Every day a lot of reactions take place in the human body, some of them are not complete without the participation of hormones. The most vivid reaction in the body, which takes place with the participation of hormones - is menstruation. The composition of the menstrual blood varies throughout each of the stages of the cycle, and must show certain values in each stage. Women need to pay special attention to the control of hormonal background during menstruation, how not only the performance of the reproductive system depends on it, but also the general condition of the body. Any changes in the hormonal background can trigger the development of diseases of various organs and body systems.
The physical and psychological state of a woman depends on hormones.
How is the hormonal system of women. Menstrual cycle and hormones. Necessary diagnostics. What causes a hormonal imbalance during menstruation
The endocrine glands, which are located throughout the body provides full access of hormones in the blood. The balance of hormones in the body of each woman is individual and depends on:
- Age of women.
- Day in the menstrual cycle.
- General health.
The rate of hormone levels in adolescence in blood differs sharply from the indications during the onset of premenopause. An important role in the work of the reproductive function of the body of a woman is played by hormones, which are produced in the hypothalamus, pituitary and appendages. The hypothalamus and pituitary are located in special lobes of the brain, and are responsible for the timely production of hormones by the glands.
The hypothalamus is located near the pituitary gland and is responsible for the production of liberins and statins, responsible for the proper functioning of the pituitary gland. Liberins are responsible for catalyzing the development of hormones needed by the body, statins provoke a stop of excessive activity when necessary. These two types of hormones are not produced chaotically in the body, and the hypothalamus receives a signal from all body systems, in the need for their precise production.
The whole system of hormonal background is very difficult to work, and a violation in any of its sections provokes an imbalance of all other systems. Thus, a malfunction of the thyroid gland entails the occurrence of malfunctioning of the organs of the reproductive system.
The hypothalamus is responsible for the correct production of hormones.
Cycle and hormones
Hormonal background is directly related to the menstrual cycle. The main hormones of the reproductive system synthesized by the pituitary gland - FSH and LH, affect the function of the appendages. It is these hormones that make estrogens and progestins produced in the right amount, forcing the uterus to prepare for a possible pregnancy.
The menstrual cycle can be divided into three stages:
- Follicular This period refers to the time before the release of the egg from the appendages.
- Ovulatory. Period associated with the maturation of the egg.
- Luteal. Characterized by the release of the egg after aging into the uterus.
This period is usually counted from the onset of the first days of menstruation. During this period, there is a separation of the epithelium in the uterus and the maturation of the dominant follicle. When this stage occurs, the uterine mucosa is speckled with blood vessels and is filled with nutrients that are intended for the future embryo. The female hormones that are produced during this period affect the growth of the endometrium, its thickening and elimination. Estrogen progesterone during this period reduces its activity in the formulation and show the lowest rates in the blood. It is due to this fall in female hormones, the upper layer of the uterine epithelium is rejected and excreted.
It is during which processes the level of FSH increases. It continues to grow throughout the entire stage of the follicular stage, increasing the uterus in size so that the egg can gain a foothold.
The follicle-stimulating hormone and the dominant follicle acquire their greatest value two weeks after the onset of menstruation. The dominant follicle provokes the growth of estrogen, increasing the growth rate of the endometrium. The stage of follicular development in the cycle is the longest, and its length decreases by the period of the onset of climate change. Despite the fact that the follicle increases in size, it does not leave the ovary, because its output requires luteinizing hormone.
The diagram shows the dominant follicle, fallopian tube, immature follicles and the release of a mature egg
Stage of ovulation
During the period of ovulation, the level of luteinizing hormone, which contributes to the maturation of the egg in the appendages, increases dramatically. Thanks to this hormone, the follicle envelope breaks down and the egg is released. The period of ovulation takes from 16 to 48 hours and is characterized by the end of the release of the egg. After the release of the cell, the level of luteinizing hormone maintains its highest peak for 24 hours. It is the correct level of this indicator in the blood that allows a woman to become pregnant.
Luteinizing period in the cycle
This period lasts about two weeks after ovulation occurs. The final day of this stage is read the day before the menstruation of the next cycle.
At the beginning of a new phase, the follicle formed in the membrane closes, forming a yellow body. It is the corpus luteum that affects the production of progesterone.
Progesterone affects the tissues and causes an increase in the endometrium in the uterus, and the accumulation of nutrients, contributes to the onset of the preparatory period for the embryo to attach.
All these changes cause an increase in basal temperature if conception occurred. It is progesterone and estrogen that contribute to the expansion of the ducts of the mammary glands, preparing the breast for a future period of lactation. What makes the chest painful before the onset of a new cycle.
If conception did not occur, then the corpus luteum dies off 2 weeks after the onset of ovulation. During this period, the level of hormones falls, preparing the body for a new chance of fertilization.
If conception occurs, the chorionic gonadotropin grows in the body, which indicates the onset of pregnancy. The detailed hormone is capable of producing only the membranes.
Fertilized egg begins to produce human chorionic gonadotropin
Why is testing for hormones necessary? Than hormonal failures are dangerous
If a woman has no pathological diseases, and there are no irregularities in the cycle, taking hormone tests is a preventive measure. Thanks to which you can see:
- The presence of deviations from the norm and the effect of hormonal background on the woman's body.
- The growth of pathological tumors in the reproductive system.
- Reproductive organ dysfunction.
For any changes in the cycle and problems associated with the performance of reproductive function, the woman will be shown to pass a series of tests for hormones. According to the data obtained, the doctor may prescribe a treatment that will prevent the development of negative consequences.
Even a slight deviation from the norm in terms of can signal the presence of pathology in the body, which affects the body as a whole. If changes occur in hormones that affect the menstrual cycle, then there is a violation of reproductive function:
- FSH level. The level of follicle-stimulating hormone grows in the body, if there is an oncological dysfunction of the pituitary gland, or a deficiency in the function of the appendages. An increase in the level of follicle-stimulating hormone may be a response of the body to alcoholism or overweight.
- Luteinizing hormone lowers its blood levels if a woman has abnormalities in the pituitary or obesity. And the increase in luteinizing hormone can be found in women, in the structure of the ovaries of which there are changes that are different from the norm or brain tumors are present.
- Prolactin. It is produced in the body, affecting the level of progesterone, is able to suppress the follicle-stimulating hormone during pregnancy. These indicators have an impact on metabolic processes in the body. Prolactin ensures proper milk production during lactation. With a lack or increased secretion of this hormone disrupted follicle synthesis, which can disrupt the process of ovulation. An excess in the production of prolactin is observed in a disease such as hypothyroidism, or a malfunction of the appendages or function of the pituitary gland.
- Estrogen. The hormone estradiol has a great influence on the cycle. The hormone estrogen is produced by the follicle and affects the proper development of the egg and its output .. Elevated levels of estradiol indicates the presence of pathological neoplasms of the adrenal glands or ovaries. High levels of estrogen in the blood are observed in women with a weight deficit, since the body receives an additional amount of estrogen from adipose tissue. Elevated estrogen levels reduce the likelihood of a woman to become pregnant, breaks the cycle and causes infertility.
- Progesterone. A high rate of progesterone in the blood indicates the presence of unwanted tumors in the appendages or adrenal glands. The decrease in blood levels indicates an inflammatory process of the reproductive organs. This hormone also affects the onset of ovulation.
- Testosterone. Despite the fact that, testosterone is a purely male hormone that is responsible for male power, its excess in the body can cause premature termination of pregnancy. Increased testosterone production during the menstrual cycle can affect ovulation, delaying the onset of menstruation for a long time. The increase in testosterone in the blood can indicate the presence of adrenal glands and ovarian failure.
- Androgens. This type of male hormones can cause a malfunction of the reproductive system in the female body, an increase in the level of hair growth, or provoke infertility. And an increased level of androgens decreases libido.