Platelets are colorless and flat calfs that are produced in the red bone marrow and are responsible for blood clotting. With their help, the bleeding stops.
Platelets, in addition, heal and restore damaged tissue and, performing an angiotrophic function, nourish the endothelium of blood vessels.
Elevated blood platelets in the medical language are called thrombocytosis. In this condition, the blood thickens and thrombi are easily formed, so this condition is dangerous clogging of blood vessels. Thrombocytosis is not considered to be any increase in the number of platelets, but only that which significantly exceeds the norm and is stable. Daily fluctuations caused by heavy physical exertion or low fluid intake are not considered a disease.
What are the reasons for the rise of platelets in the blood, and what this means, we consider in detail in our material.
What are platelets, and why not?
Platelets are not exactly cells, but post-cell structures that circulate in the blood and live for two to ten days, after which they are disposed of by special cells of the spleen and liver. Platelets are formed from megakaryocytes (giant bone marrow cells). They are devoid of the core and have a flat shape, live only 7 - 10 days, constantly being updated. Therefore, a constant process in the body of a healthy person is the process of processing old platelets and the production of new ones.
Their main task is to form a blood clot to stop bleeding and stimulate the regeneration (healing) of damaged tissues. Let's find out what it means if you have been diagnosed with elevated blood platelets in an adult, and what to do in this situation.
Blood Platelet Norm
The indicator characterizing the rate of platelets may be as follows:
- In an adult man and woman - 180-400 g / l,
- The woman in the post-period is 100-350 g / l,
- Women during pregnancy - 100-420 g / l,
- In children of the first days of life - 150-420 g / l,
- In infants - 150-350 g / l,
- Children after the year - 180-400 g / l.
The level of platelets is normally subject to large daily fluctuations, since the life expectancy of these cells is very low and does not exceed 10 days!
The cause of elevated blood platelets
Why are blood platelets above normal, and what does this mean? An increased number of platelets in the blood causes an increase in blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. This pathological condition is called thrombocytosis and is divided into two types - primary and secondary.
Primary occurs as a result of disruption of the activity of bone marrow cells, that is, the bone marrow (and platelets are formed precisely in it) produces too many blood platelets. Secondary thrombocytosis is caused by many different factors, some of them are quite rare, others more often.
The physiological reasons for the increased number of platelets in the blood can be:
- Physical overstrain
- Increased adrenaline in the blood,
Possible pathological factors in adults that cause an increased platelet count in the blood are most often the following:
- Infections: the first reason for high (up to 1000 thousand in microliter) thrombocytosis. The most frequent are bacterial (pneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis), viral (hepatitis, encephalitis, gastroenteritis), parasites, fungi (candida, aspergillus). In this case, thrombocytosis is combined with an inflammatory reaction of the blood, eosinophilia (with parasitosis).
- Very often, platelets are elevated in the blood after surgery or an illness with moderate intensity.
- Inflammations (eg, Kawasaki syndrome, sarcoidosis, collagenosis).
- Removal of the spleen - an organ that is involved in the disposal of old platelets, it holds about 30% of blood plates.
- Significant tissue damage during pancreatitis or tissue necrosis.
- Tumors: lymphomas, hepato-and neuroblastomas.
- Autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, sarcoidosis)
- Medications (corticosteroids, epinephrine, epinephrine)
- Cirrhosis of the liver, polycystic kidney disease, osteomyelofibrosis.
- Iron deficiency in the body - anemia.
In general, there are quite a few reasons that contribute to an increase in platelets. Therefore, it is impossible to unequivocally answer the question with which all this is connected. The specialist needs to carry out other analyzes of the patient, as well as to study the patient's card of diseases, to observe the current state of health.
How to lower platelet count?
First, it is necessary to pass a blood test again to eliminate the error. If the high platelet count is confirmed, the doctor will order additional tests and examinations for you. Depending on the reason for the increase in blood platelets, the treatment will be different. For example, if the cause is an infection, then getting rid of it should bring the platelets back to normal.
In primary thrombocytosis, the use of platelet aggregation inhibitors is used to prevent thrombosis:
- Aspirin. Because of the risk of bleeding, it is used in a protective coating (cardioform) and after eating,
- Dipyridamole, pentoxifylline, xanthinol nicotinate - additionally improves microcirculation,
- Clopidogrel, ticagrelor are specific antiaggregates in cardiology.
There are also more radical ways to lower the level of platelets in the blood. Here are the main ones:
- Interferon is an immune stimulator.
- Hydroxyurea is an antitumor agent.
- Anticoagulants - Fraxiparin and Fragmin, prevent blood clotting.
- Antiplatelet agents - pantoxifylline, chimes, prevent the aggregation of platelets.
- Anagrelide is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, slows down the process of transformation of megakaryocytes into blood platelets.
- In rare cases - platelet apheresis. This procedure is a separation of blood flow with removal of excess platelets from it.
If we are not talking about a critical or excessive increase in platelets, then they can be reduced with the help of proper nutrition. Moreover, even with the use of drugs, diet has an important aspect.
To reduce the number of platelets, it is recommended:
- drink plenty of fluids, except aerated
- eliminate fried, spicy, fatty and alcohol,
- reduce the share of animal and protein foods in the diet, except milk,
- include in the diet celery, ginger, as well as many fresh vegetables and fruits,
- include in the diet a lot of berries, especially sea buckthorn, wild rose, viburnum, cherry, currant and raspberry.
Remember that all medications, including aspirin, should be used only as directed by your doctor!
Causes of thrombocytosis
Consider the reasons why blood platelets are elevated in a woman. Thrombocytosis - an increase in the number of platelets in the blood. There are 3 types of thrombocytosis, depending on the cause:
- Primary - there is an increase in platelet production in the presence of a pathological process in the red bone marrow, this pathology is characteristic of older people over the age of 60,
- Secondary - thrombocytosis develops with the development of any disease (more common among children),
- Relative - a decrease in platelet levels is associated with a decrease in plasma levels.
Causes of primary thrombocytosis:
- Leukemia is a malignant blood disease. Special attention is paid to congenital forms of pathology,
- Tumor formation of the bone marrow or metastasis of cancer of any organs in the bone marrow.
Causes of secondary thrombocytosis:
- Massive bleeding (uterine, traumatic),
- Cirrhosis (tissue inflammation) of the liver,
- Inflammatory diseases of various organs and systems
- Acute or chronic infection
- Malignant neoplasms of the respiratory and digestive systems,
- Iron deficiency anemia, especially in young girls,
- Autoimmune pathology,
- Spleen removal (splenectomy),
- Oral contraceptives and other hormonal drugs,
- The presence of parasites in the body,
- Purulent diseases of the skin and internal organs (abscesses, boils, phlegmon), septic conditions.
Reasons for the relative increase in platelet levels:
- Insufficient flow of fluid into the body,
- Increased fluid secretion in kidney diseases,
- Dehydration of the body, which develops due to dyspeptic disorders (repeated vomiting and diarrhea),
- Intoxication - poisoning of the body with various toxins (poisons).
The rate of platelets in women varies with age and physiological processes such as the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. In addition, there is some daily fluctuation of platelet values. The highest rates are recorded in the evening hours, and the lowest value is detected in the morning.
Platelet counts in healthy females:
- In newborns, the rates are somewhat increased - from 150,000 to 420,000,
- In children under the age of 12 months, rates range from 150,000 to 350,000,
- Platelet counts in children over the age of 12 to 18 months are the same as in a healthy adult woman - 180000 - 320000.
The values of platelet levels in women depending on the physical condition:
During the period of menstruation, the number of these blood cells is reduced to 50% (70,000 - 170,000),
- In pregnant women, a wide range is important - from 100,000 to 420000,
- In postmenopausal platelet count ranges from 110,000 to 349,000.
Symptoms and manifestations
As a rule, the appearance of pathological symptoms is characteristic of the primary form of the disease. Secondary thrombocytosis does not show specific symptoms. Most often, signs of primary pathology are revealed, leading to an increase in the number of these blood cells.
Elevated levels of platelets in the blood of women may be accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Constant weakness, fatigue,
- Frequent unreasonable bleeding. They can be of different localization: uterine, intestinal, nasal, renal, gingival. The blood can be detected in the feces after a bowel movement, the urine is stained pink or red. A woman has intermenstrual bleeding,
- Subcutaneous hematomas are detected, although there are no apparent reasons for their appearance. This symptom is especially important for children
- Numbness of the limbs, pain in the fingers,
- Headaches that bother you regularly,
- Vision problems
- Pruritus, it is easy to confuse with an allergic reaction or other skin pathologies. In this case, complex diagnostics are required,
- The skin gets a bluish tint, may be a slight swelling.
Diagnosis of deviations
For the treatment to be of high quality, it is necessary to conduct a full examination, which includes a number of diagnostic measures:
- First you need to conduct an examination by a therapist. He must ask the patient about complaints and previous diseases,
- Complete a series of laboratory tests:
- A blood test to determine the number of platelets, leukocytes, hemoglobin level,
- Urinalysis for hematuria (presence of blood in the urine), Zimnitsky analysis and Nechiporenko for the detection of inflammatory pathology of the kidneys,
- Analysis of fecal occult blood.
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis,
- It is necessary to consult a gynecologist to exclude pathology from the female genital area,
- Consultation with a hematologist.
The treatment of patients with thrombocytosis is carried out simultaneously by several doctors: a therapist, a hematologist, a gynecologist and an oncologist, if necessary. That the therapy was effective and the result is persistent, It is necessary to combine several types of treatment:
- Drug therapy,
- Diet therapy
- Treatment of folk remedies only after consulting with a specialist.
Drug treatment is aimed at reducing the number of platelets and eliminate complications of thrombocytosis. Drugs contribute to the dilution of blood and the resorption of blood clots.
Drugs used to reduce the number of platelets:
- NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Aspirin is a drug used to be used to thin the blood, but recently more modern drugs with a smaller list of side effects have been used.
- Warfarin is a modern medicine that has a positive therapeutic effect when blood clots are eliminated,
- Anticoagulants - for example, Fragmin, they help to reduce blood coagulation,
- Antiplatelet agents - Trental, Curantil, they thin the blood.
If drug therapy is not effective, then resort to thrombocytophoresis. This procedure removes a portion of the platelet mass from the total blood volume.
Traditional methods of treatment
Traditional medicine offers a variety of recipes infusions, decoctions and teas to reduce blood clotting. However, it should be remembered that such treatments should be carried out only after consultation with the attending doctor. Otherwise, you can harm the body, aggravating the course of the disease.
The most popular and simple recipes of traditional medicine:
- Cocoa drink. Cocoa powder must be made from natural cocoa beans, the product for instant cooking is not suitable in this case. The drink is boiled on the water. It should be unsweetened, so you can not add sugar and other sweeteners. Drink a drink on an empty stomach in the morning,
- Tea from ginger root. Root must be grated, take 1 tablespoon and pour 200 ml of boiling water. Boil the tea for 5 minutes. In the finished drink, you can add some honey. This volume must be drunk in portions throughout the day.
- Tincture with garlic. Peel and crush 2 medium heads of garlic. In the resulting garlic gruel you need to add 200 ml of vodka. The mixture is infused for 30 days, after which the medicine is taken twice a day with 0.5 tsp.
Complications and consequences
When thrombocytosis increases blood clotting, resulting in likely to develop serious complications:
- Thrombosis. Blood clots can form in vessels of various sizes. This can lead to tissue necrosis and gangrene of the limbs. In this case, the organs lack nutrition and oxygen. This condition is especially dangerous for pregnant women and the fetus (miscarriages, hypoxia in a child and a woman, fetal hypotrophy, child death, placental abruption, uterine bleeding),
- Thromboembolism. If a blood clot comes off, then with blood flow it enters the organs or vital vessels. In this case, emergency conditions may arise that require immediate medical attention and hospitalization:
- Kidney infarction,
- Myocardial infarction,
- Pulmonary embolism (pulmonary embolism),
- ONMK (acute violation of cerebral circulation).
What are platelets, their functions
Platelets are considered the smallest elements of the circulatory system.without cores. The process of blood plate synthesis occurs in the bone marrow during the fragmentation of megakaryocyte branches. Platelets have a round or oval shape, their cavity is filled with small granules.
Cell longevity varies from 5 to 11 days. The distinctive features include the ability to change shape in case of damage to the walls of blood vessels. The platelet increases in size and creates spikes. This helps to avoid blood loss in case of damage to the skin surface and internal organs.
Hemostasis is divided into secondary and primary. In the primary, vessel spasms occur, leading to the formation of blood clots. Secondary hemostasis is necessary in case of damage to large vessels. He is responsible for strengthening blood clots. The duration of primary hemostasis is 3 minutes, and secondary - from 5 to 7.
Platelet functions are as follows:
- participation in regenerative processes,
- protective function
- the formation of blood clots
- assistance in the development of vasoconstrictor substances that reduce blood flow.
Platelet rates during pregnancy
During the carrying of the child is the restructuring of all organs. Special changes concern the blood supply system. They manifest in the formation of placental blood flow. Therefore, the total blood volume increases, but the number of platelets decreases. The rate of the indicator in this period is 100-310 units. It is especially important for women in the situation to control the level of platelets, since it affects the course of pregnancy.
Blood tests for platelet count
Laboratory research evaluates a set of blood properties. The result of the analysis helps not only to identify the level of clotting, but also to determine where the failure occurred. The study includes the following indicators:
- thrombin time - value indicating the period of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin,
- activated partial thrombin time - this is an indicator that allows you to get an assessment of the work of plasma blood factors,
- prothrombin index - a value indicating the time period of blood clot formation,
- plasma fibrinogen - an indicator of protein that turns into fibrin and promotes the formation of blood clots.
Causes of Platelet Rising
Состояние, при котором уровень тромбоцитов увеличивается, называют тромбоцитозом. Its danger lies in the blockage of blood vessels as a result of the formation of a blood clot. Predisposition to thrombocytosis can be inherited. Sometimes the disease develops under the influence of external factors. These include:
- infectious diseases,
- malignant tumors,
- hormonal preparations and diuretics,
- chronic forms of inflammatory diseases,
- Iron-deficiency anemia.
During pregnancy the number of blood cells is often increases with iron deficiency. This condition is dangerous deterioration of the blood supply in the area of the placenta. Increases probability of oxygen starvation of the fetusthat affects its development. Excessively high platelet counts can talk about presence of sepsis. Possible complications of thrombocytosis during pregnancy also include:
- increased toxicosis symptoms
- increased risk of heart attack,
- risk of miscarriage,
- increased likelihood of embolism,
- delayed child development.
Causes of platelet lowering
A condition in which the platelet count decreases is called thrombocytopenia. If the pathology occurred on the background of menstruation, it does not require treatment. During pregnancy changes in blood cell counts caused by the formation of uteroplacental blood flow. In some cases, thrombocytopenia may threaten miscarriage due to the development of uterine bleeding. The reasons for the critical reduction of cells during pregnancy include:
- taking diuretic or antibacterial drugs,
- placental abruption,
- intoxication of the body,
- features of the immune system,
- viral and infectious diseases.
The decrease in platelet volume is indicated by the body's tendency to bleed. A woman may notice the appearance bleeding gums and prolonged healing of even minor wounds and scratches. Also arise unreasonable nosebleeds and bruises on the body. Small rash forms on the skin surface.
Little about platelets
Platelets are a type of blood cell. Erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are present in the blood of any person, which “float” in the blood plasma. Each cell type is responsible for performing a specific function in the body.
The main task of platelets is the regulation of blood clotting. When bleeding occurs, the cells rush to the site of damage to the vessel and form a stopper that blocks blood flow.
Platelets increase the coagulability of blood plasma, which ultimately leads to the cessation of bleeding, contribute to the regeneration of damaged tissues.
When these cells are destroyed, the nutrients necessary for the formation of new cells are released.
Platelets are involved in many other processes in the body: they are able to attach to potentially dangerous proteins and reduce inflammation, saturate blood vessels with nutrients and maintain their elasticity, nourish tissues and, if necessary, release unique enzymes that ensure rapid cell regeneration.
Platelet analysis is carried out in the laboratory. This can be an independent study (for example, phonio platelets) or a detailed analysis of the blood composition (coagulogram).
Depending on the type of study prescribed, blood from a vein or finger is used.
Preparation for the analysis, regardless of the type of study, is the same. Blood must be taken on an empty stomach, i.e. after at least 8 hours after a meal.
It is best to contact the laboratory in the morning, because stress and exercise provoke fluctuations in the number of cells, which can distort the overall picture and reduce the effectiveness of the study.
24 hours before the blood should be withdrawn from alcoholic beverages. If you are taking medicines, you should consult with your doctor: some medications affect the composition of the blood, so you need to temporarily refuse them to get reliable results.
Platelet count is measured in thousands per microliter of blood. The general rate is 150-400 thousand for women and 150- 450 thousand for men.
By the results of the study often attach a table with reference values.
But it is quite difficult to decipher the results of the study, since the level of platelets depends on the age and medical history of the patient.
The woman has a peak in the number of platelets in the blood at 15-16 years. During this period, the level of cells can rise to 350 thousand, and in subsequent years it gradually decreases.
In men, the maximum number of platelets stands out at about 40 - 45 years, the rate reaches 450 thousand, and then goes down.
In infants up to one year, the content from 100 to 400 thousand per microliter of blood is considered normal, and after a year of life the rate becomes the same as in adults.
During the period of active menstrual discharge in women, the number of platelets is significantly reduced, to about 150 thousand.
This is caused by a natural mechanism: low blood clotting is necessary for rejection of the epithelial layer in the uterus. Therefore, women are not recommended to donate blood for analysis during menstruation.
The level of platelets in the blood of women may vary slightly during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester.
If a woman suffers from severe toxemia, then an increase in platelet count can be caused either by a protective reaction of the body or by chronic dehydration.
During pregnancy, the level of cells is recommended to monitor very carefully, since fluctuations in this indicator may pose a threat to the fetus.
Too low a level indicates an increased risk of bleeding, which in some cases can lead to spontaneous abortion or complications during childbirth.
Excessive platelet levels can cause abnormalities in the development of the fetus, since thicker and viscous blood transports nutrients worse.
Elevated platelet count
Exceeding the allowable platelet count per microliter of blood is called thrombocytosis.
Depending on the reasons for the occurrence and the severity of the deviation, the doctor may decide on the prescription of medications or try to reduce the number of platelets in a natural way - with the help of a diet.
The risk of thrombocytosis is spontaneous vascular blockage. Red blood cells are able to stick together with each other - this property allows you to block the damaged tissue and stop the bleeding.
The more of them in the blood, the higher the risk of accidental collision and adhesion of these cells. Platelet aggregations are called blood clots.
They can be small, and then the main risk is the blockage of thin vessels or capillaries in the lungs, brain, heart, and other vital organs.
But blood clots can reach impressive sizes and form clots that can block not only the capillaries, but also sufficiently large arteries and veins.
Regardless of the size of a blood clot, it can be a threat not only to human health, but also to life.
Thrombocytosis is divided into two large groups: primary and secondary. Primary thrombocytosis is caused by the improper functioning of the red cells of the bone marrow, i.e. the mechanism of cell production is disturbed.
Such a failure is most often caused by autoimmune diseases, congenital or acquired.
Predisposition to such diseases is inherited, therefore, if there is a history of blood diseases in the family, it is necessary to undergo regular diagnostics and closely monitor the level of platelets.
According to external signs, primary thrombocytosis is almost impossible to establish, therefore the responsibility for timely diagnosis lies largely with the patient: it is necessary to regularly donate blood for analysis.
Secondary thrombocytosis causes a whole range of diseases. In such cases, an imbalance of the blood cells becomes only a symptom, and the reason lies in the pathological processes in one or more internal organs.
Among the most innocuous processes in which platelets in the blood can be elevated are recovery from surgery or heavy bleeding.
Any operation provokes the body's defenses and stimulates the production of cells for the regeneration of damaged tissues.
A high level of platelets can also be observed during an exacerbation of infectious diseases and is a natural immune response to the penetration of pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The number of cells can increase spleen disease. It is this organ that is responsible for the splitting and elimination of blood cells from the body, which have served their time.
Inflammatory processes in the spleen or the removal of its part often become the reason why the platelets in the blood are elevated.
Thrombocytosis provoke chronic diseases, especially in the acute phase. Any inflammatory processes in the body, from gastritis to tuberculosis, can affect blood formation.
In such cases, the doctor may use the level of platelets and other blood cells as a diagnostic tool that allows you to evaluate the danger and strength of the exacerbation.
Very high levels of platelets may indicate the development of sepsis - a systemic inflammatory process.
High platelet levels accompany many cancers, especially leukemia and bone marrow cancer. Malignant growths in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are also often manifested by thrombocytosis.
How to reduce the level of cells?
There are various ways to reduce the number of platelets in the blood. Appointment of medication, diet or special procedures should be justified, since the correct composition of the blood can only be restored if the causes of its violation are correctly determined.
Primary thrombocytosis is treated with medication. Antiplatelet agents are special drugs that reduce the ability of blood clots to stick together and thereby reduce the risk of blood clots.
Anticoagulants act in a similar way, thinning the blood and reducing the risk of blood clots.
If thrombocytosis is a serious threat to the health and life of the patient, the doctor may prescribe thrombocytepheresis.
This is a special procedure for the purification of blood from platelets. The patient connects to a separator, which is able to filter out excess platelets, and the purified blood flows back to the patient.
Secondary thrombocytosis is treated indirectly, i.e., it is first necessary to establish the cause of the increase in the platelet level and to cure the disease that caused the imbalance.
The blood composition in such cases, as a rule, serves as a reference value and does not require a separate treatment.
Platelet formation and function
Platelets are shaped elements of blood, which are flat, nuclear-free blood plates measuring 1 - 2 micrometers (um), oval or round shape. In the unactivated state they have a smooth surface. Their formation occurs in the red bone marrow from progenitor cells - megakaryocytes.
The megakaryocyte is a relatively large cell, almost completely filled with cytoplasm (internal living cell environment) and having long spikes (up to 120 microns). In the process of maturation, small fragments of the cytoplasm of these processes are separated from the megakaryocyte and enter the peripheral bloodstream - these are platelets. From each megakaryocyte forms from 2,000 to 8,000 platelets.
The growth and development of megakaryocytes is controlled by a special protein hormone, thrombopoietin. Being formed in the liver, kidneys and skeletal muscles, thrombopoietin is transferred by blood to the red bone marrow, where it stimulates the formation of megakaryocytes and platelets. The increase in the number of platelets, in turn, causes the inhibition of the formation of thrombopoietin - thus their number in the blood is maintained at a certain level.
The main functions of platelets are:
- Hemostasis (stop bleeding). When a blood vessel is damaged, there is an immediate activation of platelets. As a result, serotonin, a biologically active substance that causes vasospasm, is released from them. In addition, many processes are formed on the surface of activated platelets, with which they are connected to the damaged vessel wall (adhesion) and with each other (aggregation). As a result of these reactions, a platelet plug forms, blocking the vessel lumen and stopping the bleeding. The described process takes 2 - 4 minutes.
- Food vessels. The destruction of activated platelets results in the release of growth factors that increase the nourishment of the vascular wall and contribute to the process of its recovery after injury.
Causes of Thrombocytopenia
A disorder at any of the above levels may result in a decrease in the number of platelets circulating in the peripheral blood.
Depending on the cause and mechanism of development, there are:
- hereditary thrombocytopenia,
- productive thrombocytopenia,
- thrombocytopenia destruction,
- thrombocytopenia consumption,
- redistribution thrombocytopenia,
- thrombocytopenia dilution.
This group includes diseases, in the occurrence of which the main role belongs to genetic mutations.
Hereditary thrombocytopenia include:
- Meye's anomaly - Hegglin,
- Whiskott-Aldrich syndrome
- Bernard's syndrome - Soulier,
- congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia,
- TAR - syndrome.
Rare genetic disease with autosomal dominant inheritance (if one of the parents is sick, then the probability of having a sick child is 50%).
It is characterized by a violation of the process of separating platelets from megakaryocytes in the red bone marrow, resulting in a decrease in the number of platelets formed, which have gigantic dimensions (6 - 7 micrometers). In addition, in this disease there are violations of the formation of leukocytes, which is manifested in violation of their structure and leukopenia (decrease in the number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood).
Hereditary disease caused by genetic mutations that result in abnormal, small (in the red bone marrow)less than 1 micrometer in diameter) platelets. Due to the disrupted structure, their excessive destruction in the spleen occurs, as a result of which their lifespan is reduced to several hours.
Also, the disease is characterized by skin eczema (inflammation of the upper layers of the skin) and predisposition to infections (due to immune system disorders). Only boys with 4–10 cases per 1 million are ill.
Bernard syndrome - Soulier
Hereditary autosomal recessive disease (appears in the child only if he inherited the defective gene from both parents), manifested in early childhood. Characterized by the formation of giant (6 - 8 micrometers), functionally insolvent platelets. They are unable to attach to the wall of the damaged vessel and bind to each other (violated the processes of adhesion and aggregation) and are subject to increased destruction in the spleen.
Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia
Hereditary autosomal recessive disease that manifests itself in infancy. Characterized by mutations of the gene responsible for the sensitivity of megakaryocytes to the factor regulating their growth and development (thrombopoietin), resulting in impaired platelet production by the bone marrow.
Rare hereditary disease (1 case per 100,000 newborns) with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, characterized by congenital thrombocytopenia and the absence of both radial bones.
Thrombocytopenia in TAR syndrome develops as a result of a gene mutation responsible for the growth and development of megakaryocytes, resulting in an isolated decrease in the number of platelets in peripheral blood.
This group includes diseases of the hematopoietic system, in which the processes of platelet formation in the red bone marrow are disrupted.
Productive thrombocytopenia can cause:
- aplastic anemia,
- myelodysplastic syndrome
- megaloblastic anemia,
- acute leukemia,
- cancer metastases,
- cytostatic drugs,
- hypersensitivity to various medications,
- alcohol abuse.
This pathology is characterized by inhibition of blood formation in the red bone marrow, which is manifested in a decrease in the peripheral blood of all types of cells - platelets (thrombocytopenia), leukocytes (leukopenia), red blood cells (anemia) and lymphocytes (lymphopenia).
The cause of the disease can not always be established. Some medications may be contributing factors (quinine, chloramphenicol), toxins (pesticides, chemical solvents), radiation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A group of tumoral diseases characterized by impaired blood formation in the red bone marrow. With this syndrome, accelerated reproduction of hematopoietic cells is noted, however, the processes of their maturation are violated. В результате образуется большое количество функционально незрелых клеток крови (в том числе и тромбоцитов). Они не способны выполнять свои функции и подвергаются апоптозу (self-destruction process), which is manifested by thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and anemia.
This condition develops with a deficiency in the body of vitamin B12 and / or folic acid. With a lack of these substances violated the formation of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), providing storage and transmission of genetic information, as well as processes of cellular development and functioning. In this case, first of all, the tissues and organs in which the processes of cell division are most pronounced (blood mucous membranes).
Tumor disease of the blood system, in which the bone marrow stem cell mutates (normally all blood cells develop from stem cells). As a result, the rapid, uncontrolled division of this cell begins with the formation of a multitude of clones incapable of performing specific functions. Gradually, the number of tumor clones increases and they displace hematopoietic cells from the red bone marrow, which is manifested by pancytopenia (a decrease in peripheral blood of all types of cells - platelets, erythrocytes, leukocytes and lymphocytes).
This mechanism of thrombocytopenia is characteristic of other tumors of the hematopoietic system.
Chronic disease characterized by the development of fibrous tissue in the bone marrow. The mechanism of development is similar to the tumor process - stem cell mutation occurs, resulting in the formation of fibrous tissue, which gradually replaces the whole substance of the bone marrow.
A distinctive feature of myelofibrosis is the development of foci of blood formation in other organs - in the liver and spleen, and the size of these organs increases significantly.
Tumor diseases of various localization at the last stages of development are prone to metastasis - tumor cells leave the primary focus and spread throughout the body, settling and starting to multiply in almost any organs and tissues. This, according to the mechanism described above, can lead to the displacement of hematopoietic cells from the red bone marrow and the development of pancytopenia.
This group of drugs is used to treat tumors of different origin. One of the representatives is methotrexate. Its action is due to a violation of the process of DNA synthesis in tumor cells, thereby slowing down the process of tumor growth.
Adverse reactions to such medications may be inhibition of blood formation in the bone marrow with a decrease in the number of peripheral blood cells.
Hypersensitivity to various medications
As a result of individual features (most often as a result of genetic predisposition) some people may experience hypersensitivity to drugs of different groups. These drugs can have a destructive effect directly on the bone marrow megakaryocytes, disrupting the process of their maturation and the formation of platelets.
Such conditions develop relatively rarely and are not necessary side reactions when using drugs.
The drugs that most commonly cause thrombocytopenia are:
- antibiotics (chloramphenicol, sulfonamides),
- diuretics (diuretic drugs) (hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide),
- anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbital),
- antipsychotics (prochlorperazine, meprobamate),
- antithyroid drugs (tiamazol),
- antidiabetic drugs (glibenclamide, glipizid),
- anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin).
The impact of ionizing radiation, including radiation therapy in the treatment of tumors, can have a direct destructive effect on the hematopoietic cells of the red bone marrow, as well as cause mutations at various levels of hematopoiesis with the subsequent development of hemoblastosis (tumoral diseases of hematopoietic tissue).
Ethyl alcohol, which is the active substance of most types of alcoholic beverages, in high concentrations can have a inhibitory effect on the blood formation processes in the red bone marrow. At the same time in the blood there is a decrease in the number of platelets, as well as other types of cells (red blood cell leukocyte).
Most often, this condition develops during hard drinking, when high concentrations of ethyl alcohol affect the bone marrow for a long time. The resulting thrombocytopenia, as a rule, is temporary and is eliminated a few days after the cessation of alcohol intake, however, with frequent and prolonged binges in the bone marrow, irreversible changes may develop.
In this case, the cause of the disease is increased destruction of platelets, occurring mainly in the spleen (in some diseases, platelets in smaller quantities can be destroyed in the liver and lymph nodes or directly in the bloodstream).
Increased destruction of platelets can occur when:
- idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura,
- thrombocytopenia of the newborn,
- posttransfusion thrombocytopenia,
- Evans-Fisher syndrome
- taking some medications (medicinal thrombocytopenia),
- some viral diseases (viral thrombocytopenia).
A synonym is autoimmune thrombocytopenia. This disease is characterized by a decrease in the number of platelets in the peripheral blood (the composition of other cellular elements of blood is not broken) as a result of their increased destruction. The causes of the disease are unknown. A genetic predisposition to the development of the disease is assumed, and a connection with the effect of some predisposing factors is noted.
The factors provoking the development of ITP can be:
- viral and bacterial infections
- prophylactic vaccinations,
- some medicines (furosemide, indomethacin),
- excessive insolation,
On the surface of platelets (as on the surface of any cell of the bodya) There are certain molecular complexes called antigens. When ingested with a foreign antigen, the immune system produces specific antibodies. They interact with the antigen, leading to the destruction of the cell on which it is located.
When autoimmune thrombocytopenia in the spleen begin to produce antibodies to the antigens of its own platelets. Antibodies are attached to the platelet membrane and “tagged” them, as a result of which, when passing through the spleen, platelets are captured and destroyed in it (in smaller quantities destruction occurs in the liver and lymph nodes). Thus, the life span of platelets is shortened to several hours.
Reducing the number of platelets leads to increased production of thrombopoietin in the liver, which increases the rate of maturation of megakaryocytes and the formation of platelets in the red bone marrow. However, with the further development of the disease, the compensatory capabilities of the bone marrow are depleted, and thrombocytopenia develops.
Sometimes, if a pregnant woman suffers from autoimmune thrombocytopenia, antibodies to her platelets can pass through the placental barrier and destroy normal fetal platelets.
This condition develops if there are antigens on the surface of the child's platelets that are not on the mother's platelets. In this case, the antibodies (class G immunoglobulins capable of passing through the placental barrier), produced in the mother's body, enter the bloodstream of the child and cause the destruction of its platelets.
Maternal antibodies can destroy fetal platelets at the 20th week of pregnancy, as a result of which the child can have signs of severe thrombocytopenia at birth.
This condition develops after blood transfusion or platelet mass and is characterized by pronounced destruction of platelets in the spleen. The mechanism of development is associated with the transfusion of the patient with foreign platelets, to which antibodies begin to be produced. For the production and entry of antibodies into the blood, a certain time is required, therefore a decrease in platelets is noted on days 7–8 after blood transfusion.
This syndrome develops with some systemic diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis) or without predisposing diseases against the background of relative well-being (idiopathic form). Characterized by the formation of antibodies to normal red blood cells and platelets of the body, with the result that cells "labeled" with antibodies are destroyed in the spleen, liver and bone marrow.
Some drugs have the ability to bind to antigens on the surface of blood cells, including platelet antigens. As a result, antibodies can be produced to the resulting complex, which leads to the destruction of platelets in the spleen.
The formation of antibodies to platelets can provoke:
- antiarrhythmic drugs (quinidine),
- antiparasitic drugs (chloroquine),
- anti-anxiety agents (meprobamate),
- antibiotics (ampicillin, rifampicin, gentamicin, cefalexin),
- anticoagulants (heparin),
- antihistamine drugs (cimetidine, ranitidine).
Viruses, entering the human body, penetrate into various cells and vigorously multiply in them.
The development of a virus in a living cell is characterized by:
- the appearance on the cell surface of viral antigens,
- changes in the cellular antigens of the virus.
Thrombocytopenia can cause:
- rubella virus,
- varicella virus (windmills),
- measles virus
- flu virus.
This form of the disease is characterized by platelet activation directly in the vascular bed. As a result, blood coagulation mechanisms are triggered, which are often pronounced.
In response to increased consumption of platelets, their products are increasing. If the cause of platelet activation is not eliminated, the compensatory capacities of the red bone marrow are depleted with the development of thrombocytopenia.
The activation of platelets in the vascular bed can be provoked by:
- disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome,
- thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura,
- hemolytic uremic syndrome.
A condition that develops as a result of massive damage to the tissues and internal organs, which activates the blood coagulation system with its subsequent exhaustion.
The activation of platelets with this syndrome occurs as a result of abundant secretion of coagulation factors from damaged tissues. This leads to the formation of numerous blood clots in the bloodstream, which clog the lumens of small vessels, disrupting the blood supply to the brain, liver, kidneys and other organs.
As a result of impaired blood delivery to all internal organs, the anticoagulant system is activated, aimed at destroying blood clots and restoring blood flow. As a result, against the background of exhaustion of platelets and other coagulation factors, the blood completely loses its ability to clot. There are massive external and internal bleeding, which is often fatal.
DIC may be caused by:
- massive tissue destruction (for burns, injuries, surgeries, incompatible blood transfusions),
- severe infections
- the destruction of large tumors
- chemotherapy in the treatment of tumors,
- shock of any etiology,
- organ transplant.
The basis of this disease is an insufficient amount of anticoagulant factor in the blood - prostacyclin. Normally, it is produced by the endothelium (inner surface of blood vessels) and interferes with the process of activation and aggregation of platelets (sticking them together and forming a blood clot). In TTP, impaired excretion of this factor leads to the local activation of platelets and the formation of microthrombi, vascular damage and the development of intravascular hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells directly in the bloodstream).
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
The disease, occurring mainly in children, and caused mainly by intestinal infections (dysentery, escherichiosis). There are also non-infectious causes of the disease (some medications, genetic predisposition, systemic diseases).
When HUS is caused by infection, bacterial toxins are released into the bloodstream, damaging the vascular endothelium, which is accompanied by platelet activation, attaching them to the damaged areas, followed by the formation of microthrombi and disturbance of the microcirculation of the internal organs.
Under normal conditions, about 30% of platelets are deposited (postponed) in the spleen. If necessary, they are excreted into the circulating blood.
Some diseases can lead to splenomegaly (enlarged spleen in size), as a result, up to 90% of all platelets in the body can be retained in it. Since regulatory systems control the total number of platelets in the body, rather than their concentration in the circulating blood, the delay of platelets in the enlarged spleen does not cause a compensatory increase in their production.
Splenomegaly can be caused by:
- cirrhosis of the liver,
- infections (hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria),
- systemic lupus erythematosus,
- tumors of the blood system (leukemia, lymphomas),
Thrombocytopenia redistribution can develop with hemangioma - a benign tumor consisting of vascular cells. It has been scientifically proven that platelet sequestration occurs in such neoplasms (delaying and shutting them down from circulation with possible subsequent destruction). This fact is confirmed by the disappearance of thrombocytopenia after the surgical removal of the hemangioma.
This condition develops in hospitalized patients (more often after massive blood loss), which transfuse large amounts of fluids, plasma and plasma substitutes, red blood cell mass, without compensating for the loss of platelets. As a result, their concentration in the blood may decrease so much that even the release of platelets from the depot is not able to maintain the normal functioning of the coagulation system.
Symptoms of thrombocytopenia
Since the function of platelets is hemostasis (stop bleeding), the main manifestations of their lack in the body will be bleeding of various localization and intensity. Clinically, thrombocytopenia is not expressed in any way until the concentration of platelets exceeds 50,000 per microliter of blood, and only with a further decrease in their number do the symptoms of the disease begin to appear.
It is dangerous that even with lower platelet concentrations a person does not experience a significant deterioration in the general condition and feels comfortable, despite the danger of developing life-threatening conditions (severe anemia, cerebral hemorrhage).
The mechanism of development of all the symptoms of thrombocytopenia is the same - a decrease in platelet concentration leads to a malfunction of the walls of small vessels (mostly capillaries) and their increased fragility. As a result, spontaneously or when exposed to a physical factor of minimal intensity, the integrity of the capillaries is disturbed and bleeding develops.
Since the number of platelets is reduced, the platelet plug in the damaged vessels does not form, which causes a massive flow of blood from the circulatory bed into the surrounding tissues.
Symptoms of thrombocytopenia are:
- Hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes (purpura). Manifested by small red spots, especially pronounced in places of compression and friction with clothing, and formed as a result of blood soaking the skin and mucous membranes. Spots are painless, do not protrude above the surface of the skin and do not disappear when pressed. Can be observed as single point hemorrhages (petechiae), так и большие по размерам (экхимозы – более 3 мм в диаметре, кровоподтеки – несколько сантиметров в диаметре). Одновременно могут наблюдаться кровоподтеки различной окраски - красные и синие (более ранние) или зеленоватые и желтые (более поздние).
- Частые носовые кровотечения. Слизистая оболочка носа обильно кровоснабжается и содержит большое количество капилляров. Their increased fragility arising from a decrease in the concentration of platelets, leads to abundant bleeding from the nose. Sneezing, catarrhal diseases, microtrauma can provoke nasal bleeding (when picking nose), foreign body penetration. The resulting blood is bright red. The duration of bleeding can exceed tens of minutes, as a result of which a person loses up to several hundred milliliters of blood.
- Bleeding gums. For many people, when you brush your teeth, there may be a slight bleeding of the gums. With thrombocytopenia, this phenomenon is especially pronounced, bleeding develops on a large surface of the gums and continues for a long time.
- Gastrointestinal bleeding. Occur as a result of increased fragility of the vessels of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal system, as well as injury to its coarse, tough food. As a result, blood can go to the feces (melena), coloring it red, or with vomit (hematemesis), which is more characteristic of bleeding from the gastric mucosa. Blood loss sometimes reaches hundreds of milliliters of blood, which can threaten a person’s life.
- The appearance of blood in the urine (hematuria). This phenomenon can be observed in hemorrhages in the mucous membranes of the bladder and urinary tract. At the same time, depending on the volume of blood loss, urine may acquire a bright red color (gross hematuria), or the presence of blood in the urine will be determined only by microscopic examination (microhematuria).
- Long abundant menstruation. Under normal conditions, menstrual bleeding continues for about 3 to 5 days. The total volume of discharge during this period does not exceed 150 ml, including the rejected endometrial layer. The amount of blood lost does not exceed 50 - 80 ml. Thrombocytopenia causes heavy bleeding (more than 150 ml) during menstruation (hypermenorrhea), as well as on other days of the menstrual cycle.
- Prolonged bleeding when removing teeth. Tooth extraction is associated with a rupture of the dental artery and damage to the capillaries of the gums. Under normal conditions, within 5–20 minutes, the place where the tooth used to be (alveolar process of the jaw), is filled with a blood clot, and the bleeding stops. With a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, the process of formation of this clot is disturbed, the bleeding from the damaged capillaries does not stop and may continue for a long time.
Diagnosis of the causes of thrombocytopenia
In most cases, a decrease in the number of platelets is a symptom of a particular disease or pathological condition. Establishing the cause and mechanism of thrombocytopenia allows you to set a more accurate diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
In the diagnosis of thrombocytopenia and its causes are used:
- General blood analysis (Oak). Allows you to determine the quantitative composition of blood, as well as to study the shape and size of individual cells.
- Determination of bleeding time (according to duke). Allows you to assess the functional state of platelets and the resulting coagulation of blood.
- Determination of blood clotting time. Measured time during which clots begin to form in blood taken from a vein (blood will start to clot). This method allows you to identify violations of secondary hemostasis that may be associated with thrombocytopenia in some diseases.
- Puncture red bone marrow. The essence of the method is to pierce certain bones of the body (sternum) with a special sterile needle and taking 10 - 20 ml of bone marrow substance. From the material obtained, smears are prepared and examined under a microscope. This method provides information on the state of blood formation, as well as quantitative or qualitative changes in hematopoietic cells.
- Detection of antibodies in the blood. Highly accurate method to determine the presence of antibodies to platelets, as well as to other cells of the body, viruses or drugs.
- Genetic research. Conducted with suspected hereditary thrombocytopenia. Allows you to identify gene mutations in the parents and immediate relatives of the patient.
- Ultrasound procedure. The method of studying the structure and density of internal organs using the phenomenon of the reflection of sound waves from tissues of different density. Allows you to determine the size of the spleen, liver, suspected tumors of various organs.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A modern high-precision method that allows to obtain a layered image of the structure of internal organs and blood vessels.
Diagnosis of thrombocytopenia
Minor thrombocytopenia can be detected by chance with a general blood test. When platelet concentrations below 50,000 per microliter can develop clinical manifestations of the disease, which is the reason for seeking medical attention. In such cases, additional methods are used to confirm the diagnosis.
In the laboratory diagnosis of thrombocytopenia are used:
- general blood analysis,
- determination of bleeding time (Duke test).
The easiest and at the same time the most informative laboratory research method, allowing to accurately determine the concentration of platelets in the blood.
Blood sampling for analysis is carried out in the morning, on an empty stomach. The skin on the palmar surface of the finger (usually nameless) treated with cotton wool moistened in an alcohol solution, then pierced with a disposable lancet (thin and sharp double-edged blade) to a depth of 2 to 4 millimeters. The first drop of blood that appears is removed with a cotton swab. Then, blood is collected with a sterile pipette for analysis (usually 1 - 3 milliliters).
Blood is examined in a special device - a hematology analyzer, which quickly and accurately calculates the quantitative composition of all blood cells. The data obtained allow to detect a decrease in the number of platelets, and may also indicate quantitative changes in other blood cells, which helps diagnose the cause of the disease.
Another way is to examine the blood smear under a microscope, which allows you to calculate the number of blood cells, as well as visually assess their size and structure.
Determination of bleeding time (Duke test)
This method allows you to visually assess the rate at which bleeding stops from small vessels (capillaries) that characterizes hemostatic (hemostatic) platelet function.
The essence of the method is as follows - a disposable lancet or needle from a syringe pierces the skin of the tip of the ring finger to a depth of 3 to 4 millimeters and include a stopwatch. Afterwards, every 10 seconds, a drop of blood is removed with a sterile cloth, without touching the skin in the injection area.
Normally, bleeding should stop after 2 to 4 minutes. An increase in bleeding time indicates a decrease in the number of platelets or their functional insolvency and requires additional research.
What will platelets tell
Platelets are among the blood cells and perform important functions. In size, they are several times smaller than erythrocytes and leukocytes, and also have a completely different form: they look more like plates with an electron microscope, from which they got their second name.
Platelets are constantly circulating in the blood. They are formed in the red bone marrow in the bones, and are destroyed in the spleen. Accordingly, any dysfunction of these organs leads to a change in the number of red blood cells.
Normally, in the absence of any damage, platelets circulate freely in the bloodstream without colliding with each other and not activating in another way. With an increased number of red blood cells can "stick" one to one and to the wall of blood vessels, causing the formation of blood clots inside a vein or artery. As a result, develop strokes or heart attacks.
With a reduced number of platelets, women suffer from constant bleeding, including uterine, hematoma, and other kinds of complications.
Also on their surface, these shaped elements transfer various receptors responsible for various processes in the body.
Platelets secrete growth factors that promote healing of the damaged area.
The gold standard is considered the blood content of an adult woman from 160 * 10 9 to 400 * 10 9 in one liter of blood. However, there are a number of conditions when physiological indices are shifted in one direction or another in normal conditions. These include:
- Pregnancy. In the first and second trimesters, there is a slight decrease in the number of red blood cells. The lower limit of the norm in this case is 90-140 * 10 9 / l. This condition develops so that the correct formation of the vessels of the placenta and the blood supply to the fetus take place. This is also due to the relative dilution of blood in the liquid component of the plasma. On the eve of childbirth, some increase in the number of platelets and coagulogram indices may occur (it shows the clotting properties of blood). This is provided by nature so that during childbirth a woman would lose as little blood as possible. Indications above 450 * 10 9 in one liter of blood are already considered pathology.
- In women, significant fluctuations in platelet levels occur throughout the cycle. The highest values are observed during the period of ovulation, and the moment coincides with the maximum basal temperature. When approaching critical days and during them, the number of red blood cells is significantly reduced, sometimes it becomes less than the limit of the norm. During monthly periods, platelets even reach 120-140 * 10 9 in one liter of blood.
What will the increase indicate
The increase in the number of red blood cells occurs in the following main cases:
- with an increase in their formation in the bone marrow,
- while reducing their destruction in the spleen, for example, during its removal,
- in certain functional states during which local accumulation of blood occurs.
This pathology develops in the case when, for some reason, the excessive formation of megakaryocytes, the precursors of platelets, occurs in the red bone marrow. As a result, the number of red blood cells also increases in peripheral blood. For a long time, the disease may not manifest itself. Sometimes women are worried about headaches, unmotivated red color of the skin, especially of the face and upper half of the body. The diagnosis is established after a general blood test is taken, if necessary, bone marrow puncture is performed.
Thrombocytosis due to inflammation
The increase in the number of these elements can be provoked by both viral and bacterial infections, as well as fungi. As a result, the response of the body increases not only the red blood cells, but also other components of the blood, for example, various leukocyte fractions.
Also, autoimmune diseases can cause thrombocytosis. For example, in rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and other pathologies.
Diet for thrombocytosis
Diet therapy is widely used to treat thrombocytosis. It aims to thin the blood. To this end, it is recommended to increase the amount of liquid consumed: clean water, fruit drinks, fruit drinks, fresh juices, herbal teas.
The diet should include foods rich in vitamins of group B and magnesium, as they prevent the formation of blood clots:
- Onion and garlic,
- Fruits and berries: citrus fruits (orange, lemon, pomelo and others), currants, sea buckthorn,
- Vegetables: tomatoes, celery, cabbage,
- Nuts and dried fruits: figs, almonds, cashews, hazelnuts,
- Vegetable oils: olive and flaxseed,
- Cereals: oatmeal, barley,
- Fish and seafood, sea kale.
It is also necessary to consider the list of products that must be discarded:
- Fried, fatty, salty and smoked food,
- Alcoholic and sweet carbonated drinks,
- Buckwheat and lentils
- Fruits: pomegranate, mango, bananas,
- Berries: wild rose, black chokeberry.
In this article, you learned about the symptoms and causes of increased platelet count and how to lower their blood levels in women.
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How to raise platelet levels
Before treatment, blood is donated for a detailed study. It is important to normalize the number of blood plates before labor. There is a risk of internal bleeding or hemorrhage in the brain. In the case of an autoimmune form of thrombocytopenia, the mother’s antibodies can be delivered to the child. This leads to the transmission of the disease to the newborn.
To increase the number of blood cells prescribed reception of corticosteroid drugs. These include "Dexamethasone" and "Prednisolone". At the same time glucocorticoids are prescribed. Introduction is sometimes practiced. immunoglobulin injection.
In advanced cases, conduct blood transfusion. If the treatment fails, a decision is made about removal of the spleen. It is the organ that has a destructive effect on the blood plate. Most often, the operation is performed by laparoscopic method. It also raises the question of the mode of delivery of women with thrombocytopenia.
Platelet count is the most important indicator reflecting the functioning of the circulatory system.
You can not take alcohol and smoke the day before. Three days before the analysis, it is desirable to normalize the emotional state and limit physical activity. It is extremely important to inform the attending physician about the medications taken. Reliable analysis results allow timely diagnosis of serious diseases, avoiding complications.
The role of platelets in the body
Platelets are cells that resemble small plates in shape. Their main role in the body - protection from blood loss. When a vessel is damaged, the platelets immediately go to the damaged area. Connecting to each other, they form a barrier, preventing bleeding.
In addition to such a protective function, platelets provide a liquid state of the blood, and also dissolve the formed blood clots.
That is why it is important to regularly analyze platelets in the blood. Norm, elevated, low values, as well as the causes of the formation of deviations of the indicators of these blood cells are described below.
Platelet count tests
A simple clinical diagnosis of blood can determine the number of platelets. If the results are deviated from the norm, the doctor may recommend that the patient undergo a more thorough examination - a coagulogram. For general analysis, the material is taken from a finger, additional diagnostics involves the collection of venous blood. To decipher the result, the established rate of platelets in men, women, children is applied.
Before any of these tests should follow the general rules of preparation for blood donation:
- for three days it is necessary to refrain from the use of alcoholic beverages, fatty and fried foods,
- blood is given on an empty stomach,
- It is advisable to conduct a study in the morning.
Platelets: the norm in women by age (table)
For most people, such indicators of the number of platelets in the blood are considered normal: from 200 to 400 thousand / μl. But in women, when interpreting the results of the analysis, additional factors should be taken into account, such as the day of the menstrual cycle, age and even the time of day. Because of these states depends on the rate at which the body produces platelets.
The norm in women by age (table) is presented below.
In addition to age, factors such as pregnancy and menstruation affect blood platelet counts in a woman’s blood. In the first case, the blood volume in the body increases, platelets do not have time to recover in the required amount, so a small decrease in performance as a result of the analysis is the norm.
During the monthly female discharge, there is a loss of blood volume in the body, which also leads to a decrease in the number of platelets. Therefore, in the above states, a temporary decrease in the indices to 150 thousand / μl is permissible - this is the rate of platelets in women. Deviation from the norm will be established if the results of the analysis indicate the number of platelets below 150 units per microliter, as well as if such indicators remain constant.
During menstruation and during pregnancy, platelet count is considered normal within 150–320 thousand / μl of blood. Women need to be examined regularly by a doctor, follow his recommendations. If, in addition to detecting a low platelet level, as a result of the analysis, the patient’s complaints about the state of health are also present, additional diagnostic procedures should be urgently carried out in order to rule out serious pathological conditions.
Norm for men
In men, during normal hematopoietic process, platelets are updated with constant regularity. Normally, indicators should correspond to 180–320 thousand / μl. Если в женском организме возможны допустимые отклонения в показателях количества тромбоцитов, то у мужчин такие отступления недопустимы. При расшифровке анализа специалист может либо подтвердить норму, либо указать на возможную патологию в работе кровеносной системы.
Показатели тромбоцитов у детей
In childhood, the rate of platelet counts in the blood depends on the age of the baby. In a newborn, depending on the general condition, a wide range of indicators are allowed, which can be considered the norm in each particular case. Relatively stable production of platelets by the body becomes older than 4 years.
The table below helps to decipher the result of the analysis in children.
How to reduce platelets?
Before embarking on treatment, when platelets are elevated, the patient must necessarily reconsider their lifestyle. Minimize the amount of stress and emotional turmoil in your life. You also need to give up bad habits, because of which platelets can be raised.
Try to lead a measured and calm lifestyle. Avoid intense and hard workouts where there is a high risk of injury.
To lower elevated platelet levels in the blood, you need to:
- Refuse rosehips, mangoes, nuts, pomegranates and rosehips,
Increase the amount of lemon, green tea, beets, tomatoes in the diet. In all dishes try to add garlic and onions,
- Every morning, start with a spoonful of fish oil,
- Choose compote or juice for drinking,
- Consume as many foods with ascorbic, citric or malic acid,
- Regularly drink drugs with magnesium,
- Do not forget to drink at least 2.5 liters of pure water every day,
- Observe the correct mode of the day and rest.
Treatment of elevated platelets requires a responsible approach from the doctor. It is impossible to say exactly why women experience this disease less often.
Therapy, if platelets are elevated, includes the following activities:
- Taking interferon drugs,
- Taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents to lower blood clotting,
- Acceptance of Anagrelide - a means that reduces the high level of Bitszocero plaques,
- Taking drugs hydroxyurea,
- Carrying out thrombocytopheresis is a procedure that removes excess platelet count.
Secondary thrombocytosis requires more complex treatment. HIn order to save men and women whose blood has increased these blood cells, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination. Only it will help to identify the exact cause of such a deviation.
Influence directly on the cause of the disease will help to quickly and effectively cope with thrombocytosis. Just say what it means and what will be the results of drug therapy, can only a doctor.
Thrombocytosis is a serious disease that requires immediate medical treatment. If for a long time to ignore the course of this disease, serious complications can occur. It is strongly recommended to find out what the other blood counts, which are not right, are talking about. A complex violation may indicate more serious problems.
What are platelets?
Among the most dangerous are:
- The risks of blood clots in the blood vessels and veins are increased. Such formations block the bloodstream,
- The separation of a blood clot - such education can get into the artery. Because of this, there is inflammation, swelling at the site of injury,
- Stroke - rupture of the vessel at which the brain hemorrhage occurs,
- Myocardial infarction - violation of the contraction of the heart muscle,
- Pulmonary vascular thromboembolism - the penetration of a detached vessel into the lung tissue.
- Death - in 90% of cases, advanced thrombocytosis is immediately fatal.
Extensive injuries of both the skin and internal organs can lead to a response defense response of the body, and, as a consequence, an increase in the number of platelets. Such conditions may develop after surgery, fractures, etc.
Most malignant neoplasms lead to anemia, an increase in red blood cells and leukocytes. As a result, tumors increase the risk of vascular thrombosis.
And if the figures are reduced
Thrombocytopenia is manifested by increased bleeding, frequent hematomas and spontaneous bleeding. Most often, with various autoimmune diseases, excessive destruction of red blood cells occurs, which causes a decrease in their level. Also, some viral diseases can provoke similar conditions. Thrombocytopenia occurs with hepatitis, HIV, herpes, ARVI, etc.
Reducing the number of red blood cells below 20 * 10 9 / l is critical for the health of any woman, in such situations, treatment should be carried out in the hospital.
An independent disease with a decrease in the level of these elements is thrombocytopenic purpura, the trigger mechanism for which are various infectious pathologies.
At the end of pregnancy, pathology is sometimes observed, one of the manifestations of which is a decrease in the number of platelets and an increased risk of the development of DIC — a violation of blood coagulation processes. With HELLP syndrome, there is also a decrease in the level of erythrocytes, yellowing of the skin, impaired liver function, and the like. All this leads to the suffering of the fetus and threatens the life of the woman, therefore the establishment of this diagnosis is an indication for emergency delivery.
We recommend reading the article on testing during menstruation. From it you will learn about the cases in which it is possible, and in which it is impossible for a woman to take a blood test on the days of menstruation, as well as about the possibility of taking urine and conducting an ultrasound examination.
Does the monthly influence on the diagnostic data
Indeed, a relationship has been established between the woman’s menstrual cycle and the main blood parameters. It is believed that the level of formed elements, including red blood cells, is affected by the work of the autonomic nervous system, which is also responsible for some behavioral reactions.
But not always reduced red blood cell values during menstruation will be below the normal limit. Usually indications vary within 140 - 180 * 10 9.
Do platelets increase during menstruation? No, rather, their physiological decline may occur. But in a healthy woman, all the variations of platelets should be within the normal range, especially since the range is very wide - from 160 to 400 * 10 9 / l. Any abnormalities should alarm both the patient and the physician, since in most cases serious pathologies may be hidden under these minor fluctuations.
Why are leukocytes elevated in the blood, urine, cervical canal or smear? . Elevated platelets in menstruation, in front of them or.
. coagulate faster, increasing platelet counts in it. . Tendency to thromboembolism, increased blood clotting
And scanty discharge can be partly due to increased hemoglobin. In this case, the viscosity of the blood increases.
Can there be elevated lymphocytes during or during menstruation? . And an increased number of them is formed.
. due to the decrease in the number of leukocytes, platelets and red blood cells. . In addition, the biological fluid at this point has a high viscosity that.
Where is the golden mean?
Just like other shaped elements, platelets can tend to decrease and increase, which is often a pathology, because the rate of these cells in the blood is 200-400 * 10 9 / l and depends on the physiological state of the body. Their number varies depending on the time of day and the seasons. It is known that at night and in spring the platelet count falls. The level of platelets in women is lower (180-320 x 10 9 / l), and during menstruation their number may drop to 50%. However, in this case, the platelets are reduced physiologically, as a protective reaction (prevention of thrombosis in women), so this condition does not require treatment.
The number of platelets in the blood is slightly lower during pregnancy, but if their level falls below 140 x 10 9 / l, then measures should be taken immediatelyas the risk of bleeding during childbirth increases.
Special events are carried out also when Disease causes low platelet count:
- Hematopoiesis in the bone marrow,
- Liver disease
Increased blood platelets can also be physiological, for example, after being in highland areas or during heavy physical work. But when platelets are increased in the blood due to pathological conditions, then the risk of thrombosis and myocardial infarction increases, because platelets are responsible for blood clotting, and their excessive amount will lead to increased blood clotting.
In children after a year, the level of red blood cells does not differ from those in adults.. Until the year, the number of platelets in the blood is slightly lower and amounts to 150-350 x 10 9 / l. The rate in newborns starts from 100 x 10 9 / l.
However, it should be remembered that when the blood platelets in a child are elevated, this will be a disturbing factor and in such cases the following pathology can be assumed:
- Infections (viral, bacterial, parasitic, fungal),
- Damage to the gastrointestinal tract (pancreas, liver),
- Iron-deficiency anemia,
In a word, it will be a matter of necessity to consult a doctor, but first you will have to re-take a blood test to eliminate the error.
Platelets in the total blood count
Modern clinical laboratory diagnostics, although using old proven methods of staining and counting platelets on glass, however, also resort to studying the population of platelets using a hematological analyzer, the possibilities of which are much wider.
The hematology analyzer allows you to determine the average platelet volume (MPV - mean platelet volume), which it not only measures, but also presents in the form of a histogram, with the old elements on its left side, and the young elements on the right. The size of the cells makes it possible to judge the functional activity of the platelets, and the older they are, the smaller their size and activity. An increase in MPV is observed in thrombocytopenic purpura, anemia after bleeding, Bernard-Soulier macrocytic thrombodystrophy. and other pathological conditions. The decrease in this indicator occurs in the following cases:
- Iron deficiency anemia,
- Myocardial infarction,
- Thyroid disease,
- Kidney and liver diseases,
- Disorders in the blood coagulation system,
- Blood diseases.
Another indicator of the quality of blood platelets is the relative width of the platelet distribution by volume (PDW), which indicates the degree of platelet change in size (anisocytosis)in other words, it is an indicator of cell heterogeneity. Its deviations indicate a pathology such as:
- Inflammatory process,
- Helminthic invasion,
- Malignant neoplasms.
The ability of platelets to adhere to an alien surface (collagen, saturated fatty acids that form the basis of an atherosclerotic plaque) is called adhesion, and the ability to stick to each other and form conglomerates is aggregated. These two concepts are inextricably linked.
Platelet aggregation is an integral part of such an important process as thrombus formation, which is the main protection against bleeding in case of damage to the vascular wall. However, the tendency to increased thrombus formation (thrombophilia or other pathology) can lead to uncontrolled platelet aggregation and be accompanied by pathological thrombosis.
Blood coagulates on contact with any foreign surface.because only the vascular endothelium is for her the native medium, where she remains in a liquid state. But one has only to damage the vessel, as the environment immediately turns out to be a stranger and the platelets begin to rush to the scene of the accident, where they self-activate to form a thrombus and “patch up” the hole. This is the mechanism of primary hemostasis and it is carried out in case of injury of a small vessel (up to 200 μl). As a result, a primary white thrombus is formed.
When a large vessel is damaged, the contact factor (XII) spontaneously activates, which begins to interact with factor XI and, being an enzyme, activates it. Following this, there is a cascade of reactions and enzymatic transformations, where coagulation factors begin to activate each other, that is, there is some kind of chain reaction, as a result of which the factors concentrate in the place of damage. There, together with other cofactors (V and kininogen with high molecular weight) comes and blood coagulation factor VIII (antihemophilic globulin), which itself is not an enzyme, however, as an auxiliary protein, it takes an active part in the process of coagulation.
The interaction between IX and X factors occurs on the surface of activated platelets, which have already been in contact with the damaged vessel and special receptors have appeared on their membrane. X active factor converts prothrombin to thrombin, and at this time, factor II also attaches to the surface of platelets. Auxiliary protein, factor VIII, is also present here.
Thrombin interacts with fibrinogen, builds fibrin molecules, forming fibrin threads that are intertwined, but not connected to each other. Cross-linking of fibrin threads (durable thrombus) is performed by factor XIII (fibrin stabilizing). At this stage, calcium ions (factor IV) are involved in coagulation of the blood, which contribute to building bridges between the threads, and their crosslinking.
Cofactors: tissue factor III, which is absent in the blood, but only in tissues, factor XIII (transglutaminase) and factor I (fibrinogen) are the substrate for the formation of fibrin, which is recognized as the end product of blood coagulation. And if this fibrin is fragile, the wound will not heal for a long time, so the bleeding will resume again and again.
The mechanism that is implemented with the participation of the blood coagulation system is called secondary hemostasis, as a result of which a red thrombus forms (adherent elements adhere).
Thrombus formation occurs on exposed collagen, tissue factor and cell membranes, including platelet membrane phospholipids.
The scheme of all enzymatic transformations and activation of factors, which are 13, is complex and may be incomprehensible, therefore briefly, the blood coagulation process can be represented as four successive phases:
- Prothrombinase production,
- Thrombin formation from inactive form (prothrombin, factor II),
- The formation of fibrin, which, in essence, is a blood clot,
- The retraction of the blood clot (separation of the clot from the blood serum) is carried out under the control of platelets, this important mission is entrusted to them. By reducing the clot, they tighten the fibrin filaments and close the damaged vessel.
Why does blood remain fluid?
If thrombus formation and hemostasis is under the control of the coagulation system (a combination of plasma proteins and proteolytic enzymes), then to maintain blood in a liquid state, there is an anticoagulant system that creates balance in the human body, which is represented by such components:
- Anticoagulant system that regulates the speed of the clotting process and does not give blood the ability to coagulate where it is not necessary. If this component works poorly, there is a threat of death from thrombosis,
- The fibrinolytic system (fibrinolysis), which is responsible for the formation of a blood clot of such a size that it can close the vessel, but no more and no less. The extra fibrin filaments or fibrin cap that has fulfilled its function, it dissolves and restores normal blood flow after stopping the bleeding.
However, as in the coagulation system, the anticoagulant system can also fail, and it starts to work poorly. Protein-anticoagulants (anti-thrombin) normally always contain blood and carry out their task (inhibit thrombin). They are formed in the liver, sit on the walls of blood vessels and inactivate the active forms of coagulation factors, which are also constantly present in the bloodstream and form a blood clot. As soon as “noticing” that uncontrolled coagulation begins, antithrombin III interferes with the process and prevents blood from clotting.
If this factor for some reason does not work, then for its activation, it is advisable to introduce heparin, which is done to prevent thrombosis (DIC, severe injuries, pregnancy, lower limb thrombosis). However, if for some reason antithrombin III is little or not at all, then it is impossible to count on the help of one heparin, therefore it (heparin) is administered together with antithrombin.
A deficiency of antithrombin can be a hereditary pathology and, when its level is 60-70% of the norm, thrombosis is already provided. A child born with a similar anomaly and having a 50% deficit dies from thrombosis in the first hours of life. The lack of antithrombin III is recognized as a frequent cause of myocardial infarction in very young people.
Another important component of anticoagulation is protein C (MS), which controls the work of factors VII and VIII and, if necessary, blocks them. Protein C is synthesized in the liver (with the participation of vitamin K). Его дефицит может стать причиной невынашивания беременности (тромбозы).
Кроме перечисленных факторов, к противосвертывающей системе относятся и другие ингибиторы, ограничивающие протеолитические реакции: гепариновый кофактор (ГК II), протеин S (PS), ингибитор тканевого фактора (ИТФ), протеаза нексин I (ПН-I) и др.
Основные лабораторные тесты на свертывание крови
The process of blood coagulation can begin with damage to the endothelium surface (vascular wall), then the internal mechanism of prothrombinase formation is triggered. Coagulation can also be triggered by blood contact with tissue thromboplastin, which is hidden in a tissue cell if the membrane is whole. But it comes out when the vessel is damaged (an external mechanism for the formation of prothrombinase). The launch of one mechanism or another explains the fact that the clotting time of a sample of capillary blood (external path) is 2-3 times less than that of venous blood (internal path).
Laboratory tests based on these mechanisms are used to determine the time required for blood coagulation. The Lee-White coagulability study is carried out by taking blood into two tubes from a vein, while the formation of prothrombinase along the outer pathway is studied by Sukharev (blood from a finger). This blood test for clotting is quite simple in execution. In addition, it does not require special preparation (taken on an empty stomach) and a lot of time for production, because capillary blood (as said above) closes 2-3 times faster than venous. The rate of blood coagulation time according to Sukharev is from 2 to 5 minutes. If the time of clot formation is shortened, then there is an accelerated formation of prothrombinase in the body. This happens in the following cases:
- After massive blood loss, to which the coagulation system responds by hypercoagulation,
- DIC syndrome in stage 1,
- The negative effects of oral contraceptives.
Slowed formation of prothrombinase will be expressed by the lengthening of the time of the formation of a clot and be observed under certain conditions:
- Deep deficiency of factors I, VIII, IX, XII
- Hereditary coagulopathy,
- Liver damage
- Treatment with anticoagulants (heparin).
How to raise platelet levels?
When there is little blood in the platelets, some people try to raise them themselves with the help of alternative medicine, using foods that increase platelets in the blood and healing herbs.
It should be noted that a diet to increase blood platelets can be considered truly royal:
- Red meat, cooked in any form,
- All varieties of fish,
- Eggs and cheese
- Liver (preferably beef),
- Rich meat broths, sausages and pates,
- Nettle, cabbage, beetroot, carrot, bell pepper salads seasoned with sesame oil,
- All kinds of greens (dill, celery, parsley, spinach),
- Rowan berries, bananas, pomegranate, wild rose juice, green varieties of apples, nuts.
People say it’s possible to increase platelets with folk remedies if Take 1 tablespoon of sesame oil on an empty stomach (three times a day) or drink fresh nettle juice (50 ml) with the same amount of milk. But all this is probably possible if the platelets are lowered slightly and the reason for the drop in their level has been clarified. Or as ancillary measures for the main treatment, which is carried out in stationary conditions and consists in the transfusion of donor thrombosis, specially prepared for a particular patient.
The treatment involves certain difficulties, since the platelets do not live for a long time, therefore the thromboconcentrate is stored for no more than 3 days in special “spinners” (the cells must be constantly mixed during storage). In addition, for a qualitative increase in platelets, they must take root in the body of a new host, so before their transfusion an individual selection is made according to the leukocyte HLA system (analysis is expensive and time consuming).
Reduce the number of platelets
Lowering platelets is easier than raising them. Drugs containing acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) help thin the blood and thus reduce blood platelets. Also, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants are used for such purposes, which are prescribed by the attending physician, and not by the neighbor on the landing. The patient himself can only help the doctor, giving up bad habits (smoking, alcohol), eating foods rich in iodine (seafood) and containing ascorbic, citric, malic acid. These are grapes, apples, cranberries, lingonberries, blueberries, citrus fruits.
Folk recipes to reduce the level of platelets recommend garlic tincture, ginger root powder, which is brewed in the form of tea (1 tablespoon of powder per cup of boiling water), and cocoa without sugar in the morning on an empty stomach.
All this, of course, is good, but it should be remembered that all activities should be carried out under the supervision of a physician, since blood elements such as platelets are not very subordinate to the methods of traditional medicine.
Video: what do blood tests say?
Hello! You are very thoroughly and thoroughly examined, so something else does not make any sense. Moreover, according to the analysis, you do not have a serious somatic pathology, but there are clear signs of anxiety disorder, which has appropriate conclusions. It is most likely that it is the cause of all experiences, and if you do not deal with problems with nerves, you can come to a serious depression, constantly anxious with panic attacks. The most important advice that I want to give is to turn to a good psychotherapist who will prescribe the right antidepressants and help cope with anxiety, otherwise the circles of repeated examinations will not stop. You are required to adjust the mode of work and rest, to ensure adequate sleep, walks, physical activity (swimming is one of the best options and improve health, and calm the nerves). Pay special attention to nutrition, make it regular and high-quality. Metabolism, repolarization in the heart and your well-being depend on what you eat.
About nolpazy: if you do not suffer from an ulcer, do not take drugs that can cause it, then there is no need for constant use of the drug. Platelets are still normal, no need to panic! The presence of helicobacter requires appropriate treatment, which must be described in detail by a therapist or a gastroenterologist.
In gynecology, too, there is no reason for panic. Menstruation could begin prematurely due to stress, if bleeding does not happen anymore, then there is no fear in this. Adenomyosis can still be monitored or tried to find those drugs that do not cause allergies, since the pharmacies offer a huge amount of them. Cysts on the neck are removed by conization, but this, again, does not require urgency. With cysts, you can wait if you can not delete them now.
There is no need to pay attention to red spots, nevi, etc., as well as look for other signs of serious diseases. Bleeding gums when brushing your teeth may indicate either that you brush too actively or there may be problems with the gums themselves, which are eliminated by caring for your mouth and taking vitamins.
The cardiologist is right by sending you to a neurologist. Repolarization in the heart is not treated as such, it is normalized with proper nutrition, absence of stress and taking vitamins and minerals. By the way, magnesium would be useful in your case. It not only improves the metabolism in the myocardium, but also significantly soothes the nerves and has a relaxing effect.
Thus, the first thing you need to try to calm down, do not overpower the doctors and do not torture yourself with unnecessary examinations. Not only you suffer from your experiences, but also children who are very sensitive to the behavior of the mother. Second, do not balance the platelet count, which is within normal limits, and tidy up the nervous system. Having calmed down, you will notice an improvement in well-being, stop going to doctors and look for diseases that are not there.
In order of importance, we would advise such a plan for further action:
1. the psychotherapist and antidepressants (they are taken for a long time, the effect in some cases becomes noticeable after 2-3 months, so you will need patience and a great PERSONAL desire to clean up the nerves),
2. mode, nutrition, rest, vitamins - you can start today,
3. treatment of helicobacter gastritis, removal of cervical cysts, observation by a gynecologist - without emergency and panic.
4. in the near future - a minimum of surveys, all kinds of tests, etc., the maximum - calm.
Hello, I thank you for the detailed answer. Probably, this is exactly what I needed. I turned to a psychotherapist, the diagnosis is anxiety disorder. Saw drugs for the intended purpose. It became bad when in January, with a break of a month, Kenalog and Diprospan were placed in the cervical section. The head constantly hurts. Mexidol saw, it was generally good with him, 2 months for 1 t. 2p / d (it was already later). It was hell (((, shaking all, jumping pressure, turned into a mental hospital, zoloft, teralidzhen, carbamazepine, nootropic, something, sedation, physical therapy. Gradually, everything returned to normal. I know the panic attacks .... I can cope with them. I understand that psychosomatics suffers. It’s just doctors waving their hands and sending. And when you panic, you rush to everyone. Then they took the platelets and lowered them, they may also destroy the cells from stress. I went to a hematologist too, but she said that there was no place for anxiety, but It happens that pantoprazole can I have to drink ibuprofen, and therefore I drink nolpaz. Oncologists still against hormones in the treatment of adenomyosis. Yes, they also speak to cysts, that is, they do not have them. I have understood about repolarization. I drink nettle now, but I have varicose veins, I read that contraindications for varicose veins. I did brain MRI, I didn’t reveal any gross pathology, but there was dizziness, Mexidol helped me well. Can I also drink it twice a year? And what vitamins to take? About magnesium, I heard that the best form is magnesium citrate + B6. Thank you, they just took off my load. And the children really understand everything when my mother is in agony ((although I never showed it to them once, everything is silent. Or she would leave so that they would not see my alarm ((. I was not given a total of 5 doctors in general). I am very glad that there is a site to which you can tell everything and get a real consultation in return! In what topic do you have to write about the gene mutation? The daughter has one, can be seen by a hematologist, and the younger one has atopic dermatitis. Allergists also wave their hands.
Love! We are happy if our advice will be useful to you, because we are trying to answer questions as fully as possible, as far as possible in absentia. A few more comments: if you sometimes drink ibuprofen, this is not a reason to take nilpazu in a constant mode. Adenomyosis can be observed so far, after all, it does not bother you. With nettle not hot, the bleeding was once, it is likely that it will not happen again in the near future. As for Mexidol, it is better to speak with your neurologist, according to the testimony, he will appoint as much as necessary. Vitamins - any, but better complexes with minerals and proven manufacturers. With magnesium, Magne B6 is considered a good drug, the only disadvantage of which is cost, but it is really effective. Regarding anxiety: if you took any antidepressants for a long time and they helped you, it makes sense to return to them. Surely you know that these drugs need to be taken for a long time, at least six months, the first 2-3 weeks may not be very pleasant sensations, and the psychotherapist must determine the dosage and dosage regimen (Zoloft is the same; specify the doctor at the reception). Without a prescription, you can buy afobazole or adaptol, noofen, which also have a calming effect. As for gene mutation and observation of a child by a hematologist, no one better than the hematologist himself will explain to you the essence of the mutation and its effect on health. Atopic dermatitis: a diet, a minimum of allergens around, bepanten on dry crusts and rashes, a calm atmosphere in the house (this is important, because psycho-emotional stress increases the manifestations of allergy).
Hello, thank you very much again! You are the only ones who were not indifferent to the patient's problem and really, as if I had come to the office where the doctors' council was sitting and everyone answered the exciting question, moreover, the correspondence was in absentia. Only professionals can understand this way that concern about health lies somewhere deeper and recognize this “snake”, give absolutely accurate recommendations and wishes. I thought that was never the case. Of course, when you destroy yourself from the inside, you don’t live, but suffer, quality of life = 0. For antidepressants, it’s really the first time, on the contrary, it’s an increase in all these disorders, but I wasn’t prescribed a dosage of more than 50 mg. Saw for 3 months, with the head of the department in a very good relationship, which I also sincerely wished to calm down and put myself in order. Now I accept motherwort forte)) - I believe in it)), the cardiologist told me that afobazole was not needed and = he was given preparations, apparently, not all bad. When I am at the doctor’s reception, I behave completely normally, restrained, aware of the existing anxiety, that psychosomatics suffers, speech is coherent, consistent, constructive, but there is anxiety and anxiety, resentment, I understand it all. They themselves say that antidepressants are not a panacea, you need to figure it out in your head, tablets help while you are drinking them. Or, of course, when there are pathological disorders. I had the first episode in 2013, when suddenly the father of a child died right in bed, lay down and died, a young boy, 27 years old ... .. heartbreak, I cried for 2 years, which was probably a prolonged depression. I understand all this, but there were no necessary words. You came out as a psychologist, and carefully figured out, patted on the head and pushed forward so that she walked and did not look around, that everything was fine, so that she took the children in both hands and walked toward the sun ahead. Of course, I will try and it will be easier for me. Thank you very much, thank you for your access, thanks for being able to figure it out, thank you for hearing and, once again, the most surprising thing is remotely. By the way, the platelets are already normal, 236)) I am so grateful to you. How can I thank you further?
As for nettle, it was meant that there is no special indication to drink it, but if there is a desire for health, varicose veins are not listed in the category of contraindications, if there is no blood clots. Antidepressants are not a panacea, but by accepting them you can take a different look at the situation, find joy in life and return to your hobbies, relax, finally. Then they can be canceled, and the state of mind will already return to normal. No matter how you behave at the reception, anxiety is difficult not to notice. This can be seen even in the style of your questions, and this must be fought. By the way, you can work with a psychologist who will find the roots of grievances and experiences, help you to go through them differently and put all your thoughts and actions into place. And we want this to happen as quickly as possible. As for the gratitude, in the form of sending comments there is “Step 3: You can additionally thank the specialist with another payment for an arbitrary amount”. Do not worry: your gratitude will reach the addressee immediately. With wishes of health, the team SosudInfo.ru.
Hello. I have a 10 week pregnancy. Did a detailed blood test. All indicators within the normal range, except for platelets - 47 and thrombokrit - 0.06. What could be the reasons?
Hello! Pregnant platelets are somewhat reduced, especially in the later periods, but you have this figure is extremely low, so you should definitely find its cause. The causes of thrombocytopenia are extremely diverse, starting with allergies, poor nutrition and infections and ending with tumors, therefore, it is impossible to determine why you have such an analysis result without an online survey. At the same time, there is no need to panic in advance, first of all, retake the analysis, because the device’s error cannot be ruled out either. Your obstetrician-gynecologist is obliged to send you for examinations. It is not advisable to consult a hematologist in case of a repeated poor result. Do not delay examinations, as low platelets pose a risk of bleeding and adverse pregnancy development. Health to you!
Hello, decipher, please analysis. I have Nyak, I have been diagnosed for 2 years, there was a remission stage — I saw 2 grams of salofalk, I felt worse, I was raised to three grams of salof. I have been drinking for 2 months. I am worried about elevated platelets since November 2014; the gastroenterologist cannot really say anything. soe - 2 leukocytes -10.97 erythrocytes -4.37 hemoglobin -131 hematocrit - 40.3 average erythrocyte volume (mcv) -92.2 average hemogl. in erythroz. (mcn) -30 average concentration of hemogl. in erythroc (mcnc) 32/5 platelets 501 erythrocyte distribution width (rdw cd) -45.8 fl erythrots distribution width. (rdv-cv) -13.8 platelet volume distribution width (pdv) -12.3 average platelet volume (mpv) -10.5 thrombocrit -0.51 neutrophils (per 100 leukocytes) -54.6 neutrophils (abs) -5.99 lymphocytes (per 100 leukocytes) - 28.4 lymphocytes (abs) -3.12 monocytes (per 100 leukocytes.) -9.2 monocytes (abs) -1.01 eosinophils (per 100 leukots.) -7.3 eosinophils (abs) -0.8 basophils (per 100 leuks.) -0.5 basophils (abs) -0.05 platelets were elevated 427, January 2015-502, summer of this year 404-480, August 2015- 375 did a coagulogram 1, 06, 2015 records -32.7 sec. тромбированное время -21.1 сек протромбированое время -11.6 протромбированый индекс по квику -80 процентов фибриноген -2.10 МНО(ПТВ и ПТИ) 0.98 антитромбин 111 — 116 процентов
Hello! У Вас повышены лейкоциты, что может быть связано с НЯК, а вот причину тромбоцитоза назвать заочно невозможно. Вам стоит проконсультироваться у гематолога.
Tell me please. Сдала расширенный анализ крови.
Результаты с тромбоцитами насторожили
Что означает такой высокий показатель PDW? Норма указана 25-65
Hello! PDW is one of the platelet indexes, which shows the width of the distribution of platelets in volume, and its increase may indicate a violation of the size of the population of platelets. An increase in this indicator may indicate the presence of anemia, oncological diseases, inflammatory processes, etc. In addition, if you ate before testing or are pregnant, then PDW may also increase. For exact explanations regarding the reasons for you, it is better to contact a hemostasiologist, hematologist or doctor who referred you to the study.