Life

Can I get hepatitis sexually?

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


The main cause of infection is direct contact with the blood of a sick person. More specifically, the transmission mechanisms only work in a few situations. Using someone else's towel, kisses, coughing, etc. are not factors in the occurrence of the disease.

You may become infected after visiting a medical institution (only in the case of injections, blood transfusions, surgical interventions, using some equipment) or a beauty salon.

For the latter, risk factors include haircuts, manicures or pedicures, piercing with non-sterile needles, tattoos, cosmetic procedures and acupuncture.

Even one random needle prick can be fatal. For addicts "with experience" the importance of the item increases several times. The use of personal hygiene items of an infected person can also be a cause, but only if there are particles of the patient’s blood on them.

Among all the reasons, infection, due to sexual contact with a partner with a diagnosis of hepatitis C, plays a less important, but not the least, role.

If you are concerned about whether sexually transmitted hepatitis C is transmitted, then the doctors' answer is yes.

The least common is the transmission of the virus from an infected mother to a child. The low percentage of infections in this case is because now there are many ways to “deceive” the disease, which doctors use very successfully.

However, the risk of infection is rapidly increasing when the mother has an acute form of the disease in late pregnancy or the active form at any time. When feeding milk, the disease is not transmitted.

In addition, almost half of the infections cause doctors to be confused due to the fact that the cause of infection cannot be determined.

The most common method of transmission is the use of non-sterile needles in beauty salons and hospital facilities. Less significant factors are unprotected sexual intercourse, transmission from mother to child, blood transfusion and others.

For more information about the causes of hepatitis C, you can from the proposed video.

Hepatitis C and sex life

As already mentioned, the answer to the question “whether sexual transmission of hepatitis C is transmitted” is positive. But do not worry, the risk of infection is only 3-4% with unprotected contact, and when using condoms, it drops to almost zero.

However, the chances of the virus "for life" are significantly increasing for people with multiple sexual partners and preferring promiscuous sex. HIV-infected individuals are also at risk.

Some dry facts:

  • Hepatitis C is found in 6% of women with mild behavior.
  • Among homosexuals, 4% have antibodies to the virus, which indicates that they have an inflammatory process.
  • About 4% of patients of venereal and skin clinics and polyclinics specializing in HIV have hepatitis C.

All these individuals are more likely to detect HIV infection and hepatitis B than the disease in question.

The most common disease in Southeast Asia (9-27% of the population), followed by Africans (6-21%), South Americans (about 12%), residents of Canada and the United States (2-5%). Hepatitis C is less common in northern Europe, with only 0-0.5% of people.

Please note that the virus "settles" in the blood. Saliva, semen, urine, feces are not interested.

Therefore, hepatitis C is transmitted only if the partner has scratches, cuts or other skin lesions on the genitals. In other cases, sexual intercourse is safe. Because of this, the risk of infection due to sexual intercourse is so low.

The importance of sex as a factor in hepatitis C infection is extremely low and is only relevant when it comes to unprotected sex, prostitutes or homosexuals. Moreover, the infection does not occur through the genital tract, but only through even small cracks in the genitals, so the risk of transmission of the virus after sex is very small.

The disease begins with an incubation period lasting from 2 weeks to 7 months. At this time, reproduction and adaptation of the virus occurs in the body. The initial manifestations of hepatitis C resemble the usual flu and are accompanied by certain signs.

After the appearance of the first manifestations, others are “added” to them:

  • Lack of appetite
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Pain in the right hypochondrium
  • Dark urine
  • Calcium discoloration

Doctors often see hepatomegaly in patients with hepatitis C - a pathological increase in the size of the liver, less often - splenomegaly (in this case, the spleen is enlarged).

All types of hepatitis are characterized by changes in the blood in the form of an increase in the level of bilirubin, an increase in hepatic tests, the appearance of specific markers of viral hepatitis. After jaundice appears, patients feel better.

A fifth of the patients after receiving therapy observe the development of symptoms "in the opposite direction" and the subsequent recovery. About 20% of patients become carriers of the disease. In this case, the doctors according to the results of the tests note the presence of the virus in the blood. There are no specific symptoms.

The characteristic manifestations for acute hepatitis C have been described above. The chronic form appears in 70-80% of those who have experienced the acute form.

The disease is characterized by intermittent symptoms in the form of severe fatigue, even with a slight stress, a complete inability to physical exertion, malaise. Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, pain in the abdomen, joints and muscles, nausea and vomiting are often noted.

Separately, manifestations of the "criticality" stage of hepatitis C are distinguished:

  • Skin yellowing, itching
  • Dramatic weight loss
  • Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly
  • Bleeding
  • Dark urine

The most characteristic symptoms of hepatitis C are general malaise and problems with the gastrointestinal tract. For an accurate diagnosis requires additional diagnostics.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis C

The most common way to detect a disease is “searching” for antibodies to the virus that causes hepatitis C. A positive test result is further confirmed.

This is done using PCR diagnostics, which can accurately determine the RNA of a virus. The method allows not only to confirm the presence of infection, but also to make a verdict on the reproduction of non-cellular organisms.

A negative result of the study does not give an absolute result about the health of the subject, because a small number of viruses are not determined by PCR diagnostics.

For accuracy, the test is usually carried out several times. Note that the method “works” only after one to two weeks after infection.

Liver biopsy is used to assess the degree of damage to the liver by the virus, the effectiveness of treatment and recovery of the patient. This is especially important for asymptomatic periods of the disease. A biopsy is a microscopic examination of the liver tissue after it has been removed with a needle.

To diagnose the state of the liver also use FibroTest and Fibroscan.

  • Fibrotest is the information obtained through a special patented algorithm. It consists in determining the biomarkers of fibrosis in the blood in the veins, taking into account the age, gender, height and weight of the patient.
  • Using Fibroscan measure the degree of elasticity of liver tissue. The method is based on the "law" that the density of an organ is directly proportional to the stage of fibrosis.

Fibroscan and FibroTest are diagnostic variants suitable for patients with bleeding disorders and at those stages when functional problems did not lead to anatomical changes in the liver.

Among other, less significant, methods are distinguished:

  • Blood biochemistry at AlAT and AsAT
  • Biochemistry of blood for bilirubin
  • Ultrasound of the abdominal organs
  • Complete blood count to detect the general condition of the body

The most common methods for examining a patient for hepatitis C are blood tests for antibodies to the hepatitis virus and PCR diagnostics.

Treatment and Prevention

Hepatitis C treatment is necessarily carried out comprehensively. The goals of therapy are not only reducing the number of non-cellular organisms in the human body or eliminating them completely, but also controlling liver inflammation and preventing cirrhosis.

Often use Interferon-alpha - a drug to prevent infection of the "newborn" liver cells. Among the side effects are flu symptoms that last half a day after taking the medicine, and then gradually disappear completely. The manifestations of the first half month after the start of therapy are most pronounced.

Please note that Interferon does not guarantee full recovery, but only helps to avoid cancer or cirrhosis of the liver. It is much more effective to take the drug in combination with Ribavirin. Then a positive outcome of events is guaranteed in half the cases.

The duration of therapy ranges from 3-4 months to one and a half years. It depends on the genotype of the virus (6 of them are known, of which one is the most common) and the individual characteristics of the patient.

Pharmacological company States has shown positive results in the development of a new method of treatment. It consists in the combination of Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir.

This combination allowed 97% of patients to get rid of the virus. All the other experimental subjects, who also took Ribavirin, fully recovered (ie, 100% of cases), but they had the most adverse effects on the drugs.

The danger of hepatitis C is that the virus vaccine has not yet been invented. Therefore, it is necessary to protect your body from infection by yourself.

Make sure that all tools in beauty salons, tattoo and piercing salons are sterile and disposable whenever possible. Use condoms to avoid not only hepatitis C, but also other STDs. You should not use other people's hygiene items, especially "piercing-cutting."

At the moment, most often resort to the method of combination of Interferon-alpha and Ribavirin, which helps to recover more patients. The best methods of prevention - protection from infection!

Chronic hepatitis C "in the company" with other diseases almost always leads to death. Therefore, do not delay the treatment, contact your doctor when the first symptoms appear and be healthy!


  • Download Original] "class =" imagefield imagefield-lightbox2 imagefield-lightbox2-240-180 imagefield-field_imgarticle imagecache imagecache-field_imgarticle imagecache-240-180 imagecache-field_imgarticle-240-180 ">


  • Download Original] "class =" imagefield imagefield-lightbox2 imagefield-lightbox2-240-180 imagefield-field_imgarticle imagecache imagecache-field_imgarticle imagecache-240-180 imagecache-field_imgarticle-240-180 ">


  • Download Original] "class =" imagefield imagefield-lightbox2 imagefield-lightbox2-240-180 imagefield-field_imgarticle imagecache imagecache-field_imgarticle imagecache-240-180 imagecache-field_imgarticle-240-180 ">


  • Download Original] "class =" imagefield imagefield-lightbox2 imagefield-lightbox2-240-180 imagefield-field_imgarticle imagecache imagecache-field_imgarticle imagecache-240-180 imagecache-field_imgarticle-240-180 ">


  • Download Original] "class =" imagefield imagefield-lightbox2 imagefield-lightbox2-240-180 imagefield-field_imgarticle imagecache imagecache-field_imgarticle imagecache-240-180 imagecache-field_imgarticle-240-180 ">

  • To post comments, please login or register

Re: Whether hepatitis C is transmitted sexually: this secret is revealed!

Hello. I was diagnosed with hepatitis C in 2014. The blood test results are AST (GOT). 83 u / l, ALT (GPT). 107 u / l, GGT. 221 u / l, Alpha1-Fetoprotein. 12 iu / ml well-being - weakness, fatigue. I was prescribed a course of treatment with the hepatoprotector Heptrong + Pegasys. After half a year of treatment, everything returned to normal, the virus disappeared. Repeat tests did not reveal the hepatitis C virus. An ultrasound examination of the ultrasound, which I underwent a week ago, did not reveal the pathology of the internal organs. After therapy, I feel much better. Before, I often had weakness, quickly got tired and had no appetite, but now I have so much energy and everything. In addition to alcohol. No 5 tables. I wish everyone who faced this diagnosis to recover and forget about it once and for all.

  • To post comments, please login or register

The possibility of infection by this disease

In the search for knowledge about whether sexually transmitted hepatitis C is transmitted, it should be taken into account that everything depends on how many viral bacteria are in the patient's body.

Most of the viral bacteria in the blood, because the most common way to get infected, you can accurately call infection through the blood.

It happens in life and such that the disease is transmitted sexually, or if you use common household items with the one in whose body the disease is.

This occurs when the virus is concentrated in the secretion of saliva or semen. A large role should be given to human immunity, because with a weak immune system increases the risk of defeat this disease.

Let us consider in more detail how else this virus can be transmitted. A common method of infection is the transfusion of infected biological material to a healthy person.

To become infected with hepatitis C, it is possible with the use of dirty and infected needles, which are injected. Therefore, a large number of drug addicts suffer from this disease.

Also, amateurs are subject to infection to modify their body with tattoos, or even people who watch their nails and visit places where they make manicures.

This is possible if the instrument is not sterilized. Also, doctors can get a virus, it is very important to wear gloves when working with biological material.

Hepatitis C can be transmitted from the patient through sexual contact or even with a kiss.

The hepatitis virus is sexually transmitted, the virus can be found in the secretions of the female genital organs and in the semen.

But the risk of being infected is not great, especially when using funds, for protection during intercourse with a partner.

Scientists have conducted a study, they studied the sperm and lubricant, which secrete the female genital organs, for the presence of infectious bacteria.

It was proved that the virus in these secretions is extremely rare, therefore the possibility of infection during sex is not so great.

Causes of virus infection

People who are sexually active are often interested in the possibility of being infected with the hepatitis virus during sex without protective items.

Doctors revealed that there is a risk, but it is minimal. There is a high probability of infection in such cases as:

  • With frequent sexual intercourse with many partners and without contraception.
  • When doing anal sex.
  • High risk of infection in people who are engaged in aggressive intercourse. Indeed, as a result, there may be internal bleeding.
  • Also, if a woman has a diagnosis of hepatitis, and she deals with intercourse during menstruation.

In unprotected intercourse, you can get hepatitis C, but it’s not very easy. Experts say that 6% of girls from the sex industry have the virus of this disease.

About 4% of men who prefer sex with their sex, also suffer from hepatitis C virus in their bodies.

When having sex with one partner, the risk of getting this virus in his body is reduced to 1%.

It is possible to pick up this disease during unprotected intercourse in the countries of Southeast Asia. In this part of the country, hepatitis B virus is observed in 9-25% of the population.

There is a stereotype that a sick person must be isolated, and this is not quite so.

It is allowed to live together and communicate with infected people, but it is strictly forbidden to use common hygiene items.

Ways to diagnose the disease

Independently diagnose hepatitis C is extremely difficult. As a rule, the presence of the following symptoms is a prerequisite for identifying the disease:

  • Yellowness of the skin.
  • The manifestation of depression, apathy or a weak state of the body.
  • Frequent manifestations of nausea and vomiting.
  • Subfebrile temperature.
  • Frequent migraines.
  • Pain in the right side.
  • Rapid weight loss and lack of appetite.

It is important to note that during infection during intercourse, the above symptoms may not occur for several months, which in turn makes it almost impossible to diagnose the disease early.

This follows from the fact that after infection, the virus begins to slowly, but surely destroy the liver cells, and this will affect the quality of life after the organ is seriously damaged.

Based on this, a person should control his own risks and understand that if he had a chance to get hepatitis from his sexual partner, or in any other way, it is worthwhile not to delay and resort to some clinical studies.

You need to understand that timely access to a doctor can save lives. Consider the typical methods of early diagnosis:

  • Diagnosis of polymer chain reaction of blood.
  • Check for hepatitis B markers.
  • Conducting biochemical and general blood test.
  • Examination of feces and urine.
  • Ultrasound examination of the peritoneum.
  • The study of liver tissue.

If you identify hepatitis B, you need to be serious about treatment, and complete the course. Often this disease becomes chronic, which is fraught with cirrhosis and even cancer.

The transition of the disease from mother to baby

Another possible infection scenario is the inheritance of a virus from an already infected mother to her child in the womb or during childbirth.

I would like to clarify that infecting a baby is a rather rare way - only in 5 cases out of 100, however, to predict and prevent infection, medicine is powerless so far.

Convincing data on transmission of the virus from mother’s milk is not yet available. There is no general approach for the treatment of newborns infected with hematite C.

In this case, the doctor prescribes a course of treatment depending on the clinical picture.

Transmission of illness in everyday life

It is important to remember that the virus of the disease is not transmitted by airborne droplets, namely, during a conversation, a kiss, a handshake, or while using common cutlery, etc.

The spread of the infection is possible only if the infected blood gets into the blood is not infected.

So that infected people with this terrible disease should not be separated from the family circle and society, and they also do not need any special care.

The only caveat is the exemption from the passage of military service in identifying the disease.

Infection factors and risk groups

According to the international classification, there are 3 groups of people who can most easily catch the hepatitis C virus.

Next, we consider each group in more detail. The greatest risk is in people who:

  • People who use drugs injecting.
  • Subjected to plasma coagulation transfusions until 1987.

Less high risk of infection are citizens who:

  • People who are on hemodialysis (use the device replacing the natural kidney).
  • People transplanted to organs or blood transfusions were made before 1992, or received organs or blood from a donor, who subsequently was diagnosed with hepatitis C.
  • Patients who have not been diagnosed with liver problems.
  • Newborns who were born from a mother who has the hepatitis virus in her body.

The group with a slightly increased risk factor includes:

  • People working in medicine.
  • People who have a diverse sex life with different partners,
  • People who had intercourse with a single infected partner.

Do not forget that if you or your loved ones fall, even if it comes under one of these groups, it is strongly recommended to be tested for hepatitis, depending on the recommendations suggested below for each group.

So, for example, using injecting drugs, or receiving injections of various kinds outside the scope of treatment and not in a medical institution, it is worthwhile to pass the analysis, even if such a case happened once or a couple of years ago.

Hepatitis C is also strongly recommended for all citizens who have a diagnosis of HIV.

In children who were born from a mother who was sick with hepatitis, the first analysis is taken at 12-18 months.

Doctors who have had contact with potentially infected blood. In addition, in the presence of risk factors, doctors recommend being vaccinated against hepatitis B.

Re-infection

We cannot exclude the fact that you may be infected and infected with the hepatitis C virus a second time.

With proper and effective therapy, a person is not provided with the emergence of immunity to this disease, because having been ill for the second time, infection, in addition to hepatitis C, is possible with a type of HCV.

Man with this disease in the family

While living with a patient in the same area, it is important to observe safety measures, in order to avoid contamination of those living next to him, let's take a closer look:

  • Do not donate.
  • Do not use one for two items such as a toothbrush, shaving accessories, manicure kits.
  • When receiving an open or bleeding wound, close it as soon as possible, in order to avoid droplets falling out. If the patient needs help with the dressing, it is important that the helper be in gloves.

Laboratory proved that infection with a dried drop of blood, if it was at room temperature up to 4 days, is possible.

If at the time of injury the blood got on the objects around, in order to avoid infection of others, it is recommended to disinfect those places.

You can use products with chlorine or bleach solution 1 to 100. It is also recommended to wash things in water with a temperature of 60 degrees, not lower, wash for at least half an hour.

How to avoid infection

To minimize the possibility of virus infection during intercourse, when sex is constant, doctors recommend the use of barrier contraceptives.

It is also recommended to be tested for hepatitis C markers at least once a year.

For people who have the hepatitis C virus in their bodies, who often have sex with more than one partner, it is very important to use safeguards during each intercourse.

Contraception should also be used for other ailments that can be transmitted during an intimate approach.

Also during menstruation, if a woman has a virus in her body, it is forbidden to have sex without protection.

It is especially risky to engage in unconventional anal intercourse. A person who has a sex life with an infected person is not advisable to use common personal belongings, especially if there may be drops of blood on them.

For example, shaving accessories, manicure items, or a brush for cleaning the teeth, and even various things for personal hygiene.

Do not forget that the greatest risk of infection is possible through the blood, and only then, during sexual intercourse.

Types of disease

Earlier we learned how to get the hepatitis C virus, but there are still types of this disease.

Consider how you can get other forms of the disease, to know where you need to be more prudent in order to avoid infection:

  • Hepatitis A, it can be picked up through feces and salivation. This disease is not life-threatening, and with the help of properly selected therapy, it can be cured in a couple of months.
  • Dosage form of hepatitis. It appears if you take medications that are not suitable for you for a long time, it has a great effect on the liver.
  • Toxic form of hepatitis. It can be picked up when in contact with poisons and other chemicals, so it is vital to wear a respirator, this form of illness is fatal to humans.
  • Hepatitis B, C and F. This virus spreads through the blood and, as we have learned before, can be transmitted to the baby from the mother if she has the virus in her body.

With such a large range of forms of the disease, one problem is brewing - it is an accurate diagnosis of the form of hepatitis.

Specialists do not have enough time to accurately determine what form of the disease and the stage of its occurrence.

To do this, it is recommended to pass tests to determine the quality and quantity of a viral malady in human blood.

The disease of such forms as C and B can infect people during sexual intercourse, but this can happen quite rarely.

But in one these two forms are completely similar, it is that these viruses can infect humans through blood. And the most dangerous thing is that the blood can be dried, but still have a virus in it.

This ailment can be picked up in a variety of ways, and usually you just need to mindlessly engage in intercourse with a partner who is not proven.

But do not forget that with the timely diagnosis of the disease, you can minimize the possibility of infection.

What is hepatitis?

Hepatitis is an acute infectious disease that disrupts the liver, with a high inflammatory effect, often of a viral nature. The onset of the disease is similar to the symptoms of flu: headache, high body temperature, lack of energy and strength, body aches. In this case, the appearance of a yellow shade of the skin is possible (the main symptom), when the liver cannot process bilirubin and it passes into the blood, changing the skin color. Unfortunately, the statistics are not encouraging, with each year the number of infected people is increasing, especially in the category of B and C virus. The official figure is 2 billion carriers of the disease in the world, and these are only identified people, and how many of those who did not go to the doctor and live, without knowing what hurts - is unknown. In this case, the age of patients decreases annually. The true cause of the appearance of the virus and contact means can be established only in 60% of cases.

The appearance of the hepatitis virus in the patient's body can occur through the gastrointestinal tract (only A and E) or when contacted with blood from an infected person. There is a risk of transmission of viruses from pregnant to the fetus during childbirth or during lactation, if there are cracks or open wounds on the chest. The chance of infection in this way is low. Transmission of the virus through the sharing of dishes, clothing, kisses, conversation is impossible.

Hepatitis C Forms

There are 2 main clinical forms of hepatitis:

  1. The acute form is a sharp deterioration in the health of the patient, failure of the liver functionality. Appears as a result of viruses or poisoning with potent poisons. This form can disappear in a patient without special treatment.
  2. Chronic form - is actually an asymptomatic disease, does not appear for a long time. The cause is alcohol poisoning (ethyl alcohol). Ignoring such a disease can cause cirrhosis of the liver and, as a consequence, the development of cancer.
Back to table of contents

Ways of infection

The most easily penetrating - the hepatitis A virus - gets to the patient through the oral cavity from unwashed products, contaminated water, and the rules of personal hygiene are not followed. It leads to jaundice, which causes irreparable damage to the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. The penetration of the virus In is possible by taking medication, through inhalation and injection.

Viral hepatitis, which is sexually transmitted - hepatitis C. It can get through the blood and damaged mucosa. A man who does not use contraception can easily become infected or be infected with a virus. The incubation period for the manifestation of such a disease lasts, on average, 2 weeks. Accompanied by severe itching of the genitals, the appearance of ulcers, wounds, the presence of blood in the urine.

Similarly, blood and sexual intercourse can be infected with the D virus, especially if the woman has damage to the vaginal mucosa. This type of danger is possible transition to the chronic form with the destruction of the liver. The E virus is transmitted, like A, through food or water, also when interacting with infected blood, but it is not typical of our countries. People who are addicted to drugs, or women in prostitution, or have hemophilia, are susceptible to infection with the F virus. If they previously had this virus, it is possible that the jaundice infection will repeat in the future. Mutated form of hepatitis C - the virus G, is transmitted by blood or enters during sex without the use of protective contraceptives. It provokes cirrhosis and the development of cancer.

Sexual transmission of hepatitis

Obtaining jaundice virus is possible with sexual contact between men and women. The risk of infection during sex does not exceed 4%. Protected sexual intercourse reduces this probability to virtually zero. Wounds, cuts, tears of the mucous membranes of the genital organs, damage to the skin and contact process of blood with them becomes the cause of infection from man to woman, and vice versa. Therefore, when asked whether sexually transmitted hepatitis is answered, yes, if the partners do not use a condom and have damage to the integument of the genitals. Hepatitis C and sex life are only possible with the use of a condom, although there is no 100% guarantee to protect yourself and not here.

What contributes to infection and increases the risk of infection in women and men?

Highlighting the main points that contribute to infection and increase the risk, we call:

  • alcohol and drug abuse
  • drug addict,
  • promiscuity, unprotected sex,
  • use of non-sterile items in salons,
  • tattooing and piercing in uncertified, untested places,
  • low immunity
  • disregarding symptoms,
  • lack of personal hygiene,
  • eating unwashed, unprocessed foods and contaminated water.

The main route of infection with the jaundice virus is through the blood. Accordingly, any contact of the blood of an infected person with the blood of a healthy person causes the transmission of the virus. Infection during sex is rare and is not the main method of spreading the disease. Wide area of ​​risk - people with drug addiction. Injecting drugs with a syringe with a patient is a direct way to getting the disease. Choosing a sexual partner, it is useful for both men and women to understand how to avoid sexual transmission of hepatitis C.

Infection with intimacy

The fact of infection becomes a problem not only for the virus carrier, but also for the surrounding people, especially those who are in close contact with it. The likelihood of contracting hepatitis C from a husband or wife increases when the elementary safety rules are not followed, and the virus quickly passes to a healthy person.

It is important to remember that the maximum concentration of pathogens is in the blood, but in the semen and vaginal secretions it is also present in a small volume.

The risk of infection of the sexual partner does not exceed 5%. When using a condom, the likelihood of transmission of the virus is reduced to almost zero.

The risk group includes couples who prefer aggressive sex. It was due to the fact that when the mucous membrane is injured, the contaminated blood comes in contact with the biological fluid of a healthy person. In this case, the probability of infection increases several times. Violation of the integrity of the integument can also be observed during anal sex.

In addition, the risk group includes those couples who do not give up intima during menstruation. The health of a man is at risk.

To minimize the chance of infection, both partners need to monitor the condition of the mucous membrane of the reproductive tract and promptly undergo treatment of erosion and inflammatory diseases.

Can I get hepatitis C from my husband while kissing

Saliva has a significantly lower content of pathogenic agents, and therefore infection through kissing is extremely rare. However, it should be remembered that with the exacerbation of the disease, the concentration of pathogens in biological environments increases significantly, thereby increasing the risk of infection.

The probability of transmission of pathogenic agents increases with the presence of injured mucous membranes in the oral cavity.

If the spouse suffers from stomatitis, the virus can easily go to his wife. It is especially dangerous when the integrity of the tissues of the mouth is also impaired in a woman. In this case, blood contact occurs and direct transmission of infection to the partner.

Transmission of infection in everyday life

It is important to remember that the risk of infecting a loved one is present not only through direct contact with him (sex, kiss), but also in everyday life. The probability of infection in this case is much less, but you need to remember about it.

The pathogen can be stored in a drop of blood on a razor, scissors, toothbrush or washcloth. If a healthy person takes advantage of a contaminated object and injures the skin, he may become infected. After the penetration of the virus into the systemic circulation, the incubation period begins, during which the clinical symptoms are absent and the disease is already developing.

To protect a loved one from infection, you must use only their hygiene items.

Who is more dangerous: a virus carrier or a patient?

To figure out who is more dangerous in terms of infection - the patient or carrier of the infection, you must have a general idea of ​​them. A person with an active stage of hepatitis often becomes the cause of infection of the sexual partner. This is due to a high viral load, that is, a high concentration of the pathogen in the blood. For infection, a small amount of biological material is sufficient.

If we consider the virus carrier, it is not so dangerous. The fact is that with a high level of immune protection, pathogenic agents are relatively low in concentration and are not capable of causing hepatitis. In this regard, infection occurs only after a large amount of blood has penetrated to a healthy person.

Despite this, the risk of transmitting the virus is present in both cases, which requires adherence to preventive measures. To prevent the activation of pathogens, you need:

  1. completely exclude alcoholic and low alcohol drinks,
  2. to adhere to dietary nutrition (table No. 5), thanks to which it is possible to reduce the load on the liver, restore the structure of hepatocytes (its cells), and also prevent cholestasis (stagnation of bile),
  3. limit physical activity and control your psycho-emotional state,
  4. monitor the activity of comorbid diseases, especially of infectious nature,
  5. strictly control the dosage, as well as the duration of administration of drugs that are toxic to the liver.

Survey plan

The couple must be fully examined at the planning stage of pregnancy.

To protect the baby from hepatitis, it is necessary to take all precautions. Ввиду того, что передача возбудителей происходит в процессе родовой деятельности, врачи рекомендуют проведение кесарево сечения.

Для выявления вирусоносителя назначаются следующие виды лабораторных исследований:

  1. search for antibodies that are synthesized by the immune system in response to the penetration of infection into the body,
  2. identification of the genetic material of the pathogen in the blood,
  3. biochemistry - provides an opportunity to assess the severity of the disease based on the dynamics of changes in liver indices. For this, the levels of alkaline phosphatase, transaminases (ALT, AST), albumin, total and bilirubin fractions are analyzed.

Laboratory diagnosis allows to establish the fact of infection at the preclinical stage, which is extremely important for early initiation of therapy. The severity of complications and the patient's life depend on this.

As for instrumental diagnostics, it is not always informative. At the initial stage, there are no specific changes in the liver that indicate a disease. Only with its cirrhotic degeneration are visible areas of connective tissue in place of dead hepatocytes.

To determine the severity of changes in the organ is assigned a biopsy or elastography. Their task is an objective study of the liver, which allows, in conjunction with laboratory tests, to confirm hepatitis C.

Preventive actions

Despite the daily contact of spouses, there is still a chance to avoid infection. The main condition is to be cautious and to comply with preventive advice to both partners. Unfortunately, 100% cannot be protected from infection, because today a specific vaccine against the pathogen has not yet been developed.

Here are the basic rules needed to prevent infection:

  • monitor the condition of the mucous membranes of the genitals and promptly treat diseases associated with the violation of the integrity of the integument (erosion, ulcers),
  • Avoid contact with the blood of the patient in case of skin trauma. Wound treatment should be carried out in gloves and thoroughly clean the tools with disinfectants after handling,
  • refuse intimacy during menstruation (with infection of the wife),
  • use personal nail scissors, razor and towel,
  • undergo regular screening, which includes a laboratory blood test. During diagnostics, viral load is established and the stage of pathology is determined,
  • Seek medical attention when the first symptoms of concomitant diseases appear. This is necessary to prevent a decrease in immunity, because on this background, exacerbation of hepatitis is possible,
  • strictly observe the doctor’s prescription for treating the disease,
  • use condoms.

Unfortunately, many patients seek help from a doctor at the stage of complications. Especially often health workers, drug addicts, clients of dubious beauty salons, as well as people in need of regular blood transfusions (blood experiences) suffer from infectious hepatitis.

If an infection of a woman from her spouse has happened, it is important to remember that the pathogen cannot pass through the placental barrier. In this regard, her pregnancy is not contraindicated. At the same time, the lactation period becomes dangerous if the mother has cracks in the nipples. In this case, HCV can be transmitted through blood. Infection of the infant is accompanied by rapid chronization of the infectious-inflammatory process, which is often not fully cured.

Features of virus transmission

Most people associate hepatitis with jaundice and cirrhosis of the liver. Indeed, sometimes the disease is detected only when these conditions occur, which does not always indicate the initial stage.

There are several groups of hepatitis:

  • Viral, which in turn are divided into A, B, C, D, E and others.
  • Bacterial hepatitis, for example, syphilis or some other infectious diseases.
  • Toxic hepatitis that occurs after use (more often when the dosage is exceeded) of drugs, alcohol and its surrogates, other chemical substances.
  • Autoimmune hepatitis.

Each of the varieties has its own characteristics of the flow. Some of them today are amenable to special effective treatment, and the other involves only symptomatic therapy and observation.

In fact, getting sick with hepatitis is easy, you can get it in the cosmetology salon, hairdresser, or at a party, even at home. Sometimes a single needle with an infected needle is enough.

Hepatitis A and E

Among viral hepatitis the most “harmless” - A. It was often called “Botkin's disease or dirty hands” in Soviet times. These are due to the fact that the main route of infection with hepatitis A is fecal-oral, i.e. with unwashed products and in case of non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.

A person who is a virus carrier or is sick with hepatitis in a latent, anicteric form, releases pathogenic microorganisms along with feces. With wastewater, viruses can migrate over fairly long distances. Further, with dirty fruits, vegetables, liquid for drinking (if you do not boil it) and just unwashed hands, it enters the gastrointestinal tract. The virus is resistant to the acidic environment of the stomach, after which it is transferred to the liver cells with blood flow.

The incubation period is from 15 to 30 days. After the transferred viral hepatitis A, lifelong immunity to the disease remains, therefore it is impossible to become infected again.

Hepatitis E in its symptoms and the clinical picture is very similar to A. The only difference is that, in addition to the fecal-oral route, it is transmitted by parenteral route (through blood).

Hepatitis B and D

Hepatitis B is caused by the virus that is the most studied. There is even a vaccine that is given to children at birth and then repeated a few more times, thereby providing lifelong immunity to the disease. Vaccination is additionally carried out in risk groups in order to maintain protection against the virus at the proper level, in particular, this applies to the surgical specialties of doctors and everyone who often comes in contact with blood.

But there are still cases of infection with the hepatitis B virus, which is due to its variability - various mutations, as a result of which the immunity does not recognize such a pathogen.

Hepatitis D develops in the human body only in the presence of B. The joint existence of the two viruses aggravates both the clinical picture of the disease and the prognosis. But, which is extremely important, vaccination against hepatitis B simultaneously protects against D.

Ways of transmitting diseases are always associated with blood contact. We can distinguish the main ones:

  • Sexually. The probability of transmission is higher; there were microtraumas, abrasions, etc., during intimate relationships without barrier protection. Sometimes they are invisible to women and men. Most often, hepatitis is transmitted through casual sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol or other psychostimulants. Condoms protect against disease in this case. People often wonder if they can get hepatitis during menstruation during sexual intercourse. Really, the risk of getting sick is hundreds of times higher, even using condoms. But the virus must be present in significant concentrations in the blood of a sick person.
  • During natural childbirth, as well as performed by cesarean section. Hepatitis B viruses can cross the placental barrier, so there is a risk of the baby being infected by the sick mother during pregnancy.
  • For artificial blood interventions: transfusion of its components, any type of injection with non-compliance with the rules of sterility. It is also possible to get infected in beauty salons, if you do not follow the rules of processing tools in the case of their repeated use or in multiple applications initially disposable. So, most often this is observed when shaving and cutting hair or performing manicure / pedicure, piercing, tattoo, etc.

This is one of the most dangerous viral hepatitis, to which there is no truly effective treatment, and there is also no vaccination. Hepatitis C most often leads to cancer and cirrhosis of the liver (every fifth sick person). Although it all depends on the individual reactivity of the body and the response to therapy.

Hepatitis C is believed to be a marker for HIV. This is explained by the fact that in 50% of cases of diseased these diseases are combined. This is due to the fact that both infections have the same transmission route. The combination of hepatitis C and other species often leads to a severe course of the disease, therefore, when these viruses are detected, mandatory additional vaccination against B and A is carried out. Methods of transmission of this infection:

  • Hepatitis C, unlike other viruses and HIV, can be acquired even with minimal contact with blood, while other diseases require a relatively large amount of it. Therefore, all operating surgeons, procedural nurses, as well as those who often have to transfuse blood components, conduct hemosorption (in case of renal failure, for example) are the main risk groups. Injecting drug users are also a source of infection: almost 90% of them have hepatitis C and HIV.
  • During pregnancy and childbirth, as well as breastfeeding, the mother can transmit the virus to the baby. The number of virions in the blood depends on both the mode of delivery (natural or cesarean section) and the possibility of lactation in a woman.
  • When sharing hygiene products - nail files, scissors, various tweezers and the like in the case when someone is infected. It also includes all beauty salons and places where seemingly innocuous manipulations (manicures, pedicures, piercings, tattoos, etc.) are carried out with improper handling of tools, in “home salons”.
  • Also, the hepatitis B virus is actively transmitted through unprotected condom sex. In this case, the disease can be acquired more often from a sick woman than from a man. Sex during menstruation with hepatitis C is especially dangerous when high levels of virus in the blood are analyzed.
  • With blood transfusions. Today, quite a few cases of registration of the disease in people older than 40 - 50 years. The fact is that hepatitis C is also called a “sweet killer” for the fact that for many years the virus can be in a “sleeping” state and in no way manifest itself.

As for people over 40, some doctors brought out a pattern: most of them were blood donors at a time when the level of sterilization of blood collection rooms and aids for manipulation was low. It is because of this that many students at that time (namely, they quite often donated blood to get legal time off and other advantages) got such a dangerous virus that showed itself much later.

  • Dentistry, gynecology, surgery are precisely those departments or offices where there is a high probability of being infected with a virus. The fact is that sometimes junior staff carelessly treats the sterilization of items for procedures, the treatment apparatus itself can be broken, and, as is well known, the hepatitis C virus is very tenacious, which leads to infection.

The remaining types of viral hepatitis are much less studied for several reasons. Firstly, due to not such prevalence, and secondly, due to frequent worn out and independently passing forms. The main ways of their transmission are sexual and parenteral (through the blood). Treatment is only symptomatic, there is no vaccination.

Look at the video about hepatitis C:

Toxic hepatitis

This group of diseases with inflammation of the liver occurs due to the use of an excessive amount of chemicals. These can be plant poisons (pale toadstool and others), alcohol substitutes (methyl alcohol, etc.), tablets (paracetamol, ibuprofen, oral hormonal contraceptives, for example), industrial wastes (carbon tetrachloride) and various similar groups of substances.

Hepatitis occurs after the reagent enters the body through the digestive and respiratory systems, skin, etc. Such people do not pose any danger to others and cannot infect others.

Bacterial hepatitis

They represent a great threat to others. These hepatitis occur on the background of some existing infectious diseases. The causative agents of the underlying disease, getting into the liver, cause inflammation in its tissues. For example, this may be the case for syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, leptospirosis and other ailments.

The danger of a sick person is in the acute period when he can infect the main pathology of another. But whether or not hepatitis develops depends on the individual properties of the organism.

Autoimmune Hepatitis

This group of diseases is also very dangerous due to the high percentage of complications, in particular, cirrhosis of the liver. But such people do not pose any threat to others, since the disease is a consequence of the incorrect response of their own immune system. The fact is that it perceives liver cells as foreign agents and begins to destroy them.

Life with hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is socially significant, since even asymptomatic carriers can lead to the infection of healthy people. The development of the remaining species depends largely on the state of human health (autoimmune) and its lifestyle (toxic). They are not a threat to others.

It should be noted that hepatitis viruses are very insidious. There is such a thing as a latent period or “window period”. At this time, viruses have already entered the human body and began to multiply, but the disease does not manifest clinically and even laboratory (according to analyzes, even specific ones). Very often it is during this period that other people are infected by the carrier, as he does not even assume that he is ill.

It is also important what is the concentration of viruses in the body in humans. The number of them can be determined by special studies. So, if the level is "off scale", the probability of infection is high, and if only single quantities circulate in the blood, then the risk is much lower.

Also, often only certain elements of viruses are determined in the blood, some infectiologists consider this form a chronic carrier state, others do not isolate such people at all.

Therefore, any person should be treated as potentially infected. Perhaps he still does not know about it.

Is it possible to get infected during sex

The sexual way is the main for natural (does not include various manipulations with blood) transmission of hepatitis. There is always a risk of infection if you do not use condoms. It is believed that they can protect against these infections.

But there are many nuances. For example, if a woman has her period, and hepatitis C is in her active stage (a large number of viruses in the blood according to PCR analysis), then the probability of a man getting sick is high, if intimate relationships are on “these days”. This is due to the fact that the menstrual flow contains almost as many pathogenic microorganisms as in the plasma.

There is also an increased risk of infection during sex in the following situations:

  • During casual sexual intercourse. This is due to the fact that in most cases couples neglect remedies.
  • Sex on the background of psychoactive substances (under the influence of alcohol, smoking mixtures, etc.). This is explained by the fact that in these situations, the probability of microtraumas is higher due to violent contacts.
  • With non-traditional types of intimate relationships, in which injury may occur, even if it is insignificant.
  • If one of the partners has inflammatory elements in the genital area or face. For example, herpes or lip cracks, etc.

The risk of getting the hepatitis B virus is minimal in couples (if faithful) when using condoms and following basic safety measures.

Menstruation with hepatitis

The liver is responsible for the metabolism of sex hormones, as well as the synthesis of various proteins and biologically active substances, for example, blood coagulation factors. Therefore, serious changes (cirrhosis, necrosis, etc.) in this organ can lead to menstrual disorders. As a rule, this is not “fresh” hepatitis.

In addition to the violation of cyclicality, long periods can occur with hepatitis C and other types of it. This is due to a violation of the blood coagulation system, the factors of which are formed in the liver.

Also, stress, psycho-emotional experiences of a woman, when she learns about the presence of hepatitis in herself, can independently lead to menstrual disorders and failures, both to breakthrough bleeding and delays. Therefore, each situation should be considered separately. Only a specialist after the examination can determine the true reason for the changes.

How to get tested

Control over the treatment of non-viral hepatitis passes during the main treatment. The need for further observation is decided by the doctor taking into account the entire clinical situation. Often, additional, and especially life-long, registration of such patients is not required.

As for viral hepatitis (except for A and E), in most cases it is necessary to regularly undergo tests that reflect the course of the pathological process and the state of the internal organs.

Many women specify whether it is possible to donate blood for hepatitis during menstruation. There is no fundamental difference. На качественное и количественное определение вирусов, а также различные биохимические показатели и другие необходимые исследования менструация не повлияет значительно.

Постоянного наблюдения требуют хронические формы гепатитов, в том числе вирусных. Основные исследования, которые необходимо сдавать:

  • general blood analysis,
  • coagulogram (clotting indicators),
  • biochemical blood test with the obligatory determination of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, transaminases),
  • liver ultrasound,
  • qualitative (PCR method) and quantitative determination of viral copies in the blood.

The frequency of delivery is determined by the attending physician or infectious disease specialist based on the clinical situation. Also, if necessary, the list can be expanded.

We recommend reading the article on menstruation for HIV. From it you will learn about the peculiarities of menstruation in the presence of a virus in the body, the effect of the disease on the female reproductive system, as well as the effect of HIV drugs on the menstrual cycle.

General rules of conduct in society

The main route of transmission of viral hepatitis is parenteral, as well as sexual. Therefore, you should not contact with the blood of strangers, and it is also better to avoid casual intimate connections or to use condoms without fail.

Basic recommendations for the prevention of infection:

  • Personal hygiene - prevention of hepatitis A and E.
  • If possible, carry out cosmetic manipulations with personal or disposable instruments. In case of repeated manipulations, it is necessary to make sure that the treatment is correct: the hepatitis viruses do not die from the effects of alcohol, only sterilization is effective. It is better to abandon the cut manicure and pedicure, where there is a violation of the integrity of the skin. Important! In frozen blood, the hepatitis C virus is active for another 72 hours and is able to infect another person.
  • Do not use personal care products of strangers (brushes, nippers, nail files, etc.).
  • It is impossible to get infected through the skin and mucous membranes during handshakes, using the same utensils and in other household moments (characteristic of hepatitis A, B).
  • Drug addiction is the way to hepatitis C and HIV.
  • In the risk groups should be vaccinated against the virus B and C.

Hepatitis is a serious liver disease of an inflammatory nature. After all, this body is the “plant” for the disposal and processing of all substances that enter the body. Also, the liver is the main place of metabolism for most hormones, enzymes, etc. Viral hepatitis is the most dangerous in its prediction for human life. Therefore, it is important to avoid possible infection and detect the disease in time.

Features of the course of hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a severe viral disease in which the destruction of liver cells and the formation of scars consisting of fibrous tissue in their place occur slowly but surely. The body gradually loses its functionality. Over time, hepatitis of this type causes a person to be fatal due to cirrhosis or malignant degeneration of liver cells.

The main danger is considered to be the asymptomatic course of the disease, when the patient, even without knowing it, is the source of infection.

In comparison with hepatitis A, the virus of which is detected by the protective cells of the body, is neutralized and excreted, the virus of this pathology, once in the human liver, skillfully adapts there and often remains forever. Approximately 70% of patients with the detected hepatitis C virus acquire its chronic form, which is considered incurable.

Medical scientists are working on this problem. Recently, a whole group of drugs manufactured in accordance with the latest technologies that effectively destroy the virus has been used to treat infected patients. These include interferons:

  • Reaferon,
  • Intoron A,
  • Realdiron and others

But the effect of these funds is not fully understood, so you should not rely on them completely. Correct therapy can only slow down the development of pathology, lead to a stable remission.

A vaccine has not yet been created to develop a strong immunity to the disease. This is due to the peculiarity of the hepatitis C virus, which is capable of constant mutations. Therefore, a person who has had hepatitis C once has every chance of becoming infected again.

Hepatitis C sexual way

The main route of infection with hepatitis C is hematogenous. Even a fraction of the blood of a sick person and a few seconds of time will be sufficient to transmit the virus.

Sexual contact can also be through infection with hepatitis of the specified type. How does this happen?

The causative agent of infection is not only in the blood, but in a small amount in any substance secreted by the body of a sick person (in the vaginal secret of a woman, the semen of a man). A small amount of infected secretion is usually not enough for infection.

This requires the observance of certain conditions:

  • sexual intercourse without condoms,
  • the presence of any damage to the mucous membranes and skin of the genital organs of sexual partners,
  • other sexually transmitted infections.

Risk factors for the spread of this infection should be considered:

  • change of sexual partners,
  • promiscuous,
  • homosexuality,
  • Hiv
  • unconventional types of sex (anal, oral)
  • sexual intercourse during menstrual bleeding in a woman.

Thus, the infection with the specified infectious disease occurs during unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner through microtrauma and fissure of the mucous membranes. Oral sex is no exception to this rule. In the external environment, the virus is not resistant and quickly dies, so it is impossible to transfer hepatitis C by household or airborne droplets.

Anyone just need to lead a full sex life. But this must be done taking into account all security measures, without exposing the life and health of a loved one to serious danger.

Conclusion on the topic

Thus, a person with hepatitis C has every chance to lead a normal full life: communicate with other people, have sex with your loved one, become a parent. But at the same time, one should always remember about this serious illness and observe the elementary rules for safe behavior in everyday life, in everyday life and in sex.

Ways the virus enters the body

Type C hepatitis affects the liver. The disease was diagnosed recently, about 15-20 years ago. But doctors have already identified the main ways of transmission of the pathogen from person to person.

The disease can be transmitted in the following ways:

  • during the injection. The pathogen is transferred from the carrier through a needle, which is used many times. For this reason, there is a large percentage of people infected with drug addicts,
  • during blood transfusions,
  • from mother to newborn. In this case, the virus can get during pregnancy. There is a risk of infection of the newborn while caring for him. Breast milk virus is not transmitted,
  • when using items of personal hygiene. This applies to toothbrushes, razors, and so on,
  • during visits to dentists. Virus transmission occurs when medical personnel do not comply with the rules and do not process all used tools and equipment,
  • during tattoo application. During the procedure, the capillaries are damaged, and the devices used are in direct contact with the blood. If the tattoo parlor does not comply with hygienic measures, the risk of infection increases,
  • It is possible to get infected with organ transplants. But here everything depends on the competence and professionalism of medical workers,
  • if a person at his work is constantly in contact with the blood of carriers of the virus.

As can be seen from the above, all these methods suggest that the causative agent of hepatitis type C is transmitted through blood. Such a “path” is observed in ninety percent of cases. The virus penetrates even through small open wounds on the skin and mucous membrane, but this option is rare.

Domestic mode of transmission of the disease is impossible. The virus does not enter the body through airborne droplets. Also, the transfer process is not possible through everyday objects or personal communication with the carrier. For this reason, those infected with hepatitis C cannot be isolated from society.

He continues to live and work as an ordinary person.

In ten percent of cases, the pathogen penetrates as a result of sexual relations. But here some conditions must be observed. This "transfer" is observed in the presence of damage to the genitals, traumatic sex, or if the connection is intermittent.

Is it possible to get hepatitis C during menstruation? This happens only in one case. A girl can get sick if the boyfriend - her partner - is the carrier of the virus and intercourse occurs during menstruation. But if you engage in protected sex, then getting a virus is impossible.

Hepatitis C also enters the body through menstruation if personal hygiene measures are not followed. During this period, the woman's health is weakened and easily amenable to the disease.

Menstruation during illness

The period of menstruation affects the state of the woman's body. Also, the disease can leave its imprint. This can lead to the question, hepatitis C and menstruation are both related.

With this combination, the following can be observed:

  1. All symptoms of PMS (premenstrual syndrome) are aggravated. Lower abdominal pain is more pronounced. There is a frequent change of mood, prolonged depression and severe psychological stress.
  2. Another manifestation of this combination is delayed or early menstruation. Monthly with hepatitis type C may begin a few days earlier. As a result, the blood gets on the linen and bed, which causes an increase in the risk of infection to others. With delays increases the nervous load on the woman.
  3. Hepatitis, including type C, affect the liver. The organ is directly related to the processes of blood formation. In this regard, there is a violation of coagulability. This factor leads to long periods.

Another link between menstrual cycles and hepatitis type C disease is manifestations during the treatment period. Most often used for this interferon. This drug affects the entire body. In addition, there are numerous side effects. All this leads to increased discomfort manifestations of menstruation.

Preventive measures

In order not to get infected during menstruation, you need to be careful. First of all, in such a situation, preventive measures are observed.

In order not to "let" the virus into your body, women should follow the following recommendations:

  • increased risk of infection through unprotected sex. Therefore, sexual intercourse should necessarily be using a latex condom,
  • another rule concerns personal care products. It is necessary to separate your nail scissors, napkins, pads and everything else from other things,
  • Neatly perform hygienic procedures. Blood drops should not get on the sink, toilet and other items of common use,
  • Hepatitis type C virus is "persistent" and easily tolerates being in aggressive environments. For this reason, you need to carefully clean the premises.

Doctors note that the risk of infection in couples is minimal. Here we observe the constancy of partners and understanding of each other. All this and the observance of hygiene measures reliably protects the woman during her period.

What is the chance of infection

The pathogen is present in any biological fluids infected - blood, saliva, vaginal secretions, semen. Menstrual blood is not an exception, a certain amount of the virus is contained in it, therefore, infection with hepatitis C during menstruation is quite possible.

With a single intimate affinity with the patient, the probability of transmission is 0.1–3%. If sexual contact occurs at the time when a girl has menstrual bleeding, this figure increases, and it is not so important which partner is infectious.

The probability of infection during sexual contact during menstruation increases in cases of:

Lack of contraceptive methods

  • High viral activity. The disease is in an acute stage or relapse occurs in its chronic form.
  • A healthy partner has damage to the vaginal mucosa or skin in the genital area, which will allow the virus to enter the bloodstream.
  • Aggressive intercourse. Partners can infect each other with violent sex, which is accompanied by injury to the mucous membranes.
  • The presence of sexually transmitted diseases. Such illnesses lead to inflammation and ulcers, which open the way for the virus to the body.
  • Lack of barrier-type contraceptives.
  • The presence of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system, especially those that are capable of recurrence.
  • Multiple sexual contact.

The course of the disease is closely related to the female menstrual cycle, especially if the ailment is long-standing and progressing. Hepatitis C affects the liver, causing hormonal metabolism to be disturbed and blood clotting to deteriorate, leading to:

Abundant monthly

  • abundant long monthly
  • cycle failures - delays or early menstruation,
  • increased pain,
  • aggravation of signs of premenstrual syndrome.

Ways of infection

It is possible to become infected with an illness artificially or naturally. In the first case, the main mode of transmission is hemocontact (through the blood). Infection often occurs with multiple injections with a single syringe when using drugs (in 50-70% of cases). The risk of infection is in patients who constantly need blood transfusion and hemodialysis.

A virus can enter the body during a surgical, endoscopic or dental operation. In 10% of cases, infection occurs during medical procedures. Not only patients are infected, but also health care workers who deal with blood. When a needle is cut or punctured by an infected needle, they become sick on average in 15% of cases.

Hepatitis C is able to be transmitted in the process of tattooing, piercing parts of the body for the subsequent wearing of jewelry (in violation of the norms of sterility of instruments). Infection is possible when performing manicure, pedicure, as well as other cosmetic procedures during which injections are made, or there is a risk of skin injury.

There is also a risk of transmitting the virus if you live or have close contact with the sick. This usually happens when using the patient's personal belongings. One of the special cases - being in prison.

Natural ways of infection include:

  • Sexual. The second most common route of infection - it accounts for 15% of cases of hepatitis C. The risk is significantly reduced when using barrier methods of contraception. People who have multiple connections with different partners, homosexuals, people infected with other ailments, including sexually transmitted diseases, have the maximum chance of getting sick. Intimate contacts during menstruation also increase the risk.
  • Vertical - from mother to virus. Infection in the prenatal period does not occur, because the fetus protects the placenta, but during birth the pathogen can enter the body of the newborn - this happens in 4-5% of cases. If the mother is also HIV-positive, this figure rises to 15%. The risk is maximum at high viral load and in the presence of pathologies in the parturient woman, for example, placental abruption.
  • Germinative - when an egg is infected by a sperm cell that carries the virus-pathogen.

Infection in the prenatal period

In very rare cases, the virus may penetrate through open wounds in the event of fights, accidents or injuries. Cases of transmission of the pathogen through saliva are described in the presence of a number of contributing factors - high pathogen activity, bleeding gums or other problems of the oral cavity.

Preventive action

Since the most common way to enter the body of the hepatitis C virus is repeated use of syringes, methods of prevention in this case are reduced to the rejection of the use of any drugs, avoiding contacts with companies of drug addicts, promoting a healthy lifestyle.

To minimize the risk of sexually transmitted infections, it is necessary to abandon random, nontraditional, numerous intimate connections. An important condition for the prevention of infection - the use of a condom, caution to prevent injury to the genitals, abstaining from sex during menstruation.

Medical personnel are at risk, so as a preventive measure, they need to use gloves, protective clothing, glasses, regularly disinfect the skin, observe safety precautions when taking blood and injections.

The main cause of infection in newborns is the active reproduction of the virus and the pathologies associated with pregnancy. To prevent infection of the child during childbirth, the mother should be regularly examined and tested, and, if necessary, undergo therapy with approved drugs. Diagnosis of infections should be carried out before pregnancy. If hepatitis C is detected, a course of treatment is prescribed; the question of planning for childbirth is considered six months later.

Поскольку есть возможность инфицирования в ходе нанесения татуировок, проведения косметических и стоматологических процедур, важно выбирать проверенные клиники и салоны, соблюдающие правила безопасности:

  • персонал, контактирующий с клиентом напрямую, носит одноразовые перчатки,
  • инструменты стерилизуются и дезинфицируются,
  • проводится регулярная уборка,
  • needles and syringes are used disposable.

Infection with hepatitis C during sexual intercourse is the second most common method of transmission of the virus to a healthy person. The risk of infection increases if intimacy occurs during menstruation. With high viral activity, the pathogen can be transmitted to a partner, especially if there is damage to the mucous membranes, skin, diseases of the urogenital system and neglect of barrier contraceptives.

Differences of hepatitis C from other infectious types of inflammation of the liver

C-pathology is among the most insidious among hepatitis. Due to the blurred symptoms, the disease is rarely detected in the acute period. Chronic hepatitis C is not treated. Vaccination is also missing.

Pathology often entails oncology and a fatal replacement of tissue with hemirubic fibers (cirrhosis). These diseases are diagnosed in 20% of those infected. The outcome is due to the peculiarities of the patient’s body and its “response” to therapeutic measures.

C-type liver inflammation is considered a marker of human immunodeficiency. He goes in conjunction with the hepatitis half of those infected. Both diseases are transmitted in the same way.

Severe disease is observed when combined with other types of viral inflammation of the liver. Therefore, vaccination against hepatitis A and B is obligatory. There is no vaccination from other varieties of the disease, like C-pathology.

Infectious disease is transmitted through blood and other biological fluids, for example, saliva, semen. Enough microscopic drop. For other hepatitis, a relatively large amount of physiological fluid is needed.

Therefore, the risk group includes:

  • operating surgeons
  • procedural nurses
  • physicians who often transfuse blood components and conduct hemosorption.

Many injecting drug users suffer from hepatitis C in combination with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).

The transmission of the pathogen is also carried out:

  1. During pregnancy, delivery, feeding. The concentration of the pathogen in the blood determines the method of delivery and the possibility of lactation.
  2. If you use joint with sick razors, manicure accessories. Therefore, infection can occur at the beautician, in the tattoo parlor. Infection is likely if the instruments are not disinfected.
  3. During unprotected sex. You can become infected through menstruation.
  4. During a blood transfusion. A decade ago, verification of donor material was imperfect. Illness is often recorded in people over 40 years of age. This is due to the fact that for many years the virus is in a dormant state and it is almost impossible to identify it.
  5. In the offices of dentistry, gynecology and surgery. This is due to the negligence of junior staff who are responsible for sterilizing items for manipulation. Hepatitis C virus is persistent, so the risk of infection is high.

The disease is usually transmitted by sexual and parenteral routes.

If the disease goes into a chronic stage, only symptomatic treatment is possible.

The nature and composition of menstrual flow

All women regularly experience menstrual flow. This period they have differently in connection with the individual characteristics of the body, affecting the duration of the cycle, the volume and nature of bleeding.

Every month 1-2 eggs mature in the ovaries and leave it, moving into the fallopian tube. This process is called ovulation. In the body, this increases the content of a hormone called progesterone. Internal organs are experiencing increased stress, accelerates the growth of the mucous membrane of the uterus. If conception did not occur, the reproductive cycle begins anew. At the same time, the old endometrium is rejected and goes through the vagina with blood. This process is called menstruation.

Accordingly, in the composition of the secretions are present:

  • blood, which is associated with injury to vessels intended to feed the embryo,
  • endometrial cells,
  • one or more unfertilized eggs.

The difference between the discharge in patients of different ages is significant. If the state of health is disturbed, the woman experiences stress, the cycle is accompanied by strong painful sensations.

Does hepatitis C virus penetrate menstrual fluid?

Experts say that the presence of the causative agent of the disease in the menstrual blood is possible. The disease is transmitted through blood. A certain amount of it is allocated during menstruation. This means that the fluid may contain a pathogen.

This fact increases the risk of sexual transmission of the virus if unprotected sex occurred during menstruation.

Usually through the monthly pathology is transmitted:

  1. If the pathogen is highly active.
  2. In the acute course of the disease.

To prevent a virus from one partner to another, it is enough to use a condom. Barrier contraception eliminates infection, unlike contraceptive candles, tablets, patches, spirals.

In the case of oral sex, the opinions of the doctors differed. Some say that the presence of bleeding gums or damage to the mucous membranes contributes to the transmission of the pathogen. Others believe that enzymes in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract make the virus inactive.

Especially people are affected by the development of the pathological process:

  • having unprotected sex with an infected person
  • preferring polygamous messy relationships
  • homosexuals
  • preferring aggressive sexual acts in which mechanical damage and bleeding of the mucous membranes are possible,
  • intercourse on the background of menstruation in a woman.

It is important to use barrier methods of contraception during menstruation, no matter who is ill, male or female.

The virus is unstable in the external environment. If the blood has dried, the causative agent of hepatitis most likely died. Therefore, if the bedding or clothes are stained with blood, it is unlikely to become infected. Due to this peculiarity, it is considered that the pathogen cannot be transmitted through the contact-household way.

Does the pathogen contain vaginal secretions?

The probability of infection exists not only in connection with the monthly.

The causative agent of the disease is contained in the blood, as well as:

  • in the semen of a man
  • in the vaginal secret of a woman.

The concentration of the virus in them is small, but there is a certain danger. During intercourse, there is the likelihood of injury to the genitals. Virus can penetrate through microdamages to the mucous membranes. According to statistics, more likely to infect the receiving partner. Usually it is a woman. However, homosexuals often suffer. But lesbians rarely become infected, because in the vaginal secretion the virus is contained in a lower concentration than in semen.

There are many rules to avoid infection during casual sexual intercourse, but the most reliable option is to use a condom.

Doctors recommend abandoning promiscuous sex life and have a regular partner. In this case, even with a gay, the risk of infection is lower.

It is important to remember that the probability of infection is the same as during normal and anal sex.

Menstruation (menstruation) for hepatitis significantly increases the risk of infection.

The probability of transmitting hepatitis through menstruation

The probability of transmitting hepatitis through menstruation during intercourse exists.

This can happen:

  1. If high blood pathogen concentration. The indicator is called viral load.
  2. In the presence of microtraumas on the penis.

Therefore, it is not necessary to make contact without barrier contraception.

With hepatitis C, certain changes occur during menstruation:

  1. The symptomatology of the premenstrual period is increasing. A woman has severe pain, changes emotional background, there are protracted depression.
  2. Menstruation is delayed or starts too early.
  3. Hepatitis is a pathology of the liver that is involved in the process of blood formation. With the defeat of the organ, there is a violation of clotting. Accordingly, menstruation becomes longer.

When the disease worsens the psychological state of the woman. She is constantly experiencing stress, so the menstrual cycle is broken. The condition during menstruation worsens under the influence of Interferon, used to treat hepatitis C. The drug leads to side effects, which, in combination with menstruation, greatly increases discomfort.

Patient experiences

Ladies are worried about whether you can get hepatitis during menstruation. During menstruation, the partner who carries the virus can transmit it to the partner. If the man has injuries to the penis, it may become infected during sex.

A representative of the weaker sex with microcracks on the walls of the vagina can also get sick. Through wounds, the pathogen enters the bloodstream. Unprotected sex, respectively, should be avoided.

If it occurs, it is important to check yourself for the virus in order to start treatment promptly. The patient must be under the supervision of a physician and regularly take a blood test to monitor the course of the pathological process and the state of the internal organs.

Blood for hepatitis can be donated during menstruation. Menstruation does not significantly affect the biochemical parameters and virus definition.

If the blood test confirmed the diagnosis, the infectious disease specialist recommends to undergo an extensive examination. In particular, it is necessary to determine the genotype of the virus. The treatment plan depends on it.

Constant supervision by a physician is necessary in the case of chronic hepatitis.

In this case, there is a need to systematically do:

  • general examination of venous blood,
  • coagulogram,
  • biochemistry with the determination and calculation of liver enzymes,
  • ultrasound diagnosis of the affected organ,
  • polymerase chain reaction.

How often it will be necessary to be examined is determined by an infectious disease specialist taking into account the clinical course of the disease in a particular patient.

Opinions of doctors

Experts say that the probability of contracting hepatitis C during menstruation is small, but there are still certain risks. This is due to many factors, but most often the cause is unprotected sexual intercourse. Therefore, it is important to avoid contact with the blood of other people and casual sex. Be sure to use a condom.

In order to avoid the disease, doctors advise:

  • Do not use used tools for cosmetic manipulations, have personal inventory.
  • Do not use someone else's brushes, files, pliers, scissors.
  • Avoid the environment of drug addicts. Most often, infection, especially genotype 3a, occurs there.

The liver neutralizes, processes incoming substances and provides the metabolism of hormones, enzymes, produces bile. The body is indispensable. If hepatitis leads to cirrhosis, only a transplant can save the patient’s life.

Accordingly, it is necessary to take all measures to prevent the disease. Hygiene on critical days will protect a woman and her partner from infection. This advice should not be ignored, since during the period of menstruation the body is weakened and easily gives in to infections.

Viral Hepatitis

For almost all viral hepatitis, the main route of transmission is parenteral, i.e. through infected blood. This group is quite diverse in terms of clinical course as well as outcomes and projections.

Among viral hepatitis the most “harmless” - A. It was often called “Botkin's disease or dirty hands” in Soviet times. These are due to the fact that the main route of infection with hepatitis A is fecal-oral, i.e. with unwashed products and in case of non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.

A person who is a virus carrier or is sick with hepatitis in a latent, anicteric form, releases pathogenic microorganisms along with feces. With wastewater, viruses can migrate over fairly long distances. Further, with dirty fruits, vegetables, liquid for drinking (if you do not boil it) and just unwashed hands, it enters the gastrointestinal tract. The virus is resistant to the acidic environment of the stomach, after which it is transferred to the liver cells with blood flow.

The incubation period is from 15 to 30 days. After the transferred viral hepatitis A, lifelong immunity to the disease remains, therefore it is impossible to become infected again.

Hepatitis E in its symptoms and the clinical picture is very similar to A. The only difference is that, in addition to the fecal-oral route, it is transmitted by parenteral route (through blood).

Hepatitis B is caused by the virus that is the most studied. There is even a vaccine that is given to children at birth and then repeated a few more times, thereby providing lifelong immunity to the disease. Vaccination is additionally carried out in risk groups in order to maintain protection against the virus at an appropriate level, in particular, this applies to the surgical specialties of doctors and all those who are often in contact with blood.

But there are still cases of infection with the hepatitis B virus, which is due to its variability - various mutations, as a result of which the immunity does not recognize such a pathogen.

Hepatitis D develops in the human body only in the presence of B. The joint existence of the two viruses aggravates both the clinical picture of the disease and the prognosis. But, which is extremely important, vaccination against hepatitis B simultaneously protects against D.

Ways of transmitting diseases are always associated with blood contact. We can distinguish the main ones:

  • Sexually. The probability of transmission is higher; there were microtraumas, abrasions, etc., during intimate relationships without barrier protection. Sometimes they are invisible to women and men. Most often, hepatitis is transmitted through casual sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol or other psychostimulants. Condoms protect against disease in this case. People often wonder if they can get hepatitis during menstruation during sexual intercourse. Really, the risk of getting sick is hundreds of times higher, even using condoms. But the virus must be present in significant concentrations in the blood of a sick person.
  • During natural childbirth, as well as performed by cesarean section. Hepatitis B viruses can cross the placental barrier, so there is a risk of the baby being infected by the sick mother during pregnancy.
  • For artificial blood interventions: transfusion of its components, any type of injection with non-compliance with the rules of sterility. It is also possible to get infected in beauty salons, if you do not follow the rules of processing tools in the case of their repeated use or in multiple applications initially disposable. So, most often this is observed when shaving and cutting hair or performing manicure / pedicure, piercing, tattoo, etc.

This is one of the most dangerous viral hepatitis, to which there is no truly effective treatment, and there is also no vaccination. Hepatitis C most often leads to cancer and cirrhosis of the liver (every fifth sick person). Although it all depends on the individual reactivity of the body and the response to therapy.

Hepatitis C is believed to be a marker for HIV. This is explained by the fact that in 50% of cases of diseased these diseases are combined. This is due to the fact that both infections have the same transmission route. The combination of hepatitis C and other species often leads to a severe course of the disease, therefore, when these viruses are detected, mandatory additional vaccination against B and A is carried out. Methods of transmission of this infection:

  • Hepatitis C, unlike other viruses and HIV, can be acquired even with minimal contact with blood, while other diseases require a relatively large amount of it. Therefore, all operating surgeons, procedural nurses, as well as those who often have to transfuse blood components, conduct hemosorption (in case of renal failure, for example) are the main risk groups. Injecting drug users are also a source of infection: almost 90% of them have hepatitis C and HIV.
  • During pregnancy and childbirth, as well as breastfeeding, the mother can transmit the virus to the baby. The number of virions in the blood depends on both the mode of delivery (natural or cesarean section) and the possibility of lactation in a woman.
  • When sharing hygiene products - nail files, scissors, various tweezers and the like in the case when someone is infected. It also includes all beauty salons and places where seemingly innocuous manipulations (manicures, pedicures, piercings, tattoos, etc.) are carried out with improper handling of tools, in “home salons”.
  • Also, the hepatitis B virus is actively transmitted through unprotected condom sex. In this case, the disease can be acquired more often from a sick woman than from a man. Sex during menstruation with hepatitis C is especially dangerous when high levels of virus in the blood are analyzed.
  • With blood transfusions. Today, quite a few cases of registration of the disease in people older than 40 - 50 years. The fact is that hepatitis C is also called a “sweet killer” for the fact that for many years the virus can be in a “sleeping” state and in no way manifest itself.

Что касается людей за 40, некоторые врачи вывели закономерность: большинство из них являлись донорами крови в то время, когда еще уровень стерилизации помещений для забора крови и вспомогательных средств для манипуляции был на низком уровне. It is because of this that many students at that time (namely, they quite often donated blood to get legal time off and other advantages) got such a dangerous virus that showed itself much later.

  • Dentistry, gynecology, surgery are precisely those departments or offices where there is a high probability of being infected with a virus. The fact is that sometimes junior staff carelessly treats the sterilization of items for procedures, the treatment apparatus itself can be broken, and, as is well known, the hepatitis C virus is very tenacious, which leads to infection.

The remaining types of viral hepatitis are much less studied for several reasons. Firstly, due to not such prevalence, and secondly, due to frequent worn out and independently passing forms. The main ways of their transmission are sexual and parenteral (through the blood). Treatment is only symptomatic, there is no vaccination.

Look at the video about hepatitis C:

This group of diseases with inflammation of the liver occurs due to the use of an excessive amount of chemicals. These can be plant poisons (pale toadstool and others), alcohol substitutes (methyl alcohol, etc.), tablets (paracetamol, ibuprofen, oral hormonal contraceptives, for example), industrial wastes (carbon tetrachloride) and various similar groups of substances.

Hepatitis occurs after the reagent enters the body through the digestive and respiratory systems, skin, etc. Such people do not pose any danger to others and cannot infect others.

They represent a great threat to others. These hepatitis occur on the background of some existing infectious diseases. The causative agents of the underlying disease, getting into the liver, cause inflammation in its tissues. For example, this may be the case for syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, leptospirosis and other ailments.

The danger of a sick person is in the acute period when he can infect the main pathology of another. But whether or not hepatitis develops depends on the individual properties of the organism.

This group of diseases is also very dangerous due to the high percentage of complications, in particular, cirrhosis of the liver. But such people do not pose any threat to others, since the disease is a consequence of the incorrect response of their own immune system. The fact is that it perceives liver cells as foreign agents and begins to destroy them.

Viral hepatitis is socially significant, since even asymptomatic carriers can lead to the infection of healthy people. The development of the remaining species depends largely on the state of human health (autoimmune) and its lifestyle (toxic). They are not a threat to others.

It should be noted that hepatitis viruses are very insidious. There is such a thing as a latent period or “window period”. At this time, viruses have already entered the human body and began to multiply, but the disease does not manifest clinically and even laboratory (according to analyzes, even specific ones). Very often it is during this period that other people are infected by the carrier, as he does not even assume that he is ill.

It is also important what is the concentration of viruses in the body in humans. The number of them can be determined by special studies. So, if the level is "off scale", the probability of infection is high, and if only single quantities circulate in the blood, then the risk is much lower.

Also, often only certain elements of viruses are determined in the blood, some infectiologists consider this form a chronic carrier state, others do not isolate such people at all.

Thus, to determine reliably all the risks and recommend ways to protect others from infection can only be a doctor after a special examination.

Therefore, any person should be treated as potentially infected. Perhaps he still does not know about it.

The sexual way is the main for natural (does not include various manipulations with blood) transmission of hepatitis. There is always a risk of infection if you do not use condoms. It is believed that they can protect against these infections.

But there are many nuances. For example, if a woman has her period, and hepatitis C is in her active stage (a large number of viruses in the blood according to PCR analysis), then the probability of a man getting sick is high, if intimate relationships are on “these days”. This is due to the fact that the menstrual flow contains almost as many pathogenic microorganisms as in the plasma.

There is also an increased risk of infection during sex in the following situations:

  • During casual sexual intercourse. This is due to the fact that in most cases couples neglect remedies.
  • Sex on the background of psychoactive substances (under the influence of alcohol, smoking mixtures, etc.). This is explained by the fact that in these situations, the probability of microtraumas is higher due to violent contacts.
  • With non-traditional types of intimate relationships, in which injury may occur, even if it is insignificant.
  • If one of the partners has inflammatory elements in the genital area or face. For example, herpes or lip cracks, etc.

The risk of getting the hepatitis B virus is minimal in couples (if faithful) when using condoms and following basic safety measures.

The liver is responsible for the metabolism of sex hormones, as well as the synthesis of various proteins and biologically active substances, for example, blood coagulation factors. Therefore, serious changes (cirrhosis, necrosis, etc.) in this organ can lead to menstrual disorders. As a rule, this is not “fresh” hepatitis.

In addition to the violation of cyclicality, long periods can occur with hepatitis C and other types of it. This is due to a violation of the blood coagulation system, the factors of which are formed in the liver.

Also, stress, psycho-emotional experiences of a woman, when she learns about the presence of hepatitis in herself, can independently lead to menstrual disorders and failures, both to breakthrough bleeding and delays. Therefore, each situation should be considered separately. Only a specialist after the examination can determine the true reason for the changes.

Control over the treatment of non-viral hepatitis passes during the main treatment. The need for further observation is decided by the doctor taking into account the entire clinical situation. Often, additional, and especially life-long, registration of such patients is not required.

As for viral hepatitis (except for A and E), in most cases it is necessary to regularly undergo tests that reflect the course of the pathological process and the state of the internal organs.

Many women specify whether it is possible to donate blood for hepatitis during menstruation. There is no fundamental difference. The menstruation will not significantly affect the qualitative and quantitative determination of viruses, as well as various biochemical indicators and other necessary studies.

In the event of the initial detection of hepatitis, an extensive examination should be performed on the recommendation of an infectious disease specialist. Including, if necessary, with the determination of the genotype of the virus for the adequate construction of further treatment.

Chronic forms of hepatitis, including viral, require constant monitoring. Basic research that must be taken:

  • general blood analysis,
  • coagulogram (clotting indicators),
  • biochemical blood test with the obligatory determination of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, transaminases),
  • liver ultrasound,
  • qualitative (PCR method) and quantitative determination of viral copies in the blood.

The frequency of delivery is determined by the attending physician or infectious disease specialist based on the clinical situation. Also, if necessary, the list can be expanded.

We recommend reading an article about menstruation for HIV. From it you will learn about the peculiarities of menstruation in the presence of a virus in the body, the effect of the disease on the female reproductive system, as well as the effect of HIV drugs on the menstrual cycle.

The main route of transmission of viral hepatitis is parenteral, as well as sexual. Therefore, you should not contact with the blood of strangers, and it is also better to avoid casual intimate connections or to use condoms without fail.

Basic recommendations for the prevention of infection:

  • Personal hygiene - prevention of hepatitis A and E.
  • If possible, carry out cosmetic manipulations with personal or disposable instruments. In case of repeated manipulations, it is necessary to make sure that the treatment is correct: the hepatitis viruses do not die from the effects of alcohol, only sterilization is effective. It is better to abandon the cut manicure and pedicure, where there is a violation of the integrity of the skin. Important! In frozen blood, the hepatitis C virus is active for another 72 hours and is able to infect another person.
  • Do not use personal care products of strangers (brushes, nippers, nail files, etc.).
  • It is impossible to get infected through the skin and mucous membranes during handshakes, using the same utensils and in other household moments (characteristic of hepatitis A, B).
  • Drug addiction is the way to hepatitis C and HIV.
  • In the risk groups should be vaccinated against the virus B and C.

Hepatitis is a serious liver disease of an inflammatory nature. After all, this body is the “plant” for the disposal and processing of all substances that enter the body. Also, the liver is the main place of metabolism for most hormones, enzymes, etc. Viral hepatitis is the most dangerous in its prediction for human life. Therefore, it is important to avoid possible infection and detect the disease in time.

Message 34229826.
Author: Author Status: anonymous user Time: 16:13 Date: 11 Jan 2008

Message 34230194. Answer to

Post 34229826
Author: Family Status:

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send