The menstrual cycle is a repetitive process during which various changes in the endometrium, hormonal levels, vaginal secretions, the vagina itself, and other internal structures occur in the body.
Each woman endures her period in her own way: some feel strong pain and discomfort, while others do not notice any discomfort. Different tolerance of menstruation is associated with the fact that each organism is individual.
In addition, the appearance of weakness, chills, severe pains, a surge of emotions and nausea during menstruation can be explained by the production of hormones during this period, the state of the nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems, the presence of pathologies in the body, as well as any congenital anomalies.
Menstruation is cyclical bleeding that leaves the genital tract during reproductive age. The appearance of bleeding is associated with changes in the production of sex hormones, which provokes the rejection of the endometrium of the uterus. The menstrual cycle begins on the first day of menstruation. Its duration can vary: from 21 to 35 days.
During menstruation, the uterus is subject to release from the endometrium, since fertilization has not occurred. During this period, there is a strong contraction of the uterus, which causes severe pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen, in the lumbar region and malaise throughout the body.
During the period of menstruation, a small opening of the cervix occurs, which forms a convenient environment for the development of various pathogenic bacteria. In addition, this process makes the uterus very vulnerable. During menstruation, an infection can penetrate into the genital organs, so you should strongly follow the rules of intimate hygiene, as well as forget about sexual relations for a few days.
Discomfort in the vagina, which was observed during menstruation, gradually passes. After the level of blood discharge goes down, a number of changes begin to occur in the body.
After the end of menstruation, the uterine cervix closes and the endometrium grows inside the uterus, which is being prepared for implantation of a fertilized egg. At this time, there is a prolapse of the cervical part of the uterus, as well as severe vaginal dryness.
In addition, a dense stopper of secretions closes the cervix. When the time comes for the arrival of ovulation, the cork of mucus, which covered the neck, gradually acquires a more slippery and wet texture, which allows sperm to get inside faster.
During ovulation, a small amount of bleeding is possible. After the period of ovulation, the cervical part of the uterus is again closed by a mucus plug, causing a slight dryness in the vagina, which often brings strong discomfort during sexual intercourse. This feature of the body due to the low production of estradiol.
During menstruation, burning and itching in the region of the external genital organs can be observed. These symptoms are the cause of the development of various pathological processes: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, sexually transmitted infections.
If a woman notices the presence of such unpleasant feelings, an urgent need to register with a gynecologist, who will conduct a proper diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment. Otherwise, these pathologies can cause the development of complications.
Preparing the body for menstruation
During desquamation, the functional layer of the endometrium is rejected. The process takes place on the 28-29th day of the cycle. It lasts 5-6 days. The functional layer has the appearance of areas of necrotic tissue, and with the advent of menstruation, the endometrium for 1-2 days is completely rejected.
At the very beginning of menstruation, the uterus in its normal state has a smooth and tactilely dense neck.
The normal size of her at the same time in non-giving birth girls: length - 45mm, width - 46 mm, thickness - 34 mm, and for giving birth: length - 53 mm, width - 50 mm, thickness - 37 mm.
During ovulation, the neck opens a little, becomes loose. After a failed conception, the process of menstruation begins. The neck begins to straighten and fall into the vagina.
It is the process of rejection of the endometrium and its exit from the uterus is called monthly. The phases of the menstrual cycle are regulated by follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones of the pituitary gland, due to which the active substances are released: progesterone, estrogen. These hormones prepare the body for conception and regulate the menstrual cycle.
The period of menstruation usually lasts 2-7 days, and the duration of the menstrual cycle is about a month. However, some deviations in its duration are permissible, but the cycle must be regular.
On the pain and duration, different features of menstruation, as well as the menstrual cycle is mainly influenced by heredity.
What happens during menstruation
Before menstruation, the egg matures under the influence of hormones in the follicle. It is her exit from the follicle that is ovulation. So begins the ovulatory phase.
Further, follicle rupture occurs, its place is replaced by the corpus luteum, affecting the state of the endometrium. He is preparing to receive the embryo, its surface becomes loose and slimy. This is the luteinizing phase.
If conception did not take place, then after 14 days the corpus luteum is waiting for destruction, the amount of hormones, respectively, decreases, which triggers menstruation. The process of rejection of the endometrium occurs on the background of a decrease in the concentration of the main female hormones: progesterone and estrogen. The uterus during menstruation should increase, contracting, it gets rid of the old layer of mucous membrane. Zev begins to expand to release blood clots.
With an increase in the content of prostaglandins, pain is felt, a heaviness is felt in the lower abdomen. Pain can relieve antispasmodics: No-shpa, Belastezin, Papaverin, Buscopan. It is undesirable to take aspirin - it can increase bleeding.
The cervix is open during menstruation, so infection should not be allowed to enter it. It is imperative at this time to observe personal hygiene, as a rule, more often than usual. Never use a syringe.
Doctors do not recommend bathing in rivers, lakes, swimming pools at critical days, having sex and introducing objects into the vagina: fingers, gynecological mirrors is not advisable.
In the first days of bleeding, it is not necessary to go in for sports, to make repairs and, in general, to overload the body, as this can cause large blood losses. In the normal course of menstruation, a woman can lose a maximum of 100 ml of blood, therefore, the body should be replenished with iron. The diet should be diversified buckwheat, apples, seafood.
Severe blood loss warns of pathology in the body, can also be a symptom of dysmenorrhea, indicate fibroids in the uterus, endometriosis. In this regard, with the appearance of alarming and prolonged symptoms, it is better to immediately go to the gynecologist.
Condition after menstruation
After the end of the menstrual period, the cervix is closed, the endometrium exit ends, the bleeding stops. The preparation of the organism for the next conception begins. The uterus, contracting, rises and starts building up the decidual layer again for future possible implantation of the embryo.
The neck becomes the same as before menstruation: dry, dense. With ovulation, it loosens, forms mucous discharge. The normal position of the uterus in this period is high, the organ is reduced. When it does not increase in time, there is every reason to suspect pregnancy or illness (tumors, infections). When menstruation occurs, the possibility of getting pregnant is reduced, but it is not excluded at all.
In the case of uterine non-contraction after menstruation, it is advisable to take an analysis for hCG, sometimes ultrasound is necessary.
If no fetus is found, and there are neoplasms on the neck, the probable causes of this are polyps, erosion or fibroids.
Exactly determine the condition and position of the uterus can only specialist. Independently it is extremely difficult to accurately detect any abnormalities. However, there is a diagnostic method that can be used at home. This is an independent palpation of the cervix. However, such a process should be carried out very carefully, and only if there are no gynecological pathologies.
The uterus is the most important organ for childbearing and any changes in it can mean puberty, pregnancy, the onset of ovulation, as well as various pathologies. Usually, the uterus is enlarged during menstruation, at this time its cervix dilates. The state of the reproductive system must be closely monitored, regular medical examinations are carried out, and in case of any alarming symptoms, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
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Definition and clinical picture of menstruation
Menstruation (menstruation) is a cyclical bleeding repeated throughout the entire reproductive age of a woman. Discharges result from changes in the balance of hormones (estradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating, luteinizing, releasing factors) that cause functional rejection of the surface epithelial cells of the uterus (endometrium) and the vulva. Allocate such cycle phases:
The cycle begins with the follicular phase on the first day of menstruation. Normally, it is two to three weeks and ends with ovulation (rupture of the follicle in the ovary and the release of the egg). The discharge during this period may be about 50 ml in volume, they are bloody, do not have a strong odor. Immediately after the discharge, a feeling of dryness in the vagina is possible, which is often noticeable during intercourse. This is due to low estradiol at the beginning of the period. By the end of the follicular phase, its concentration increases, the mucus that is in the cervix becomes less thick, its quantity increases and the discomfort disappears.
During the period of ovulation, women can pay attention to the increase in the amount and stretchability of mucus.
After ovulation, the level of estradiol begins to fall and by the end of the cycle the mucus thickens again, its quantity decreases, dry vagina appears before menstruation. Most women have some signs of premenstrual syndrome. It appears on average a week before menstruation, is manifested by lability of mood, weakness, headache, pain in the lower abdomen and in the vagina and other symptoms. If after ovulation fertilization of the egg does not occur, the cycle begins anew with the next menstruation.
It is important to understand that vaginal discharge, besides the hormonal background, depends on the microflora, the constitution of the woman, the mode of her physical activity. Thin girls have a lot of mucus, especially during sexual intercourse. Any imbalance of the microflora of the vulva can cause discomfort, burning, change the nature of discharge.
It is worth noting that, in addition to menstruation, up to 5 ml of white is given out daily for the whole cycle in women — this is a variant of the norm. Such secretions do not have an unpleasant smell, they are whitish in color, viscous consistency. Their number may slightly decrease in the vagina before menstruation.
Burning in the vagina is not typical for the physiological course of the menstrual cycle, it is often caused by violations of hygiene of the genital organs and diseases of the sexual sphere.
Diseases of the vulva
The most common cause of diseases of the female external genital organs during menstruation is inadequate personal hygiene. Menstrual discharge - a fertile environment for the development of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. Poor hygiene in the crotch area will certainly lead to the ingress of intestinal microflora, which will also cause an inflammatory reaction. Do not forget that the internal genital organs of a woman communicate with the external environment, therefore, sometimes the inflammatory process extends to the uterus and appendages.
Candidiasis (thrush) is a common cause of burning, itching, discomfort during sexual intercourse and at rest. Occurs with hypothermia, an imbalance of microflora, after treatment of any diseases with antibacterial drugs, may be due to contact with the external genitalia of the shampoo (shower gel). Candidiasis is accompanied by the appearance of a specific “curd” discharge.
Bacterial vaginosis develops as a result of non-specific bacterial microflora entering the vagina. It is characterized by "fishy" smell from the vagina after menstruation (often does not depend on the cycle), the presence of abundant purulent discharge, pain in the lower abdomen, the appearance of intoxication syndrome is possible: fever, headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, chills and others. The disease can be the result of infection due to personal hygiene failure, the transfer of inflammation from the uterus when using the uterine helix or from other organs, the presence of a foreign body in the vulva, trauma.
Sexually transmitted diseases are a common cause of burning, an unpleasant smell, abnormal discharge, painful sensations in the vagina and lower abdomen in people who actively live sexually without the means of barrier protection.
These include such infections:
- genital herpes,
- some others.
Each of these pathologies is specific and has its own clinical picture. In addition to the above symptoms, there may be painful sensations during urination, defects in the mucous membrane, rashes on the external genital organs (syphilis, genital herpes, tuberculosis), symptoms of intoxication. In the vagina, before the onset of menstruation and after them, an inflammatory reaction develops, which can go to the uterus and appendages, causing disturbances in the physiological menstrual cycle, up to infertility.
The state of the vagina and cervix is a kind of marker of the processes occurring in the internal genital organs. According to them you can judge the balance of hormonal levels, the stage of the menstrual cycle and so on.
The slightest violations of the cycle and inflammatory diseases of the vagina can lead to the spread of infection to other organs, which is likely to end with infertility. Therefore, at the first sign of these disorders, you should consult a doctor.
What changes occur with the uterus during menstruation. Changes before, after and during menstruation. Home Diagnostics
Before the onset of menstruation, this main female organ undergoes certain changes under the influence of hormonal levels. It is normal if the body is firm to the touch and dry before the onset of menstruation. The time when ovulation occurs is important: the opening of the pharynx, friability and its structure, readiness for fertilization. If the pregnancy does not come, then the critical days go and the cycle continues.
Before the onset of menstruation, the uterus descends to its lowest position. And during ovulation for conception: the body relaxes, moisturizing appears, and the pharynx of the cervical canal opens slightly. This organ before menstruation and if pregnancy is present, has two different types.
It is by the presence of these symptoms that the doctor can determine the time of pregnancy. In addition to the presence of friability and ajar pharynx, the fertilized organ acquires a blue tint, since it is at this time that all the muscle tissue is covered with additional vessels to ensure better blood circulation of the embryo. Most women who monitor their health and control the menstrual cycle are interested in how the main reproductive organ should look and palpate. It is not possible to conduct an examination at home on your own, but palpation allows you to independently find out what the uterus is in the period before menstruation to the touch and when the menstrual cycle is broken.
Only the doctor can examine the uterus, cervix from the inside and the vagina completely.
After passing menstruation
If a woman does not have any pathological processes of the reproductive organs, then during this period the uterus conducts a cycle of changes to the onset of conception. Immediately after the end of menstruation, the pharynx of the uterus narrows. Together with this narrowing of the throat, the processes of enlargement and thickening of the endometrium begin in the uterine cavity, which later will help the future embryo to get all the necessary nutritional elements and firmly consolidate on the wall of the uterus.
In this cycle of change, the uterus is pulled up and placed high. Этот период напоминает время до менструации, так как шейка матки твердеет и наблюдается сухость поверхности.
Но после прохождения этого, наступает цикл овуляции, что способствует увлажнению шейки матки и её разрыхлению. В это время характерно сокращение матки. But if the body continues to be in its former form, it may indicate the presence of pregnancy or the presence of pathological tumors. To determine such violations or the presence of pregnancy can only a specialist, after a thorough examination. Independently, to observe the symptoms, the woman will not be able to make a diagnosis. But on palpation of the cervix, you can get an approximate picture of the state of the organ.
If a woman has any concerns about the condition of the uterus, then before going to the gynecologist you can make an independent examination. But before such a session of palpation should be carefully prepared: cut the nails, which will produce palpation and prepare rubber gloves in sterile packaging.
The procedure itself is performed squatting, or in the position of one leg on the couch.
For a non-professional, it is difficult to determine the qualitative state of the cervical canal and the opening of the throat, so you can diagnose it only by omitting or raising it. If the uterus is at the bottom, and you reach it with your middle finger, this indicates early onset of menstruation, if you barely reach the cervix, then this provision indicates pregnancy or the onset of ovulation. Palpation during menstruation is not recommended.