Ovarian cystadenoma is a benign ovarian cyst containing a clear liquid and looks like a bladder. According to statistics, such a cyst is found in 50% of women who have a violation of the menstrual cycle, and in more than 30% with regular menstrual periods. In menopausal age, the possibility of ovarian cystadenoma development is rather low.
Papillary (papillary) cystadenoma
Varieties of ovarian cystadenoma
Modern medicine identifies several types of cystadenom based on the nature of the formation and structure of its walls. Often, a cyst appears only on one side, for example, a cystadenoma of the left ovary. But in case the right ovary is affected, then experts almost immediately speak of a malignant form of education, i.e. about oncology. Such a diagnosis is quite dangerous, because the patient's life depends on the urgency and correctness of the treatment.
Cystadenoma can be:
- Serous. Divided into two types:
- simple (smooth-wall) - the cyst has a smooth surface and smooth walls. Size ranges from 1.5 cm to 35 cm in diameter. Inside contains a yellow liquid. Education up to 3 cm in size does not interfere with fertilization, but it is not known how a cyst will behave during pregnancy. Anyway, there is a danger and treatment is necessary,
- papillary (papillary) - the inner walls of the cyst are covered with numerous papillae of different shapes. Inside contains clear or brown liquid. In 50% of cases, ovarian coarsenal cystadenoma develops into a malignant one. It has multi-chamber and single-chamber type, i.e. may contain several cavities. Often appears immediately on the two ovaries. Border papillary cystadenoma is characterized by a large number of papillae, which resemble warts in their appearance.
- Mucinous The inner contents are thick mucus (mucin). It grows rapidly, changes shape, increases and is capable of reaching gigantic sizes (50 cm in diameter). If there is no treatment, the cyst ruptures and the contents are released into the peritoneum. Borderline mucinous cystadenoma is potentially malignant and occurs in 15% of cases.
Causes of formation
Unfortunately, the true causes of cystadenoma formation have not been established. However, among experts there is an opinion that a normal functional cyst (follicular, corpus luteum) initially appears, which soon develops into a cystadenoma.
Some gynecologists identify only two possible causes of cystadenoma development:
- Constant hormonal disruptions of the menstrual cycle.
- Inflammatory processes and infections of internal genital organs.
Whatever the case, it should be remembered that the treatment of ovarian cystadenoma is necessary.
All types of cystadeno have almost the same signs. The main feature is that cysts do not manifest themselves in a woman’s body until it grows to a large size. The larger the formation on the ovary becomes, the more painful urination and defecation, there is a violation of the stool (diarrhea or, conversely, constipation), the menstrual cycle ceases to be regular, there is a "daub" between menstruations. Also symptoms of cystadenoma include:
- the appearance of a feeling of pressure, distention in the lower abdomen,
- marked increase in abdomen
- feeling like something is interfering inside.
Abdominal enlargement in mucinous cystadenoma
If a woman has a sharp pain in the lower abdomen, then a cyst rupture or twisting of her leg is most often diagnosed.
The formation of papillary cystadenoma is different from other types of cysts. During its appearance in the abdominal cavity, fluid accumulates (ascites). Due to such a cluster, women have an increase in the size of the abdomen.
Most often, the patient learns about the presence of a cyst in the body after a gynecological examination. The specialist speaks about his suspicions, tells what a cystadenoma is, why it occurs, and what threats it can carry. To confirm or refute the diagnosis, a woman is prescribed an additional examination. It may be:
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs - allows you to accurately determine the cyst, its size and dynamics,
- CT or MRI - reveals the nature of education and the exact location,
- pregnancy test - excludes ectopic pregnancy, the symptoms of which are similar to signs of cystadenoma,
- blood test - determines the inflammatory processes and the risk of blood loss.
Multi-chamber cystadenoma on an ultrasound image
The choice of treatment depends on the nature of education. So, simple (smooth-wall) cystadenoma quite rarely develops into a malignant one and does not require urgent surgical intervention. The gynecologist simply monitors the dynamics of the cyst, and, in case of its increase, prescribes an operation.
A huge risk to the life of the patient is papillary cystadenoma. In connection with the rapid growth and the possibility of transition to the malignant form, the woman is assigned to be removed. And it will only be a cyst or the whole ovary - it depends on the size and nature of the formation. Sometimes, in order to save the patient's life, doctors decide to remove two ovaries, in particularly dangerous cases - the ovaries and uterus.
Laparoscopy is the most benign method of dealing with a cyst. Such an operation helps to preserve the ovary completely, while removing all foci of growth of the formation. In addition, complications after surgery are minimal, rehabilitation is fast, a woman can have a sex life and become pregnant.
If cystadenoma was found in a climacteric patient, treatment is to remove the entire ovary.
Removal of ovarian neoplasia carries with it some consequences. Most women worry about surgery before surgery if they can conceive, bear and give birth to a child after rehabilitation. Unfortunately, if the diagnosis threatens life, then the only way out will be the complete removal of the ovaries and uterus. Reproductive function is not saved. If during the operation the specialists leave one healthy ovary, then the chance to give birth to a healthy baby remains. According to the doctors, the patient is allowed to have an active sex life and conceive a child only two months after the operation. However, it is necessary to plan such a pregnancy in advance and prepare for it not only for a woman, but also for a man.
If a woman takes no action in a treatment plan, bad consequences await her. Over time, cystadenoma will increase in size, become malignant and develop into oncology. Such complications may occur:
- rupture of formation and discharge of contents into the abdominal cavity,
- metastasis in malignant form,
- abundant growth and damage to the adjacent ovarian tissue.
To preserve your health, in the future to give birth to a child and live a full life, you must carefully take care of your female health. At the first unusual sensations in the lower abdomen it is recommended to visit a gynecologist.
Types of ovarian cystadenoma
Cystadenomas are true tumors that grow not only due to stretching of the wall, but also through tissue hypertrophy due to cell division (proliferation).
Cystoadenomas of the right ovary are of several types:
- simple (smooth-wall), coarse-buds,
Ovarian serous cystadenomas are diagnosed in 2/3 of cases of tumor lesions of the sex glands. They usually occur in women after 50.
Simple cystadenomas - education size of 1.5-35 cm, in their capsule contains a yellow liquid. Bulat cysts are characterized by multiple papillae that line the inner walls of the formation. Usually they are multi-chamber. Capsules inside contain transparent or brown exudate. In half of the cases, coarsenal cystadenomas are transformed into cancer.
A papillary tumor differs from coarsenal papillae by the ability of the epithelial tissue not only to expand, but also to metastasize. In advanced cases, the nipples lining both the inner and outer shell of the formation, nodes appear, the shape of the capsule is deformed.
The mucinous formations of the right ovary are distinguished by the fact that they are filled with thick mucus (mucin). These cystadenomas are prone to rapid growth, sometimes reaching sizes up to 50 cm. The danger of a tumor is that there is a big risk of a capsule breaking and mucin spreading through the abdominal cavity. The malignant process of mucinous formations develops in 15% of cases.
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The direct causes of ovarian cystadenoma have not yet been established. Most experts believe that these cystic formations are formed against the background of hormonal disruptions in women. But clear statistics on this issue does not exist.
The factors that may contribute to the development of the pathological process in the right ovary include:
- hereditary and acquired ovarian dysfunction,
- early puberty
- infectious and inflammatory processes of the reproductive organs,
- long absence of sex
- venereal diseases,
- excessive exercise
- severe stress.
First signs and symptoms
As cystadenoma grows, characteristic symptoms begin to occur:
- aching pain from the right ovary,
- foreign sensation in the abdominal region
- painful urination,
- an increase in the abdomen (in advanced cases),
- violation of the chair,
- irregular menstrual cycle.
Cystadenomas of the ovary are dangerous possible complications:
- rupture of the membrane, resulting in peritonitis,
- twisting legs, necrosis,
- development of a purulent process inside the tumor,
- dysfunction of neighboring organs due to tumor compression,
- reincarnation in ovarian cancer.
General rules and methods of treatment
The most effective treatment for cystadenoma of the right ovary is surgery. Before removal, ultrasound is required to accurately determine the size, localization of the tumor. The scope of intervention is determined individually. Usually cystadenoma excised together with the ovary. During menopause, it is recommended to remove both ovaries and appendages. If a woman still wants to have children in the future, the doctor tries to preserve reproductive function as much as possible.
Minimally invasive method of surgical intervention. During the operation, small incisions are made in the area of the peritoneum. Special tools are introduced through them to remove a tumor. The progress of the operation is controlled by a special video camera.
Advantages of the method:
- minimal skin trauma,
- short rehabilitation period,
- lack of adhesions and scars.
Stages of laparoscopy:
- vascular coagulation and hemostasis,
- capsule puncture,
- content exhaustion
- separation of the capsule shell from soft tissue,
- removal of the formation and sending material for histological examination.
When a malignant process is detected, the ovaries are removed and the uterus is extirpated. Adnexectomy or oophorectomy methods are used.
Folk remedies and recipes
Recipes of traditional medicine can only be used as an organism support after surgery, slowing the growth of education. In no case can not replace the traditional treatment of the people.
- Pour 4 spoons of acacia flowers ½ l alcohol. Insist for a week in a dark place. Take 1 teaspoon before meals three times a day.
- Rinse the green walnuts. Cut them into 4 pieces. Fold in liter jar on на. Top up with alcohol and cork tightly. Insist month. Strain and consume within 3 months 1 spoon 2 times a day.
- Wash the burdock leaves, dry. Skip through a meat grinder and squeeze the juice. Take 1 teaspoon twice a day.
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Features of therapy during pregnancy
If a cystadenoma less than 3 cm in diameter was detected in pregnant women, then an observational tactic is chosen. A woman must be under the supervision of specialists all the time.
The danger is the formation of large sizes, especially in the 3rd trimester, when the uterus descends into the peritoneum. During this period, there is a high risk of torsion of the cystadenoma leg. In this case, the woman needs surgery.
Learn more about the first signs and symptoms of ovarian cystadenoma, as well as about the features of treatment of benign tumors of the genital glands from the following video:
Causes and factors of development
Why cystadenomas arise is not completely understood. It has been suggested that tumor formation is possible from functional ovarian cysts / corpus luteum cyst, follicular cyst /. Against the background of hormonal dysfunction, these cystic formations do not disappear, but turn into a benign tumor. It is assumed that the development of cystoma is influenced by the following factors:
- early onset of the menstrual cycle (up to 12 years),
- long rest period in intimate life,
- chronic inflammatory processes of appendages,
- genital infections (presence of Trichomonas, chlamydia),
- surgical interventions
- late end of the menstrual cycle (55 - 60 years),
- prolonged stress, which caused the development of neurosis.
Cystadenoma is formed from the tissues of the epidermis and is divided into specific forms depending on the histological structure of its wall.
This is a benign lesion with a dense smooth wall and consisting of a single chamber filled with watery contents. The size of the formation can vary from 0.5 cm to 30 - 32 cm. The most frequent are from 5 to 16 cm. Serous cystadenoma is the most common pathology of the female genital tract.
This is a small tumor that rarely grows to 12 cm. Most often, the cystoma has a size from 3.5 cm to 7 cm. The main feature of this pathological formation is the presence of special growths inside it that look like warts, that is, parietal papillomas.
The contents of the cystoma is a transparent secret that has a brownish or yellowish tint. The capsule of formation, in its structure, is dense, with growths on the external surface in the form of papillae. Papillary cystadenoma is a formation that often turns into an oncological disease.
This type of cystadenoma is a large, sometimes giant multi-chamber tumor filled with liquid glue secretion. It is characterized by rapid growth and can grow up to 50 cm in diameter and weigh up to 15 kg. The mucinous form also has the ability to degenerate into an oncological disease.
Symptoms of the disease
Clinical manifestations in cystadenomas of various types will be the same. Education data at the initial stage of development, with minor dimensions, are asymptomatic. At larger sizes, health complaints appear:
- pains are dull or aching in the lower abdomen, mainly on the side of the formation of cystadenoma, can give in the lower back, lower limbs, groin area. Communication pain syndrome with the menstrual cycle is not observed.
- dysuric phenomena - frequent urge to urinate due to tumor pressure on the bladder,
- heaviness in the abdomen and an increase in it - occurs with a large tumor and is accompanied by a violation of the intestine. Such a clinical picture often gives mucinous cystadenoma.
Women suffering from cystoma, as a rule, have irregularities of the menstrual cycle. Often this pathology is accompanied by infertility.
Cystic lesion of the ovaries during menopause is not uncommon in patients over 50 years of age. The pathological process is associated with the extinction of ovarian function and a decrease in the level of certain hormones in the body. The ability to reproduce a woman fades away.
Hormonal rearrangement affects the entire body, as a result of which the maturation of the eggs ceases, and instead of functional cystic formations, cystadenomas appear. Therefore, when a woman has a question: what it is and what to do, the answer can be only one - it is an operative removal of the tumor.
For successful treatment of pathological formations of the ovary, it is necessary to diagnose and determine the structure of the tumor and its benign or malignant course.
1. Surgical method
This pathological formation is to be removed only by surgery. The scope of such intervention is determined by the doctor for each patient individually. If a woman is at a young age and is planning a pregnancy, then by removing the tumor, surgeons try to save the ovary. After such an operation, conception is quite possible, but it must be under the supervision of a physician and with the implementation of all recommendations for treatment.
Women in menopause, with papillary cystadenoma, the tumor is removed along with both ovaries, since this form of the pathological process has the risk of transformation into a malignant ovarian carcinoma.
For benign volumetric processes of the ovaries of small size, the operation is performed by laparoscopy, which is performed through punctures of the abdominal region. If there are large cystadenomas or a confirmed malignancy of the neoplasm, the operation is performed by laparotomy.
Laparoscopy is a modern method of surgical manipulations, which allows to carefully remove tumor-like formations without affecting healthy tissues. This prevents the development of adhesions. The postoperative period is faster than after abdominal laparotomy.
Before the operation, the surgeon performs diagnostic laparoscopy, visually clarifying the tumor localization, its size, involvement in the process of neighboring organs. Then the cystadenoma is punctured, followed by suction of the fluid, after which the cyst sheath itself is removed for histological examination.
2. Conservative treatment
Such treatment is possible only with functional cystic formations (follicular cyst, cyst of the corpus luteum). They are absorbed through three monthly cycles. If a cyst, under dynamic observation and treatment, undergoes reverse development, then this confirms the functional nature of the formation.
If the cystoma progresses and there is no effect from the treatment, then a mandatory surgical removal of the tumor is indicated. The prognosis for life and rehabilitation after surgery for ovarian cystadenoma is positive for both women at reproductive age and for women in menopause.
Cystadenoma (cystoma) of the ovary: causes, symptoms, treatment
What is cystadenoma, what distinguishes it from other types of cysts, and how is it treated?
Cystadenoma of the ovary or cystoma is a pathological formation on the ovary, which is considered in gynecology as a benign tumor, having a cyst structure - a capsule with an internal cavity filled with fluid secretion.
It differs from banal cysts in that it is more prone to cancerous degeneration.
It can be formed in patients capable of childbirth, with a regular monthly cycle, and in women with impaired ovarian function, including menopause (before and after it).
Types and localization
There are several types of cystadenum, in accordance with the nature of the formation, structure and internal content:
- Simple serous cystadenoma is a rounded, often single-chamber cyst with a dense membrane of epithelium cells. Cystic lesions of the ovaries of this type occur in 65 - 71% of cases and only on one side. Sizes range from 5 mm to 30 cm. The least dangerous in relation to malignant cell degeneration.
- Papillary cystoma, which is often regarded as a subspecies of serous cystadenoma. Differs in the development of epithelial growths on the walls - papillae. Diagnosis is difficult because the symptoms are similar to signs of a cancer. The likelihood of malignant tissue changes is high.
- Mucinous cystadenoma differs in multi-chamber structure and the probability of growth up to 10 - 15 kg (40 - 50 cm). Inside the cavity is a thick viscous secret - mucin. This tumor is considered to be borderline with a mucinous malignant formation, since its cells are often transformed into cancer cells.
Usually, a cystoma occurs on the one hand, often forming on the right ovary, which is determined by its more intensive blood supply.
If cystic formation of the left ovary develops, it usually grows slower due to decreased functional activity.
The cystadenoma of the left ovary is treated similarly to the structure on the right.
Causes of development
The causes of cystoma are not fully investigated. But there are several provocative states:
- ovarian dysfunction, infertility,
- hormonal fluctuations, including the period of menopause and postmenopausal,
- endocrine disorders, including thyroid disease,
- inflammatory diseases, infectious processes in the pelvic organs,
- the development of other cystic structures of different types in the ovarian region,
- artificially induced and spontaneously terminated pregnancies
- inflammation after surgery on the pelvic organs, including childbirth and abortion,
- excess adipose tissue and disorders in carbohydrate metabolism,
- early menarche (first menstruation in adolescence) and late menopause,
- sexual abstinence, frequent change of intimate partners,
- neurological disorders of an acute or prolonged nature,
- heavy exercise
- exhaustion on the background of irrational diets,
To confirm the diagnosis in the development of cystadenoma use the following procedures and instrumental methods:
- Gynecological examination required for preliminary determination of the size, location, structure of the cystic capsule, its mobility and the presence of possible inflammation in the adjacent organs.
- Ultrasound diagnosis allows you to specify the area of development of the cystoma, the size, density and degree of growth of the epithelium. The most informative is considered an ultrasound, held after 6 - 7 days after menstruation.
- Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in which the structure of cystadenoma can be investigated in more depth and confirm its appearance - a simple serous, mucinous or papillary.
- Laboratory blood test for determining the level of tumor marker CA-125, the increase of which often indicates the development of a purulent or cancerous process. But it should be noted that this indicator is often elevated and with benign ovarian tumors.
- FGDS and FKS, as additionally prescribed procedures for the study of the large intestine and stomach with the help of an endoscope.
Ovarian Cystoma Treatment
Treatment of ovarian cystadenoma can only be done surgically. No medications or home therapy will allow getting rid of the cystoma - only removal.
The type and volume of the operation is associated with the type of cystic formation, its size, symptoms and the degree of probability of cancer transformation. Today, surgical techniques provide the best possible preservation of reproductive functions.
- Laparoscopy. It is carried out more often with the development of a simple serous tumor, with a small cyst size (up to 40 mm), its benignity, and mainly in patients who are going to have children. This operation is performed with preservation of the ovary. The procedure is bloodless, since the incisions on the abdominal wall are no more than 15 mm, and the entire medical instrument, including the microcamera on the laparoscope, is very small. It is recommended to plan conception after laparoscopy after 3 - 4 months.
- Laparotomy. This is abdominal surgery, in which a rather long incision is made on the peritoneum. It is performed with large sprouts, with the probability of malignancy, as well as in patients in the period of menopause. Often excised cyst itself, the ovary (fully or partially), fallopian tubes. It should be understood that even when the reproductive gland is removed, young women have every chance to conceive and give birth to a child, since the second ovary continues to function.
Cystadenoma during pregnancy
If the ovarian cystoma does not exceed 30 mm, it is left intact, waiting for normal delivery. In most cases, pregnancy proceeds safely.
With the rapid progression or detection of a large tumor, the operation is carried out immediately, because the development of pathology leads to a displacement of the uterus, a high probability of rupture of the wall and torsion of the leg.
Surgical removal of the ovarian tumor during gestation is performed laparoscopically after 14 weeks of gestation, when the placenta is fully formed. In such serious cases, with the competent conduct of the operation, the probability of a normally developing pregnancy is high.
Up to the period of 14 weeks, surgical intervention is indicated only in case of rupture, torsion, suppuration, that is, above all, to preserve the life of the mother.
Cystadenoma of the right ovary: how dangerous is this disease?
Cystadenoma is a benign tumor or cyst. A cyst of its kind is a bubble, inside it contains a liquid.
In our time, this diagnosis is made to women very often. In most cases, it is manifested in women with irregular menstrual cycles.
This is a very serious disease and treatment, in any case, it is impossible to postpone.
What is this disease? What types exist?
A cyst of the right ovary arises either inside it or on it. Its size can be absolutely any: from a few mm to several tens of cm.
Such tumors can occur during normal ovarian function and, as a rule, do not pose a particular threat to a woman’s health. This cyst is called functional.
But there are neoplasms that have a tendency to go into a malignant tumor, and in this case, it is necessary to immediately begin treatment.
There are several types of cystadenomas:
And the first one is divided into several more subspecies:
So, a simple cystadenoma, or else it is called smooth wall, is a benign formation. Its maximum size reaches 35 cm. The contents of the bubble have a yellowish tint. It does not prevent the occurrence of pregnancy, as well as further bearing a baby, if its size is up to 3 cm.
Mucinous If you believe the statistics, then every 5 women has this type of cystadenum. It can be impressive in size and have a lot of weight. The vial is filled with sticky thick mucus.
It can also develop into a malignant form, but here the risk is only 15%, and papillary 50%. In medical practice, there have been cases when such a retrieved neoplasm reached 3 kg.
Symptoms of the disease
As a rule, this disease occurs more often in women after 40 years. And every year the risk of a malignant tumor only increases, so all tumors require careful diagnosis.
Cystadenoma initially asymptomatic, i.e. the woman does not feel any discomfort.
The neoplasm does not bother until it becomes an impressive size.
There is a dull pain in the lower abdomen, but it has nothing to do with menstruation. She can also give well in the legs or lower back.
A large neoplasm manifests itself as:
- Feeling of heaviness in the stomach
- Significant increase in the abdomen
- Sensations of the presence of a foreign body in the abdomen,
- Frequent urination (this is due to the fact that the cyst puts pressure on the bladder)
- Constipation (due to the large size of the tumor, which affects the functions of the nearest organs),
- Disruption of appetite
- General malaise,
- Temperature rise,
- Irregular periods.
And in each 5 patients detect infertility. Therefore, this type of cyst - cystadenoma is often found with complications. For example, when ruptured, the contents spread throughout the abdominal cavity.
Before treatment, it is necessary to determine the final diagnosis, as well as find out the size and type of swelling. Serous cyst is treated only with surgery. This type of cyst does not resolve itself.
If it is a simple type of cystadenoma, then it does not require an urgent operation, it rather rarely develops into cancer. But the gynecologist should closely monitor the development of tumors, in the event of any changes, to take urgent measures.
Women after 50, doctors recommend to have surgery, during which all ovaries are removed. This is done in order to reduce the likelihood of transition to a malignant tumor.
Girls who want to have children in the future are left with one ovary. Thus, there are chances to conceive a child.
But after surgery, you need to take care of your health and regularly visit a gynecologist.
How to avoid this disease? Possible causes
The causes of this disease are many. Among the most common are:
- Viral infections,
- Venereal diseases,
- Ectopic pregnancy.
With all of the above, cystodenoma can occur at any age in a woman. But more often, it affects women over 40 years of age.
While watching the video, you will learn about a cyst in the ovary.
So, we found out that this is a pretty insidious disease. Therefore, it is very important to regularly visit a gynecologist.
Only the attending physician will be able to make the correct diagnosis, based on the designated examinations.
Lovely girls, try to carefully monitor your health so that in the future you can have children and live a full life.
Serous cystadenoma of the ovary - is it necessary to treat?
A serous papillary cystadenoma of a benign ovary is a cavitary formation that has clear contours, resilient walls and is filled with serous substance.
Because of the presence of serous fluid in the capsule, this type of tumor was called serous cystadenoma.
It is important that serous cystadenoma of the ovary does not fall into the category of diseases that are dangerous for health and life - provided that the disease is not allowed to drift, but subjected to proper treatment in time.
In medical practice, serous cystadenoma is often called borderline serous ovarian cystadenoma.
Statistics show that more than 90% of women who have been diagnosed with serous cystadenoma of the right ovary, were able to completely eliminate the abnormal body and return fertility for the past few weeks since the start of treatment.
Localization of the tumor has no clear characteristics. The serous cystadenoma of the ovary can be attached to the inner layers of the tissues of the ovaries on the one hand, and affect both reproductive organs.
A simple serous cystadenoma of the ovary on the right reproductive organ is attached, usually with the help of an elastic connecting leg, and is connected with flagella with the fallopian tubes and the uterus.
The capsule of a smooth-wall serous cystadenoma of the ovary often has several chambers, seals of the walls, as well as additional connecting elements and flagella.
Like many other types of benign tumors in the tissues of the reproductive organs, serous cystadenomas of the left ovary show no symptoms in the first days of their formation.
Such capsules can grow over several years and do not disturb the carrier.
It is possible to find such a pathology most often with an “accidental” ultrasound scan of the abdominal cavity or a tomographic examination of the patient.
Only when the borderline serous papillary cystadenoma of the ovary begins to abnormally increase in size and crush the adjacent tissues and walls, the patient can observe the following symptomatic signs of the disease.
Symptomatic picture of cystadenoma
- The primary sign of the appearance of coarse-papillary serous cystadenoma of the ovary is pain or spasms in the lumbar region, small pelvis or pubis. By the nature of the manifestations, the painful sensations can resemble labor pains before childbirth.
- Often, due to the increased size of the serous multi-chamber ovarian cystadenoma, a woman experiences pain or a feeling of constriction in the bladder and adjacent organs of the urogenital system. A patient with a developed and large cystadenoma may have problems urinating. In the urine may be observed bloody and purulent blotches.
- Due to pathogenic pressure and damage to the tissues of the ovary during cystadenoma in a woman, the menstrual cycle can be significantly disrupted. Monthly, as a rule, come with delays, are characterized by abnormal profusion or soreness, provoke extremely sharp pains in the lower abdomen and pubic.
- If the serous cystadenoma of the ovary has reached a large size and has begun to exert pathogenic pressure on the internal organs and systems, the woman is likely to increase body temperature, there will be attacks of agony, cold sweat and shortness of breath.
- The inflamed capsule also provokes the appearance of abnormal bouts of nausea and weakness.
- Because of the constant pressure on the abdominal cavity during a tumor, it is often possible to diagnose disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. There are violations in the digestive tract constipation, diarrhea, indigestion. Also, a woman may experience a feeling of nausea and tightness in the stomach after or during a meal or rectal pain during the bowel cleansing process.
- Hormonal disruptions and disturbances in the process of tumor growth are expressed in the fact that a woman with this ailment is usually extremely irritable, angry, and can show sudden bouts of aggression towards her close and familiar people.
- When the ovarian cyst is abnormal in size, the patient has external signs of the tumor, which are expressed in the form of abnormal swelling on one side of the intestine. The symptom "bloated belly" is often mentioned in medical texts when it comes to benign tumors in the female reproductive system. This phenomenon is associated with increased tumor pressure on the adjacent walls and inflammation of the internal tissues.
Capsules that affect the right ovary often grow large and bulge in the direction of the abdominal cavity. Because of this, the patient may experience adverse gastrointestinal diseases, painful symptoms in the abdomen, and other characteristic signs of a developing pathology.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW!
The most dangerous of the above symptoms is bloated abdomen syndrome. An enlarged abdomen indicates that the tumor capsule has grown to an abnormal size and is filled with fluid.
A high content of serous substance in the tumor can cause torsion of the cyst stem or its rupture.
When a cyst bursts, its fluid flows into the cavity of the urinary organs or the abdominal system, which can lead to extremely acute infection, infection, necrosis of healthy tissues and even death.
The appearance of acute pain and an enlarged abdomen in cystadenoma should be a mandatory reason for visiting a specialist and starting treatment for the disease.
Many women worry about the effects of borderline serous ovarian cystadenoma. We answer that serous ovarian cystadenoma has a risk of malignancy, which is also important to take into account in the process of diagnosis and the start of treatment.
Such cysts should be determined at the early stages and do everything possible to prevent their growth and pathogenic interference with the female reproductive system. With adequate action on the part of the patient, the prognosis of serous cystadenoma of the ovary is very optimistic.
This is confirmed by Dr. Myasnikov, who once raised the topic of serous papillary cystadenoma of the ovary.
Why does serous cystadenoma appear?
To say exactly about the causes of the formation of cysts in the ovaries, doctors still can not.
The existence of a large number of tumors of this type and their different symptomatic picture suggests that not only the nature and type of the disease, but also a lot of individual and unique features of the female body can influence the formation and progress of a cyst. It is necessary to highlight several of the most common causes of the occurrence of this disease in women:
- Serous cystadenoma can be formed due to hormonal disruptions, endocrine disruption.
- A tumor of this order is often formed in the body of people who have sexually transmitted diseases or sexually transmitted infections.
- In some cases, the capsule begins to grow if there is an adverse inflammatory disease of an abnormal and rare type in the woman’s body. These include salpingo-oophoritis, adnexitis.
- Infections and inflammatory processes of the genital organs can also affect the integrity and health of ovarian tissue.
- Hormonal disorders and bacterial infections that occur during frequent changes of partners also often provoke the appearance of serous cystadenomas on the tissues of the ovaries.
- Constant psychological stress, stress, irregularity or the complete absence of sexual life can affect the formation and growth of a benign tumor for a long time.
- The tissues of paired reproductive organs can be damaged in the process of non-professional operations in the reproductive system: abortions, miscarriages, independent abortions, preterm labor, surgical removal of erosions or cysts.
- Hormonal background and the endocrine system can also disrupt the constant fasting, malnutrition, too much control over your diet and physical activity of the strengthened type.
How is serous ovarian cystadenoma treated today?
To date, there are two most common and effective methods for the treatment of benign serous cystadenoma of the ovary:
- conservative elimination of the disease by medication,
- surgery, which causes surgical excision of cyst tissue with all its connective tissues and walls.
The choice of treatment for serous cystadenoma of the ovary, according to doctors, depends on a number of factors:
- tumor size
- the degree of its formation,
- the pressure that it exerts on neighboring walls and systems,
- the nature of the contents of the cystic capsule,
- on the presence of additional cameras in the capsule.
The course of treatment of borderline serous cystadenoma of the ovary is prescribed after a thorough diagnosis and study of all the features of the disease.
Standardly, before starting therapy, a woman needs to pass a series of laboratory tests, undergo an ultrasound scan, and at the discretion of the doctor, tomography and other types of tests.
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Causes of serous cystadenoma
To date, a scientifically proven theory of the occurrence of a simple cystoma does not exist.
According to some gynecologists, such a neoplasm is formed from functional ovarian cysts - the follicular and corpus luteum, which are not completely resolved and began to be filled with serous contents. Predisposing factors to the development of simple ovarian cystadenoma are:
- Hormonal disordersimpeding the normal maturation of the egg. Imbalances in the female hormonal sphere can be observed with the extinction of reproductive function, concomitant somatic and endocrine diseases, stress, significant physical and emotional overload, extreme diets, prolonged sexual abstinence.
- Early puberty with the advent of the first periods at the age of 10 - 12 years.
- Inflammatory female diseases (endometritis, adnexitis, etc.). Particularly dangerous diseases caused by STI pathogens with a disordered sexual life without barrier contraception.
- Operations on the pelvic organs. Simple serous cystadenomas are somewhat more frequently observed in patients who have had an ectopic pregnancy, abortion, or surgical treatment of gynecological diseases.
- Burdened heredity. According to some observations, in women whose mothers suffered from serous ovarian neoplasms, cystadenoma is detected more often.
A serous cystoma is usually formed in one of the ovaries. At first, it is a small smooth-walled single-chamber (less often - multi-chamber) neoplasm.
Its dense connective tissue walls are lined from the inside with a single-layer cubic or cylindrical ciliated epithelium with secretory activity.
As it grows inside the cystadenoma, serous contents accumulate - a watery transparent liquid of light yellow color.
As a result, the growing tumor formation squeezes the surrounding organs and nerve fibers, which leads to the emergence of pain. When the inflammatory process is attached, the smooth shiny surface of the cytoma becomes matte and becomes covered with adhesions.
Symptoms of serous cystadenoma
Clinical symptoms with small (up to 3 cm) smooth-wall cystomas are usually not observed, they become an accidental finding during a pelvic examination or an ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
As the neoplasm increases, the patient develops symptoms associated with the pressure of the cystoma on neighboring organs. The most typical pain syndrome. Usually it has the character of dull, aching, less often cramping pain arising in the inguinal region, behind the pubis or in the lower back.
In addition, a woman may experience pressure on the bladder, rectum, feel the presence of a foreign body.
In case of large cystomas, the functions of the adjacent organs are impaired due to their compression, which is manifested by frequent urination, discomfort in the intestines, constipation, nausea, and swelling of the lower extremities.
In cases where the tumor reaches a size of 6-10 cm or more, it can lead to an increase in the abdomen or its apparent asymmetry. The menstrual cycle in serous cystadenomas is usually not disturbed.
However, if the neoplasm is large enough and puts pressure on the ovary and / or uterus, the nature of the menses changes - they become more abundant or too scarce and are accompanied by painful sensations.
It is extremely rare for uncomplicated simple cystomas to observe a general reaction of the body in the form of fatigue, weakness, lethargy, reduced performance, irritability.
The main danger of late detection and inadequate treatment of serous cystadenoma of the ovary is squeezing of neighboring organs with the violation of their functions and the occurrence of acute conditions.
The most serious complications of a cystoma requiring urgent surgical treatment are torsion of the legs (if present) with necrosis of the neoplasm and rupture of the capsule (ovarian apoplexy) with its contents entering the abdominal cavity and the occurrence of bleeding.
A worsened temperature, a sharp increase in pain, the occurrence of severe nausea or vomiting, marked malaise with headaches, dizziness and loss of consciousness, severe pallor, bloody discharge from the vagina can indicate a complicated course of the disease.
Sometimes there is a recurrence of the disease after an organ-sparing surgery and a malignant degeneration of the tumor.
To confirm or clarify the diagnosis of the disease, the differential diagnosis and the choice of the optimal treatment method, patients with suspected serous cystadenoma are prescribed a comprehensive gynecological examination. It includes:
- Examination by an obstetrician-gynecologist. A bimanual examination of the uterine appendages usually reveals a rigid elastic, painless formation with a smooth surface that is not associated with adjacent organs.
- Pelvic ultrasound. Allows to reveal a homogeneous hypoechoic tumor with a dense smooth capsule with a size of 3 cm. For small cystadenomas transvaginal access is used, for large cystadenomas transabdominal access is used.
- Computed or magnetic resonance imaging. During the tomographic examination, a three-dimensional model of cystadenoma and adjacent organs is created to conduct a more thorough differential diagnosis and exclude tumor germination.
- Blood test for tumor markers. The study of tumor antigens (CA-125, CA 19-9, CA 72-4) allows to exclude the development of a cancer process or purulent abscess in the ovary and other pelvic organs.
- Color Doppler. The diagnostic method is additional and in case of doubt allows differentiating a benign ovarian tumor from a malignant one based on the intensity of blood flow.
A simple serous cystadenoma must be distinguished from other benign ovarian neoplasms, primarily functional cysts, papillary and pseudomucinous cystoma.
To exclude metastasis to the ovary of a form of gastric cancer, patients must be prescribed fibrogastroduodenoscopy. Conducting fibrocolonoscopy allows you to assess the degree of involvement in the process of the sigmoid and rectum.
An alternative solution when it is impossible to carry out endoscopic examination of the stomach, rectum and sigmoid colon is a radiography of the gastrointestinal tract.
Also in the course of differential diagnosis, malignant lesions of the ovaries, tubular abscess, ectopic pregnancy, pathology of adjacent organs - acute appendicitis, dystopia of the kidneys and other malformations of the urinary system, sigmoid diverticullosis, bone and unorganized pelvic tumors are excluded. In such cases, in addition to laboratory and instrumental examinations, consultations of related specialists are appointed - a surgeon, a gynecologist, a gastroenterologist, an oncologist, a urologist.
Treatment of serous cystadenoma
The main treatment for a simple serous cystoma is surgical removal of the tumor. Reliable data on the effectiveness of drug and non-drug methods of treatment of this disease in gynecology does not exist.
When choosing a specific type of surgery, take into account the patient's age, the presence or planning of pregnancy, the size of the tumor.
The main objectives of the treatment of patients of reproductive age are the maximum preservation of healthy ovarian tissue and the prevention of tubal-peritoneal infertility (TPB).
Women in the period of perimenopause are recommended radical operations aimed at preventing the recurrence of cystadenoma and preserving the quality of life.
The indication for planned surgery is the presence of a tumor-like formation with a diameter of 6 cm, which persists for 4-6 months.
The decision about the timing of the removal of a smaller tumor is made individually by the gynecologist, taking into account the results of dynamic observation. In an emergency procedure, surgical intervention is performed in case of suspected torsion of the legs or rupture of a cystoma capsule.
Usually, a planned operation is performed laparoscopically. The main types of surgical interventions for smooth-wall serous cystadenoma are:
- Cystectomy (cyst removal) orwedge resection (excision of damaged tissue in the form of a wedge) with the preservation of the ovary, revision of the contralateral ovary and emergency histological diagnosis. Organ-preserving operations are recommended for young women planning pregnancy with cystadenoma no more than 3 cm in diameter.
- Unilateral ovariectomy or adnexectomy. The intervention involves the removal on the side of the defeat of the entire ovary or ovary with the fallopian tube and is considered the best solution for women of reproductive age with a tumor larger than 3 cm.
- Bilateral adnexectomy or hysterectomy with appendages. The recommended method of surgical treatment in women in the period of perimenopause and in patients with bilateral lesions of the ovaries. Its advantage is a significant reduction in the risk of developing cancer.
Prognosis and prevention
With timely detection and surgical treatment of the prognosis of the disease is favorable: serous cystadenoma extremely rarely recurs and ozlokachestvlyaetsya.
Women of reproductive age who have undergone organ-sparing interventions, unilateral oophorectomy or adnexectomy, are advised to plan the pregnancy no earlier than 2 months after surgery.
Full recovery after laparoscopic conservative removal of serous smooth-wall cystadenoma of the ovary occurs in 10-14 days, after radical operations, the recovery period lasts up to 6-8 weeks. Patients showed clinical supervision by a gynecologist.
According to the observations of American specialists, the prophylactic effect on the development of benign ovarian cystadenomas is provided by the administration of monophasic combined oral contraceptives.
Ovarian cystadenoma: types (serous, papillary, mucinous and others), symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and other features
The ovaries are important reproductive glands of a woman’s body, producing a number of sex hormones, as well as producing gametes (ovules) - germ cells, without which fertilization processes are impossible.
Recently, cases of treating patients to gynecologists with various diseases of these organs have become more frequent, and such pathology as ovarian cystadenoma is often encountered. What is this condition?
What is ovarian cystadenoma
Cystadenoma is a cystic formation belonging to a group of benign ovarian epithelial tumors that has a capsule and an epithelial lining. It differs in that it is prone to malignancy.
Ovarian cystadenoma can affect one or both ovaries.
In modern sources, the term “cystadenoma” is mainly used.
What types of cystadeno exist
Modern medicine identifies the following types of cystadenum:
This is a unique list.
- Serous cystadenoma. It is found in most cases of lesions of the ovaries with cystadenomas (approximately seventy percent). It usually appears on the same ovary. Serous cystadenomas can be:
- Smooth-walled (simple). The following names can be found in different sources: simple serous cystadenoma, serous ovarian cyst, smooth-wall cilioepithelial cystadenoma. Externally, these tumors are very similar to ovarian cysts: their surface is smooth, they themselves have a round shape, one chamber with serous contents (homogeneous or with suspension). The inner shell includes ciliated epithelium, which has a tendency to proliferate growth (increased cell division, increasing the size of the tumor). It should be noted that this type of neoplasm extremely rarely turns into cancer (only 0.5% is given to such cases).
- Papillary (papillary, coarsenal). В 35 процентах всех случаев заболеваемости цистаденомой яичника встречается именно этот вид патологии. Внешне так же, как и гладкостенные, схожи с кистами яичников. But the peculiarity of this formation is that the inner shell has so-called papillary outgrowths.
- Rough cystadenomas are characterized by the appearance of coarse dense papillary outgrowths on a thick pedicle on the inner lining, this type almost never turns into cancer.
- Serous papillary cystadenomas on the inner shell have soft papillary outgrowths on a thin stalk, characterized by intensive growth, with the result that in the process of their development, the neoplasm gradually becomes similar to cauliflower. It is these outgrowths that, when detected, make the doctor alert, since the likelihood of malignancy of the tumor process increases by 50 percent, due to their ability to grow through the wall of the formation and the ability to "move" to neighboring organs.
- Border cystadenomas are distinguished by an intense growth of the papillae and a lack of ability to germinate through the tumor wall, as a result of which the tendency to malignancy is minimized. This can look like a serous cystadenoma
- Mucinous cystadenoma. Most often occurs in women over the age of fifty years, but may appear in younger. Often formed on both gonads. Education, as a rule, reaches a large size, always has many chambers, the walls of which are lined with fibrous tissue and mucinous epithelium. The intra mucinous contents (may be hemorrhagic, jelly-like and mucous) consist of heteroglycans (biopolymers based on sucrose) and specific molecular complexes of fats (high and low density lipoproteins). Outside, the tumor has a smooth structure. As it grows, its wall becomes thinner and acquires a “transparent” look. The following types of mucinous cystadeno are distinguished:
- Mucinous adenofibromas and cystadenofibromas. They have a similar structure with smooth-wall serous cystadenomas, but differ in content (it is mucinous). Tendency to malignancy equals three percent.
- Borderline mucinous cystadenomas. They are very similar to the simple ones. They differ from them by the presence of multiple chambers and mitotic activity (enhanced cell division) of the epithelium lining the internal cavity of the tumor. Because of this ability to intensively increase the number of epithelial cells, the formation is considered malignantly dangerous. The tendency to malignancy of this species is eighty percent.
- Ovarian and peritoneal pseudomyxomas. It is considered quite a rare occurrence, it appears most often in neglected cases. As a rule, it develops as a result of rupture of the capsule of mucinous cystadenomas or any type of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma. It is malignant in ten percent of cases (mainly due to other pathologies).
- Fibroepithelioma (mucoid fibroepithelioma, Brenner tumor). It consists of the ovarian stroma (connective tissue sheath, the surrounding tissue of the ovary). May occur in both women in adulthood and girls. It has a dense nodal structure with multiple small cystic inclusions. Externally smooth, ovoid (round) shape. Has no capsule, most often affects the left ovary. Often combined with other tumor processes. Basically it has a benign course, but there is a possibility of malignant degeneration, which is minimized (0.5%).
- The boundary (proliferating) fibroepiteliomy. It is considered an extremely rare tumor with cystic and papillomatous inclusions. The probability of transformation into cancer is high and reaches 90%. So the mucinous cystadenoma can look
- Mixed cystadenoma. It is characterized by a mixed structure, multi-chamber, various contents in the chambers and consists of mucinous and serous components. Like all tumors, they can be benign, borderline and malignant.
All types of tumors can be both small and gigantic in size.
There are cases when the cystadenoma reached thirty-five centimeters in diameter and weighed more than three kilograms.
The growth rate depends on many factors, so to say that papillary cysts grow faster than simple ones will not be entirely true.
What are the symptoms that can be suspected
As a rule, small-sized cystadenomas do not pay attention to themselves and can become an accidental find at a planned ultrasound examination or at a reception at the gynecologist.
The first symptoms begin to appear when a tumor reaches a significant size and its pressure on neighboring organs, regardless of the patient's age, whether it is a young girl or a woman who has reached menopause.
At the same time such complaints may be presented:
- failure of the menstrual cycle (the first thing that can make you wary)
- pulling pains in the lower abdomen, extending to the lumbar region,
- increased urination,
- arching sensations in the lower abdomen and pelvic region, the sensation of a foreign object,
- an increase in the size of the abdomen, especially on the affected side.
Pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen may indicate the onset of ovarian tumor formation
Women in the period of menopause, discomfort in the abdomen and the failure of the menstrual cycle are associated with hormonal changes characteristic of this period, allowing the tumor process to move into more advanced stages. Therefore, strictly once every six months, it is necessary to undergo preventive examinations at the gynecologist and visit the ultrasound room once a year to exclude pathologies of the pelvic organs.
In emergency situations (rupture of the capsule, torsion of the legs, and so on) symptoms of "acute abdomen" develop, which requires urgent medical attention. Such dangerous conditions may indicate:
- Sharp pain on the side of the lesion on the background or spilled pain during exercise or in a calm state.
- Dizziness up to loss of consciousness.
- Drop in blood pressure.
- Sharp weakness.
- Pale skin and so on.
Surgical intervention can be carried out by laparoscopic approach, which is used for small-sized cystadenomas. The technique of such an operation consists in inserting instruments into the abdominal cavity through several small holes in the front wall of the abdomen.
Also use cavity access, which is used in the presence of formations of large size.
Simple serous tumors are most often removed by exfoliation, without affecting the healthy surrounding tissue.
When mucinous and papillary cystadenomas to women of reproductive age, specialists try to preserve the healthy tissues of the reproductive organs as much as possible.
In menopausal women, in order to avoid further complications (most often in the malignancy of the process), both ovaries are removed and the uterus is extirpated (removed).
Laparoscopic access is the fastest and safest method of cystadena removal.
Forecast and possible complications after surgery
With early diagnosis and timely removal of cystadenoma, the prognosis is favorable, since the organs of the reproductive system are practically unaffected, and the recovery period will be short.
In case of a malignant course, a bilateral tumor process, or in severely neglected cases, the prognosis will be unfavorable with respect to the fertility of the woman, since in such situations the ovaries are removed, possibly the uterus.
In general, after surgery, in the absence of any complications, a woman is considered completely healthy.
Prevention of ovarian cystadenoma is reduced to an attentive attitude to their health. It is necessary to eliminate all factors that will contribute to the formation of pathology, for which it is necessary:
- monitor the body's hormonal balance,
- regularly visit a gynecologist (at least twice a year),
- minimize nervous and physical stress,
- timely treat infectious and inflammatory processes of the genital sphere,
- strictly observe the recommendations of the attending physician for hormonal drugs.
What you need to know about cysts and ovarian cystomas (expert opinion) - video
Ovarian cystadenoma is not a harmless problem that you can ignore.
If this pathology is found, it is not worthwhile to postpone the operation for a later date, since such a thoughtless act can serve to develop more serious problems.
Modern techniques can make a woman healthy with minimal risk of complications and allow the body to recover as quickly as possible after surgery.
- Ekaterina Pokataeva
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Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary
Mucinous cystadenoma or mucinous ovarian cyst is predominantly a benign tumor in the form of a capsule with a smooth outer and inner surface. It can reach large sizes, which does not always indicate its malignancy, even when the diameter is more than 50 cm with a weight of 20 to 50 kg. On average, a mucinous cyst has a diameter of 15 to 30 cm and is bilateral in only 10% of cases.
About 80% of mucinous tumors are benign, 10% are borderline with low malignant potential, and the remaining 10% are malignant. They are rarely found in girls before puberty, during pregnancy and after menopause, the estimated peak incidence of pathology ranges from 30 to 50 years.
This type of pathology is manifested by the following symptoms: pain in the abdomen, vaginal bleeding, and an increase in the size of the abdomen. Complications may include rupture of a cyst in the peritoneal cavity or torsion of the ovary. In most cases, it is asymptomatic and is detected during an ultrasound examination of abdominal organs, performed for other reasons.
Papillary cystadenoma of the ovary
Papillary cystadenoma of the ovary is a type of serous neoplasm, characterized by irregularly located on the surface of the processes in the form of papillae. The location of the papillae is: inverting (internal), inverting (external) and mixed. The epithelium is flat, the base of the cell is loose or dense.
The main causes of pathology are unknown, but the risk of its occurrence increases in women with overweight, taking hormonal drugs and at the time of menopause. Most often papillary cystadenoma occurs in the age group from 40 to 60 years. In most cases, there is bilateral lesion of the body, accompanied by the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneum.
Causes of ovarian cystadenoma
Ovarian cystadenoma can develop as a result of the following six factors:
Follicular cyst - formed after ovulation, when the pituitary gland releases a small amount of luteinizing hormone, signaling the follicle to release an egg. If the release does not occur, the follicle cannot break and begins to grow, turning into a cyst. This formation is harmless and usually self-absorbing during two menstrual cycles.
Metabolic disorders - in the pre-climax period, metabolic changes (diabetes, obesity) occur, the hormonal background of the woman is disturbed, there is an excess of estrogen, the risk of ovarian cystadenoma is increased.
Luteal cyst - formed during the development of the burst follicle of a large amount of estrogen and progesterone, which prepare the body for conception. Then the follicle becomes the corpus luteum, which is able to accumulate blood and fluid, if fertilization has not occurred, then after a while it disappears on its own. Feeling of pain in the pelvis and abdomen is felt, there is a risk of internal bleeding when a cyst ruptures.
Teratoma - occurs mainly in women under the age of 30 years. Develops from germ cells (primary oocyte).
Endometriosis This is a condition in which endometrial cells, which usually cover the inside of the uterus, begin to grow outside of it.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) - a condition in which many small and harmless cysts develop on the ovaries when the balance of female hormones changes.
Also causes for the formation of cystadenoma can serve as stress, bleeding in menopause, ectopic pregnancy, abortion, sexual abstinence, surgery, genital infectious diseases (syphilis, chlamydia) and heredity.
Symptoms in different ovarian cystadena are similar to each other: bloating of the intestine, accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), constipation, diarrhea. Observed loss of appetite and weight, fatigue, heaviness in the abdomen, nausea and vomiting, abnormal menstrual bleeding, changes in the menstrual cycle.
It is characterized by constant or periodic pulling pain in the lower abdomen, which can pulsate in the lower back and thighs, painful sensations during intercourse (dyspareunia), and a feeling of an empty bladder until the end.
Treatment of ovarian cystadenoma
At revealing of a pathological cystadenoma of the ovary, surgical intervention is necessary. The volume of operation is determined individually. If the tumor has a size of more than 3 cm, then the ovary is completely removed, but patients who are planning a pregnancy, try not to injure the sex glands.
Laparoscopy is considered the safest method of treating ovarian cystadenoma. This surgical intervention is carried out through several incisions in the peritoneum, which allow you to supply the necessary tools (forceps, electric shears) into the body cavity. The advantage of this operation is rapid rehabilitation, a low percentage of postoperative complications, the ability to have children.
The tasks of the surgeon differ somewhat depending on the age of the patient. In young girls it is important to preserve the tissues of the ovary. If the operation is successful, the level of sex hormones is normalized, the weight remains normal, the woman’s reproductive function is not lost.
For women of age, the main task of the surgeon is to reduce the risk of complications in the future. During the operation, all foci of inflammation are removed, the risk of occurrence and exacerbation of existing diseases is minimized.
Ancillary therapies are traditional treatment methods, which include the use of tincture of acacia, chamomile, mint, dandelion, green walnuts, burdock juice, blackberries and cranberries. It is also recommended to drink a course of vitamin E to avoid ovarian exhaustion. In the postoperative period, physical activity should be excluded, to follow the recommendations of the gynecologist.
What is an ovarian cyst and should it be removed?
A woman should monitor the hormonal background of her body, keep a calendar of the menstrual cycle and, if any irregularities are found, seek help from a specialist. Try to prevent factors affecting hormonal changes, such as stress, toxins, psychological trauma. Once a year it is necessary to visit a gynecologist for prevention for a general examination.
Indiscriminate intimate relationships should be avoided, the use of contraceptives, preferably barrier ones (condoms), which provide protection against sexually transmitted infections, is imperative. In the case of hormonal pills, it is important after each sexual intercourse to conduct a thorough hygiene of the genital organs. These measures will prevent the risk of ovarian cystadenoma.
In order to avoid complications, it is necessary to treat inflammatory diseases of the reproductive and urinary system in a timely manner, to avoid hypothermia.
The body should receive a sufficient amount of all the elements, so you need to drink a course of vitamins A, C, PP. Of great importance in the prevention of ovarian cysts plays a limitation of stay under the sun, you should avoid prolonged exposure to direct rays. Tanning is also undesirable.
What is cystadenoma and its types
Cystadenoma (cystoma) is a benign tumor. It is a round hollow capsule on the surface of the ovary. The capsule wall consists of connective tissue, which is covered inside and outside by epithelial membranes. The capsule is filled with liquid. This cystadenoma is similar to functional cysts. The difference is as follows:
- Functional cysts appear on the elements of the ovary that exist temporarily (on the follicle or corpus luteum), and therefore are able to dissolve after they disappear. Cystadenomas are formed without any connection with the processes of the menstrual cycle, they cannot dissolve.
- Cystadenomas are true tumors, since, unlike cysts, they increase not only due to stretching of the wall, but also due to proliferation (tissue proliferation in the process of cell division).
- Unlike functional cysts, cystadenomas can degenerate into cancer.
- Their existence does not affect the state of the hormonal background in the woman’s body.
В зависимости от структуры эпителиальных оболочек и внутреннего наполнения капсулы различают серозные и муцинозные опухоли.
Серозные цистаденомы и их виды
Такие опухоли образуются чаще всего у женщин 30-50-летнего возраста. The outer shell consists of the epithelium of the ovary, inside the neoplasm of the neoplasm is lined with epithelium of the fallopian tubes. The tumor is located on the side of the uterus or behind it. Usually, cystadeno dimensions are 5–15 cm, but sometimes larger specimens are found (up to 30 cm in diameter). Inside the neoplasm there is a transparent yellow serous fluid, which is released from its inner shell.
Serous cystadenomas of the ovaries are divided into simple and papillary.
Simple tumor This type has a smooth inner and outer surface. As a rule, it consists of one chamber, formed on one of the ovaries.
Papillary (papillary) cystadenoma is characterized by the fact that its inner surface is covered with growths that can merge, forming several chambers. Such tumors often occur simultaneously on both ovaries. There are papillary cystadenomas of the following types:
- inverting (only the inner shell is covered with papillae or merging growths),
- everting (nipples are formed only outside the cystoma),
- mixed type (growths are located both inside and outside the tumor, spread to the second ovary, abdominal wall, pelvic organs).
Growing nipples make the tumor look like a cauliflower. Buzzings occupy most of the internal volume.
Cystadenomas of this type can be completely benign, proliferating (with the growth of tissue - the so-called "precancer") and malignant (cancer cells are found). Because of growths such a cystoma has an irregular shape. There is a short leg connecting it with the wall of the ovary. The most cystoma of the converting and mixed type is most prone to malignant degeneration.
This is a neoplasm with smooth walls. The internal epithelium has the same structure as the cervical cervical epithelium, penetrated by glands that produce mucin - heterogeneous mucus. Such tumors are most often found in both ovaries. The tumor can quickly grow to 50 cm in diameter. It is formed during the development of the embryo from various germinal tissues.
There are varieties of mucinous cysts: non-proliferating, proliferating and malignant. Such tumors are most common in women older than 40 years. In 30% of cases, benign tumors found in women are mucinous cystadenomas.
Reasons for education
The causes of the formation of cysts are hormonal disorders, leading to improper formation of ovarian tissue and cell division. They can be caused by diseases of the organs of the endocrine system, exposure to drugs and even factors such as prolonged sexual abstinence, lack of pregnancy and childbirth in a woman of mature age, her artificial interruption.
The occurrence of tumors may be due to genetic disorders of ovarian development, hereditary and congenital abnormalities. They are provoked by the formation of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the uterus and ovaries, a woman's fascination with diets, leading to metabolic disorders. The negative role played by exposure to ultraviolet radiation during frequent visits to the solarium or stay in the sun.
There is a theory according to which cystadenomas are formed in place of incompletely resolved functional cysts.
Cystadenomas with small sizes do not show any symptoms. Only after their diameter is 3-5 cm and more, a woman may experience nagging pain in the ovaries. With further growth of the neoplasm, the blood vessels are compressed and the nerve endings are affected. This is manifested by increased pain, giving to the sacrum and lower back. Varicose veins of the lower extremities may occur.
Pressure on the bladder and intestines is manifested by a disorder of urination and bowel movements, bowel distention, nausea. If the size of cystadenoma is very large, the woman has shortness of breath, palpitations.
When a tumor breaks, twists, or pinches a tumor, a sharp severe abdominal pain, vomiting, tachycardia, and loss of consciousness occur. A state of "acute abdomen" appears, which requires urgent surgery. With a large tumor, a woman has a feeling of the presence of a foreign body in the abdomen.
Cystadenomas can be detected after pregnancy. If their size does not exceed 3 cm, the tumor does not grow, the operation is not performed, but only they are constantly monitored for its condition.
Large cystomas are dangerous because in the last weeks of pregnancy, when the uterus descends into the abdominal cavity, squeezing and twisting of the leg can occur. Therefore, if there is a marked increase in the tumor, it is removed.