonal imbalance, or uteropaque inflammation.
If you suspect any of the above cases - you must urgently seek advice from a gynecologist.
When to do a pregnancy test after implantation bleeding?
As soon as implantation bleeding is over, a pregnancy test must be done. The best time for this procedure is 10 days after stopping ovulation. There is a high probability that the test will show a positive result.
Symptoms that will help determine implant bleeding and establish the timing of the pregnancy test:
Nausea. The nausea in the first hours after waking up is very characteristic of the first months of pregnancy. Perhaps the rejection of smells that previously did not cause much discomfort,
Painful swelling of the chest. With the onset of pregnancy, the sensitivity of the mammary glands to external stimuli is greatly increased. But this fact may indicate both conception and anticipate the onset of regular bleeding,
Constant fatigue. In the first trimester, women are often depressed and tired much faster, this is due to serious hormonal changes in the body. If there are no excess physical activity, and there is enough time for rest, and there are bloody discharges, it is necessary to do a test,
Frequent urination is also a sign of pregnancy. Or sudden constipation, which previously was not typical of a particular woman. If there are no other objective reasons for such conditions - a test is conducted,
Mood swings, drowsiness, tearfulness. Implant bleeding is often accompanied by sharp changes in a woman’s own mood. But this symptom may indicate both pregnancy and the early onset of menstruation,
Regular dizziness. At the time of hormonal surges, such effects are very common. Therefore, if a woman experiences similar sensations while climbing the stairs, sudden movements, or just for no reason - there is a greater likelihood of pregnancy.
The main thing to remember is that implant bleeding, or manifestations similar to it, is not yet an absolute guarantee of conception. To clarify this issue will help inspection by a specialist and a high-quality pregnancy test.
Article author: Lapikova Valentina Vladimirovna | Gynecologist, fertility specialist
Education: The diploma “Obstetrics and Gynecology” was obtained at the Russian State Medical University of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development (2010). In 2013, graduate school in NIMU named after. N.I. Pirogov.