Planning a child involves the definition of favorable days for conception, the likelihood of fertilization in which increases significantly. The best for conception is the day on which ovulation occurs. However, in some cycles, ovulation is absent. Frequent failures indicate hormonal disorders and can be a serious obstacle to conceiving a child. Let's try to figure out how the female body works and what hormone is responsible for ovulation.
Fertilization is impossible without an egg. The release of a mature egg into the fallopian tube is called ovulation. If at this moment the cell is met by a sperm cell, then fertilization takes place. However, the egg is not formed every time. Some cycles go idle. And it does not always indicate pathologies. At each stage of the cycle, the hormonal background changes; a particular hormone responsible for a specific function may decrease or increase, depending on the phase of the cycle.
The process of maturation of the egg depends entirely on the activity of the brain, but rather on the hypothalamus. It is he who controls the work of the hormonal system, giving a signal to increase the production of one hormone and reduce the level of another. Hormones that regulate the functioning of the female reproductive system, quite a lot. In order for ovulation to occur, at least five of them will need to be involved:
- FSH - otherwise follicle-stimulating hormone. It is necessary for the production of another steroid compound - estrogen. The follicle-stimulating hormone is responsible for the formation of the egg cell,
- LH - aka luteinizing hormone. Necessary at the final stage of maturation of the egg, forcing the onset of ovulation,
- Prolactin - he is responsible for the fact that some cycles pass without ovulation. At a low level of prolactin, the maturation of the egg does not occur, and at a high level of prolactin, the growth of FSH is inhibited, which also prevents the formation of the egg and its exit to the outside,
- Estradiol - is a type of estrogen. The highest concentration of estradiol is observed immediately before ovulation. Estradiol prepares the female body for the intended conception. Thanks to him, the uterus is loosened, which allows the fertilized egg to gain a foothold,
- progesterone - it is by its level that one can determine whether ovulation has occurred or not. Responsible for the maturation of the corpus luteum, necessary for conception and subsequent gestation of pregnancy.
Estriol, which is one of the steroid hormones in the estrogen group, is also required for conception. However, this steroid compound is not directly related to ovulation. His task is to help the uterus during pregnancy.
Hormones such as testosterone and dehydroepianrosterone can affect ovulation, more precisely, its absence. These are substances that are produced in large quantities by the male body. Excessive levels of these hormones in a woman can lead to a lack of ovulation or miscarriage in the event of its occurrence.
How hormones work
In one of the follicles produced by the ovaries, egg maturation occurs. FSH is responsible for this process. Its level rises in the initial phase. With the simultaneous growth of the follicle, the level of estrogen begins to rise. Estrogens, in turn, stimulate the production of LH. It is the growth of this hormone that allows women to track the maturation of the egg. Those women who regularly measure basal temperature, know that a rise by a few tenths speaks of impending ovulation. It is the luteinizing hormone that leads to a slight temperature jump. As a rule, the level of LH rises 48 hours before the expected ovulation. This period is considered the most successful for conception.
After the rupture of the follicle, which occurs at the highest possible level of LH, the egg begins to move along the fallopian tube, slowly moving directly to the uterus. If fertilization did not occur within 24 hours after the follicle rupture, then cell death occurs and it is rejected.
Failure of the hypothalamus can lead to early or late ovulation, and sometimes to its absence. Delay or early maturation of the egg can have serious time deviations from the norm. For example, with a 28-day cycle, an egg can mature not on day 14, but on days 8 or 17. Those women who use the calendar method of calculating ovulation may make mistakes when planning conception. But those women who constantly keep a schedule of basal temperature, will be able to track changes in the period of formation of the egg.
How to affect hormone levels
Women can control their hormone levels through testing. In the normal functioning of the ovaries in the first phase of the cycle there will be an increase in the level of estradiol, in the second phase - progesterone. Violations in the hormonal sphere can cause a lack of pregnancy due to the impossibility of natural maturation of the egg.
Medicine offers its own methods of solving problems, as a rule, we are talking about hormonal drugs that regulate the activity of the ovaries. In particular, at low levels of progesterone, Duphaston or Utrogestan is prescribed, which help normalize hormonal levels and increase the chances of conception. With a high level of estrogen, women are advised to take a broth of the uterine colonic, which acts gently and has no side effects. Increase progesterone and reduce estradiol will help the decoction of sage. However, this tool should not be used when pregnancy occurs, because it can cause a miscarriage.
Self-treatment in the absence of pregnancy is strictly prohibited. Even if you probably know that the problem is caused by hormonal disorders, you cannot say with certainty which hormone is working incorrectly.
Before starting treatment, it is recommended to review the level of hormones in dynamics. To do this, you need to be tested for hormones for 2-3 cycles. Only by determining the exact reason for the lack of ovulation, you can carry out hormone therapy, otherwise the harm from treatment may be higher than the intended therapeutic effect.
Since hormone production is regulated by the hypothalamus, hormonal imbalances may indicate a dysfunction of the brain. Often, problems with ovulation occur on the background of stress, strong emotions and mental exertion. If the reason lies in the nervous strain, you should pay attention to your psycho-emotional state, start taking sedatives, if necessary. One of the reasons for the lack of ovulation is the fear of pregnancy and childbirth, or a strong desire to become pregnant, which is accompanied by a fear of infertility. Such conditions can adversely affect the work of the hypothalamus, which leads to a failure in the production of hormones. The hypothalamus sends the wrong signals to the body, forcing it to prematurely produce a particular hormone or to suppress the production of the hormone necessary for the formation of an egg on a particular phase of the cycle.
Each girl's cycle is conditionally divided into two phases: follicular and luteal. The first begins with the onset of menstruation and continues until ovulation, and the second acts after the release of the egg.
At the initial stage of the menstrual cycle, the follicles begin to grow. A couple of days after the end of the month, the dominant follicle is determined. It increases on average by 1–2 mm and by the time of ovulation its size is about 2 cm. And also the thickness of the endometrium increases during this phase. It is necessary to secure the embryo in the case of conception.
The next step is follicle rupture. As a result, the egg leaves the ovary and rushes to meet with the sperm. This process is called ovulation. With an average cycle (28 days) ovule production takes place on day 14 +/- 2 days, but significant deviations from the norm are possible, which occur under the influence of various factors.
In gynecology, there are terms such as late and early ovulation. Late release of the egg with this cycle is considered the period after 17 days. And early ovulation in the event that the follicle rupture occurred before 11 days.
After ovulation, the luteal phase begins. At the site of the rupture of the follicle an object with an uneven contour is formed. He is called yellow body.
The main objective of this education is the production of progesterone, which will support the pregnancy if it takes place. And also in this phase, the grown endometrium changes its structure, preparing for taking an ovum.
In the absence of conception, the corpus luteum disappears by the end of the second phase and progesterone begins to decline. This causes the onset of menstruation. Endometrial layers rejected and go along with bleeding. That is why women often notice the appearance of clots during menstruation.
Ovulation during menstruation
Each cycle the body prepares for a possible pregnancy. Menstruation is a process of rejection. endometrial tissueformed in the previous cycle. A distinctive feature of the monthly is regularity.
Ovulation during menstruation is not a typical occurrence for a healthy woman. In the presence of various pathologies, this is quite possible. Much depends on the duration of menstruation. Some women bloody issues may attend week. The release of the egg on the last day of menstruation in this case is a characteristic sign of early ovulation.
Early maturation of the egg
Early maturation of the eggtoday attributed to pathological processes. Not always this event can lead to a normal course of pregnancy.
The egg cell is mature, but the endometrium in such a short period may not reach the required parameters. It is fraught with complications at the most early pregnancy. In most cases, the embryo cannot attach to the surface of the uterus. Therefore, it is rejected by the body.
Miscarriage occurs before a woman begins to suspect a possible pregnancy. In the absence of delay menstruation does not make sense to look for symptoms of an accomplished conception This phenomenon in medicine is called biochemical pregnancy. It happens more often than you can imagine.
Ovulation during menstruation is called spontaneous. It occurs due to the following reasons:
- The strongest stress.
Often, ovulation during menstruation is confused with a situation in which there is a long-term vital activity of sperm. sexual partner. For example, sexual intercourse occurred on the 4-5 day of the menstrual cycle during menstruation. And ovulation took place only on the 11–12 day of the cycle. Theoretically, sperm could maintain their vitality, which affected success of conception.
How to determine?
Identify the presence of ovulation during menstruation is quite problematic. Symptoms when follicle rupture similar to the sensations that arise during the rejection of the endometrium. But besides the usual bleeding, women notice the appearance of a large amounts of mucus.
The main methods for determining ovulation include:
Doing an ultrasound during menstruation is not recommended. There is a risk of infection in the genitals. The best option is to use tests for ovulation. They will respond to the release of LH with two bright stripes. And you can also pass blood for hormone levels.
The release of an egg from the ovary during menstruation is not the norm. If you suspect, you must contact in female consultation for the help of a specialist. In this case, a comprehensive examination of the pelvic organs and the endocrine system is shown.
Hormones affecting the onset of ovulation
Conception and childbearing occurs due to the interrelated work of the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries. One of their functions is to coordinate the production of hormones - biologically active organic substances. They regulate metabolic processes and affect the work of the organs.
The algorithm for starting the ovulatory process in a woman:
- increase in follicles under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). At the same time, there is an increase in one or several dominant follicles,
- increase in luteinizing hormone in the blood, its stimulating effect on the synthesis of estrogen and suppression of FSH secretion. As a consequence - the extinction of the growth of follicles that are not dominant,
- estrogen accumulation, increased secretion of FSH, LH,
- a sharp increase in progesterone, LH, the onset of ovulation,
- yellow body formation, progesterone production,
- in the absence of pregnancy, suppression of gonadotropins secretion by steroids.
A necessary condition for the onset of ovulation is the growth of follicles. Hormones are responsible for this process in a woman’s body.
FSH is produced by the anterior pituitary, where it then accumulates. Its release into the blood is observed every 1-4 hours. At low levels of sex hormones, FSH increases, and at high levels, it is inhibited.
FSH affects the maturation of follicles in the ovaries, prepares them for the effects of LH, and increases estrogen concentration.
Due to the effects of FSH, the follicular phase occurs, which is necessary for the maturation of the egg. Under its influence, the level of estradiol increases, and before the onset of ovulation, a sharp increase in LH with FSH provokes the release of an egg.
If the follicles do not grow to the required size - 18-24 mm, ovulation does not occur.
To determine the time of release of the egg can be using the method of folliculometry. This is an observation of follicle growth from 8–10 days after the start of the menstrual cycle using ultrasound (interval - 2 days).
The dominant is visualized on day 10, and its size reaches 12–15 mm. Under the influence of FSH, dominate grows at a rate of 3 mm per day, while the remaining follicles regress. At normal levels of FSH, LH and estradiol, ovulation occurs on day 12–14 after the onset of menstruation, the average duration of which is 1.5 days.
In her absence, a woman takes tests for FSH. Results are evaluated according to the norms:
The best analysis deadlines for determining follicle maturation are 5–8 days of the menstrual cycle.
The pituitary gland is responsible for the production of gonadotropic luteinizing hormone ovulation (LH). Its main task is to stimulate the production of estrogen by the ovaries.
LH is a complex glycoprotein protein. Its alpha-subunit component repeats the components of FSH and chorionic hormones. The beta subunit determines the action of LH. It consists of 121 amino acids, the sequence of which is the same as in hCG. Its activity depends on the amount of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, for which the hypothalamus is responsible.
Ripening, follicles stimulate the production of estrogen. Estradiol produced by follicular granulosa cells has the strongest effect on the process of maturation and release of the egg cell. Its increase activates the hypothalamus, stimulates the pituitary gland to release LH and FSH.
The concentration of LH increases to such an extent that it triggers the process of the release of the egg. Due to this process, the egg cell is released, and the residual follicle becomes the corpus luteum.
The sharp increase in LH in the urine allows you to determine the period of ovulation using the test. A positive result on the strip indicates the likelihood of ovulation. The period of appearance for 24–48 hours.
The temporary endocrine gland (yellow body) formed after the release of the egg is maintained by the luteinizing hormone for another 2 weeks. When pregnancy occurs, the luteal phase will be supported by the hormone hCG.
In determining the causes of difficulties with conception, analyze the ratio of LH and FSH.
There are regulatory indicators:
After puberty, the level of LH - a hormone responsible for ovulation, should be 1.5–2 times higher than FSH. The ratio of hormones 1: 1 is permissible for girls at the puberty stage.
When exceeding LH relative to FSH by more than 2.5 times means a possible development of the pathology:
- polycystic ovary syndrome,
- ovarian exhaustion,
- the occurrence of a pituitary tumor,
- ovarian hyperstimulation.
These conditions significantly reduce the likelihood of follicle maturation, the release of the egg and the onset of conception.
From the group of estrogenic steroid hormones, estradiol has a greater influence on the functioning of the reproductive system in women. Its production occurs mainly by the ovaries, a certain amount is produced by the adrenal cortex, another small fraction is obtained as a result of the conversion of androgens, adipose tissue.
Estradiol does not have a direct effect on ovulation, however, it regulates the menstrual cycle, prepares the uterine mucosa for the introduction of a fertilized egg.
Уровень эстрадиола в крови зависит от времени суток, фазы менструального цикла женщины. Пик роста эстрадиола взаимосвязан с секрецией ЛГ. Он припадает на 15–18 часов, 24–2 часа. The estradiol level is minimal in women of childbearing age at the beginning of the menstrual cycle, and its maximum concentration is 24–36 hours before ovulation.
Small amounts of estrogen stimulate the growth of FSH, which is necessary for the growth of follicles, without which the release of the egg will not be possible. A large amount of estrogen blocks the growth of FSH, but stimulates the growth of LH for the onset of ovulation.
In a woman's body, prolactin is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and is responsible for the lactation process, its target organ is the mammary glands. However, a deviation from the norm of the level of prolactin in the planning period of the child leads to infertility.
Prolactin inhibits the maturation and release of the egg by suppressing the secretion of FSH and gonadotropic releasing factor (GnRF), reducing the production of estradiol and progesterone. Under such conditions, the processes of maturation of the eggs, the onset of ovulation become impossible.
To normalize the ovulatory cycle, drugs are used to reduce the level of prolactin. As a result, gonadotropins secretion is restored, FSH and LH hormones return to normal, follicle growth and egg production become possible.
Most progesterone is produced by the ovaries, a small amount by the adrenal glands. After conception, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, the placenta. Its main purpose is to prepare the body for pregnancy, but the level of progesterone in the blood also affects the onset or absence of ovulation.
In the first phase of the menstrual cycle, progesterone is able to suppress and stimulate ovulation. Its rate in 1–14 days of the cycle is 0.31–2.23 nmol / l. If progesterone levels are lower or higher than reference values, ovulation is suppressed.
When the egg is released, the amount of the hormone increases 10 times.
An analysis to determine the level of progesterone is recommended to take on the 22nd day of the menstrual cycle.
Androgens: testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone
With an increase in the level of androgens in a woman, ovulation is blocked. The condition caused by an increase in the hormone adrenal DHEA-C and testosterone produced by the ovaries is called hyperandrogenism.
The disease is hereditary, but it does not manifest itself in every generation. The probability of hereditary transmission of the disease is 20–25%.
The most common cause of excess androgens in women is a violation of insulin resistance and the balance of LH, FSH. LH levels can exceed FSH by a factor of 5 (at a rate of 1.5 times the excess), causing a decrease in estrogen levels, blocking ovulation.
Anovulatory cycles of hyperandrogenism are the cause of infertility and require a comprehensive examination for the appointment of drug therapy.
Elimination of anovulatory cycles
If a woman under the age of 35 fails to conceive a child throughout the year, the doctor makes a diagnosis of "infertility". After 35 years, this period is reduced to 6 months.
Before eliminating anovulation, it is necessary to make sure that there are no other disorders in the female body, such as tube obstruction, endometriosis. When planning a pregnancy, an important condition for initiating therapy is completing a complete sexual partner examination.
To identify the causes of follicle growth retardation and the absence of an egg's release, tests are scheduled. The level of hormones depends on the day of the menstrual cycle, therefore, laboratory examination of blood should be carried out in the period indicated by the attending physician.
Terms of testing
Before passing the tests it is necessary:
- refuse to eat for 2-3 hours before the procedure. The use of pure non-carbonated water is allowed.
- stop taking hormonal drugs 2 days before the study. If this is not possible, consult a doctor, warn the laboratory employee about the fact of taking the medication,
- one day before the examination exclude physical, emotional stress,
- Stop smoking at least 3 hours before the study.
The choice of a protocol for stimulating ovulation with hormonal preparations depends on the results of the tests.
Treatment of anovulation
When hyperinsulinemia is recommended to control weight. Body mass index should not exceed 30. Normalization of insulin resistance in the absence of ovulation help drugs - Metformin, Siofor.
With an increased level of androgens in the blood, it is recommended to take drugs: Dexamethasone, Diane-35, Tsiproteron.
In order to increase the production of LH and FSH, clomiphene citrate is administered (Klostilbegit, Clomid, Serofen). Normalization of ovulation when taking the drug was observed in 60–85% of cases, and pregnancy occurred in 30–40% of patients. The course of treatment with Klostilbegit is held from the 5th to the 9th day of the cycle. In total, no more than 5 courses of therapy can be performed.
To stimulate the production of FSH, Puregon, Gonal-F is prescribed. At the same time, it is necessary to monitor the growth of follicles to prevent ovarian hyperstimulation. The dose of the drug is prescribed only by a doctor.
The drug Menogon contains hormones LH and FSH. Their ratio is 1: 1. Affects the increase in the level of estrogen in the blood, stimulates the growth of follicles.
Triggers (triggers) for the release of an egg from the follicle are drugs using human chorionic gonadotropin (Pregnil, Ovitrel). A single injection of drugs prevents the regression of follicles after they are enlarged to the required size.
During medical treatment, auxiliary methods of combating hormone imbalance and imbalance are: vitamin therapy, moderate exercise, stopping smoking, healthy diet.
Lack of ovulation requires an integrated approach to treatment. Answering the question which hormones are best to take in the absence of ovulation can only specialists in the field of gynecology and endocrinology based on analyzes, because the uncontrolled use of hormone-containing drugs can lead to ovarian exhaustion or rupture.
What is the menstrual cycle?
If you speak a strict scientific languagethen these are periodic changes in the female body that determine the chance of conception.
In adolescents and ladies "balzakovskogo age" cycle is unstable, its duration may vary from month to month. It depends on the age characteristics of the hormonal background.
For most of the cycle, the surface of the uterus is mucous. By the time of maturation of the egg acquires loose character. This is necessary for successful consolidation of the fetus in the case of conception.
About a month is spent on aging, but, as mentioned above, all women have different ways. Usually the cycle takes from 28 to 30 days.
The cycle ends monthly - bloody secretions, along with which the mature, but not fertilized egg is derived. After that, it all starts over.
What is ovulation?
Ovulation is concluded in the output ripe ovum in fallopian tubes. It is prepared for fertilization, with the change in hormones. It is customary to say that ovulation occurs once a month, but in reality the scope is somewhat wider.
Women of childbearing age pass through it on average every 21-35 days. If the egg has not met with the sperm, and fertilization has not occurred, then there is a rejection, and it comes out with the first monthly.
Based on the frequency of ovulation and the onset of menstruation, some women make up the calendar, which is taken as a basis when planning a pregnancy. As such, the standard does not exist here, every woman should focus only on individual physiology and "graphics".
Does ovulation happen during menstruation?
Let's say right away that in a normal cycle this does not happen. But if the menstruation is irregular, the formation and maturation of the egg can occur in parallel with the monthly.
For example, this may occur. with frequent changes in climate and time zones. Also, a similar situation is possible after severe stress or early onset of sexual activity.
All these events provoke a strong hormonal surgeAs a result, the reproductive function is somewhat lost.
In addition, atypical ovulation is provoked by factors associated with certain pathologies.
- Inflammatory processes. Often they are caused by hypothermia, but in some cases they speak of progressive dysfunction of the reproductive system.
- Infectious diseases of the genitourinary system. In most cases, these are venereal diseases. Particularly common is chlamydia, mycoplasma and human papillomavirus.
- Tumors of the ovaries or cervix. It is not always a cancer, most often a benign tumor, and it is associated with the transition of HPV to the acute form.
But like rarely happensmuch more often the reasons are quite harmless, they have already been mentioned above.
Even with normal ovulations. recognize the maturation of the egg is quite difficult. In the case of the development process during menstruation, to identify it and it is not at all possible.
- Possible unpleasant feeling hidden discomfort from menstruation. Among them stand out pain in the abdomen, heaviness and itching (very rarely).
- Characteristic mucus is mixed with blood secretions. However, if there is little blood, then a transparent secret can be found.
- Basal temperature is incorrect. During menstruation, measuring it vaginally is difficult, so you have to do rectal measurements. The performance of these two sources is very different.
It turns out that make ovulation calendar for symptoms during menstruation is almost impossible. This causes difficulties for women planning a pregnancy. In addition, the diagnosis is complicated when it comes to pathology.
Is it possible to get pregnant?
Overwhelming most women refuse to have sex during menstruation not at all because of the danger of unwanted pregnancy, but because of discomfort.
But if desire overpowers common sensethen you can and have intercourse, there is no danger! This is the very thing big mistake.
If everything is in order with the cycle, then the probability of conception is nearing zero, but in the case of constant atypical ovulations chances of becoming a mother are great.
However, there is another scenario. After intercourse during menstruation, a few particularly nimble sperm can survive until normal ovulation occurs.
The probability of this is smallit may be said that it is nearing zero, but it exists. Most often this occurs due to the neglect of condoms during menstruation. There is a conviction that “these” days are the safest in terms of unwanted conception.
On which days is the highest probability?
If we discard possible pathologiesHaving left only a natural short cycle, then the greatest probability to conceive a child falls on the period of 5-7 days.
In case of pathological ovulation the situation changes somewhat. In the middle of the monthly environment in the vagina is quite aggressive, but near the end of menstruation, the risk of conception increases significantly.
Allocation is not very abundant, the environment loses chemical aggressiveness. Accordingly, most of the sperm will survive, and having sex at this time is not uncommon.
If by this moment in the female body will mature egg, that is, an atypical ovulation occurs, then pregnancy becomes a matter of time and “luck”.
What if conception happened?
Yes nothing special needs to be done. In fact, this is a great happiness - not every woman has the opportunity to know the joy of motherhood, and then everything turned out with such a small probability, bravo! However, remember that ovulation during menstruation is not always caused by natural causes, so the risk of pathology that can affect the course of pregnancy and affect the health of the future baby is quite high.
To avoid risks, you should perform a number of medical procedures, as well as take care of the prevention of various diseases and strengthening the immune system.
- Consultation with a gynecologist. He conducts a primary examination, and makes a preliminary opinion on the general condition of the genitourinary system. He also makes a forecast for pregnancy.
- Trip to the therapist. This event is more aimed at obtaining referrals for analyzes, but a general inspection will also not hurt.
- Tests for some sexually transmitted diseases. Most often, doctors are trying to find chlamydia, syphilis, mycoplasma HPV.
- Constant control for health. To do this, you should regularly undergo preventive examinations, as well as monitor your own feelings.
- Reception of vitamin complexesprescribed by a doctor. Physical activity, although beneficial to immunity, is best avoided when pregnant.
Sometimes consultation with an oncologist is required.. As mentioned above, one of the causes of atypical ovulation is a tumor. Fortunately, a terrible diagnosis is confirmed very rarely.
The safest days - immediately after the start of menstruation. Vaginal discharge is very abundant, not every couple will have sex in such discomfort. In addition, the vagina is formed quite aggressive environment - sperm cells in it quickly die. And this despite the fact that in normal times they are able to live up to a week after intercourse! In this way, these are the safest days during menstruation, even with ovulation. Another thing is that not all people will actively engage in sexual acts during this period.
So, menstruation is not a guarantee of ovulation. Sometimes it can occur during menstruation. Unfortunately, most often this is caused by pathological abnormalities in the reproductive system.
On the other hand, the reason for this often serve stressful situations, abrupt climate changes and time zones. If pregnancy occurs during menstruation, then you should not panic, but you need to get tested - the risk of the disease is quite high. If everything is done correctly, then you will find a wonderful addition in the form of a healthy and cheerful baby!
What is dangerous deviation from the norm indicators of hormones
Hormones are responsible for the most important processes occurring in our body. Therefore, hormonal changes in women provoke serious complications, for example, the lack of ovulation. The most common are the following manifestations:
- With a decrease in the level of follicle-stimulating hormone in women, infertility is noted. This causes a violation of the menstruation cycle and the lack of ovulation. Plus, the violation indicates the presence of a dangerous disease of the reproductive system, one such is polycystic. The pathological condition disrupts the maturation of follicles and causes an increased production of estrogen. Ovulation in this case, like the conception of a child, becomes impossible. Lack of FSH provokes a cycle failure, scanty discharge during menstruation, changes in the size of the mammary glands. Some women complain of deterioration of health, accompanied by depression and lack of sexual desire.
- A decrease in LH is observed already after the birth of a child. Most often this occurs in women during lactation. The problem leads to disturbances in the reproductive system, which are manifested in the impossibility of the formation of eggs. In women who have not given birth, this process is considered pathological and needs immediate treatment. After diagnostic measures, a specialist will prescribe LH levels. Medicines are candles or tablets. A luteinizing surge before ovulation indicates the closest exit of the egg.
- A decrease in estradiol has no clinical manifestations. The pathological condition is revealed after several unsuccessful attempts to conceive a child. Low levels of this hormone provoke an increase in the content of the male hormone - testosterone. This process stops the development of the egg cell and the formation of the follicle. Elevated levels of estradiol is a normal condition only during pregnancy, because it is a protective reaction aimed at preserving the fetus. The remaining cases in which the content of this hormone is too high, are considered pathological.
- Progesterone deficiency is associated with inflammation in the reproductive system or the presence of abnormal formations in the ovaries. This condition occurs due to prolonged use of drugs. The problem affects ovulation and the regularity of the menstruation cycle. If fertilization has occurred, then the probability of an egg being fixed to the wall of the uterus is very low. Lack of hormone can affect pregnancy.
Hormones in the complex have an effect on the stage of ovulation, therefore, at the first signs of hormonal disruption, it is necessary to resort to appropriate treatment.
What drugs restore hormones
The treatment plan is a gynecologist with an endocrinologist. This takes into account the cause, which led to hormonal imbalance, as well as minor factors, these include:
- food features
- sexual activity,
- clinical manifestations,
Preparations for the restoration of hormonal levels can be divided into hormonal and non-hormonal. The former are highly effective, but cause side effects and have contraindications, the latter are more benign, but such therapy may be delayed.
Phytoestrogens are substances of natural origin, they are one of the key elements in the composition of plants. In structure, they resemble human estrogens. Preparations with phytoestrogens are prescribed when hormonal agents are contraindicated in a woman. The most effective include:
- Remens. Eliminates the lack of estrogen, regulates the psycho-emotional state of a woman, eliminates pain.
- Climax. One of the most effective and safe medicines during menopausal syndrome, in which there are headaches, hot flashes, excessive sweating and irritability.
- Tribestan. The main component of the tool is an extract from the Yakorets plant. It contains steroid saponins, improves the functioning of the reproductive system.
- Estrovel. Replenishes the content of estrogen in the body, improves psychophysical condition.
Therapy with the use of drugs with sex hormones is considered replacement. Typically, a specialist prescribes treatment cycles, it continues until the full recovery of menopause. Drugs, which include the following hormones, show excellent results:
- Progesterone (“Eroton”, “Oxyprogesterone”, “Progestin”),
- Estrogen ("Octestrol", "Dimestrol", "Sigetin", "Diethylstilbestrol").
Independently prescribe the use of such funds is strictly prohibited, since if taken incorrectly there is a high probability of side effects, up to a complete loss of reproductive abilities.
Symptoms of hormonal infertility
The main manifestation of hormonal imbalance is a long-term futile attempts to conceive a child. However, there are other equally characteristic clinical manifestations:
- violation of the menstrual cycle,
- severe PMS,
- regular cystitis
- chest discomfort,
- dirty brown discharge,
- the formation of stretch marks and acne, hair loss, hypertrichosis.
Even when studying the manifestations, a specialist can determine which of the hormones causes problems. That is why anamnesis is an important step in diagnosis.
Forms of anovulatory infertility
A congenital form of pathology results from the mutation of genetic material. Acquired occurs due to the occurrence of dangerous diseases, these include:
- Skien syndrome,
- violation of psycho-emotional background,
- increased physical activity.
Hyperprolactymia is an independent form. According to statistics, with hormonal infertility this type accounts for 40% of cases. Increased prolactin production leads to secondary infertility.
Mood before ovulation: normal options
The first half of the menstrual cycle is the process of carefully preparing the body for a possible conception. The first days of the cycle - a time when a woman feels not the most pleasant sensations.
She has an increased sensitivity to pain, periodically there are spasms in the lower abdomen, sometimes her blood pressure rises (or falls), which in turn can cause nausea and apathy. She wants to be left alone and given the opportunity to leisurely stroll through the streets of the city or lie down at home on the couch under a favorite movie. This is still the continuing effect of prostaglandin hormones, progesterone, which completely control the end of the second phase of the menstrual cycle - that is, 1-2 days before the next menstruation. Often, painful periods completely discourage the desire to communicate with your beloved man, and even just to carry on any active activity.
But here is a couple of days, monthly close to completion. A woman notices an unusual surge of strength, her behavior is changing. She is:
- becomes cheerful and cheerful
- it is easy, on the fly, to assimilate new information,
- easier to tolerate visits to the dentist and gynecologist - the most “scary” for women doctors due to the increased pain sensitivity threshold.
Sexual attraction at this time tends to peak, but still does not reach it. A huge role in all these metamorphoses is played by adrenaline and noradrenaline, which “run the show” during this period. The body is ready for change and is able to withstand stress without complications.
But now - closer to the middle of the cycle - the lady begins to notice that her worldview was not so bright and colorful. In other words, the mood before ovulation slightly deteriorates. This happens just a few hours before the “X moment”, when the egg is about to leave a mature, torn follicle.
Ovulation, mood and behavior
Interestingly, it is during this short period that a woman becomes extremely attractive to members of the opposite sex. If at some point she notices that men began to look after her more often, smile, say compliments - most likely, her ovulation is “on the way”. The body releases special substances - pheromones, which increase the attractiveness of such a woman for gentlemen at a subconscious level, behavior changes and becomes more playful. Estrogen secretion increases. Sexual attraction before ovulation - libido - often increases with the lady herself.
It would seem that if everything is so wonderful, then why does a woman often visit a bad mood in ovulation? After all, we are seeing quite an optimistic picture:
- the follicle has matured, the egg has come out to freedom and lurks in anticipation of sperm,
- beauty blinds others,
- men are ready to go to their feet in piles.
Why, then, so want to go home and delve into the sad depressive thoughts about the imperfections of this world? The deterioration of mood during ovulation caused by commonplace reasons - the state of health during these hours may not be at the highest level. It can ache from the side of the ovary, where there was an exit of the egg, sometimes a little headache, a slight swelling is felt. Occasionally, some women stand out 1-2 drops of blood, but they are more often seen only as a trace on toilet paper. No gaskets are required. However, the desire for intimacy may remain high. Here is a paradox.
Mood after ovulation: how will it change and why?
After ovulation is left behind, the woman's body is rebuilt and is preparing for change: the abundant production of stress hormones and growth hormones is inhibited, being replaced by those hormones that promote maturation, preservation of cells. The parasympathetic nervous system becomes more active. The corpus luteum, formed after the rupture of the follicle, produces progesterone. But since approximately until the 20th day of the cycle, testosterone is still very active, there can be dramatic mood swings after ovulation. Up to about 24–25 days of the cycle (with a length of 28 days), the lady feels great. She is calm, active, happy to work and learn.
In some women, sexual desire after ovulation increases. If this happens immediately after the “hour of X”, then this phenomenon is explained by the activity of the egg: within 24 hours after ovulation, it is still able to capture the spermatozoon. She needs to catch, but because a woman feels a surge of desire. If the desire for closeness increases after a few days, then this, on the contrary, means that the body has “calmed down”: there will be no conception, therefore you can enjoy the society of a beloved man without consequences.
The reaction of the body is unpredictable and depends on many circumstances: in particular, on whether the lady is ready for pregnancy or trying to avoid this event.
When a couple of days remain before the expected menstruation, the female body is once again rebuilt. The number of prostaglandins is increasing. Irritability appears, tormented by unpleasant sensations in the lower abdomen, which resemble spasms. The concentration of prolactin increases, which is why the arrows on the scales creep up, the legs slightly swell, the chest aches and swells.
As a result, the mood is reduced and deteriorates. I do not want to think and solve world problems, but there is a desire to see some melodrama and even to cry over the difficult fate of its heroes. All this is absolutely normal sensations before menstruation. As soon as the critical days are left behind, the woman will bloom again, and the depressed mood will disappear.
If you notice about such changes in your mood and attitude during the cycle, then everything is in order. But if you have never felt anything or your own scheme is slightly different - this is also a variant of the norm. Worry is only when something has changed in the body: for example, there was always a slight soreness during ovulation, and then suddenly disappeared. Or if you have previously noticed a sharp increase in libido in the middle of the cycle, but during the last few months you have not experienced anything like it. Then it will be useful to consult a doctor - perhaps the body gives the first alarm bells.
Ovulation can be traced in a variety of ways: by measuring the basal temperature, observing “pupil syndrome” at a gynecologist's appointment, meticulously making folliculometry or using special tests. And you can just relax and trust nature, and then you will feel when the time has come to conceive a new life. The intuition of women rarely fails!
What is a hormonal failure?
Speaking about this topic, we are talking about the presence of dysfunction, which is caused by the pathology of the thyroid gland or gynecological diseases. In women, disorders can be fixed in conjunction with a decrease in reproductive capacity, impaired immunity, and internal inflammations. Because of this, a number of problems arise, among which are:
- irregular menstrual cycle
- development of uterine fibroids,
- endometrial hyperplasia,
- ovarian disease.
Of great importance is passed during the gynecological examination. According to doctors, often some pathologies may have no symptoms, and proceed absolutely without pain and other pronounced manifestations. However, they are progressing.
The most important hormones are progesterone and estrogen. They are responsible for the maturation and release of the egg, the onset of menstruation during adolescence, hair growth and rapid breast augmentation. When conception occurs, hormonal changes. In particular, an increased presence of hCG is detected, and the amount of progesterone and estrogen also increases. When the second trimester begins, the placenta supports the pregnancy on its own. The next jump is recorded after the appearance of the first child into the world, when the biological possibilities return to normal.
Causes and symptoms
Due to the fact that the body of each woman works in different ways, the symptoms and causes also differ among themselves. At the same time, they can be recognized by the following factors:
- irregular menstruation. It is worth worrying when repeated delays of blood discharge are recorded or they do not occur in principle,
- mood swings and excessive irritability. When there is a dramatic change in the emotional state, the woman breaks down at all, shows aggression, which she is not characteristic of in life, this is another sign of the existing pathology. Scientists also include pessimism and protracted depression,
- weight jump. It is about increasing the total body weight, regardless of the girl's diet. Weight increases even when she is starving,
- sleep problems and chronic fatigue. A person does not fall asleep for a long time, and in the afternoon his state, despite being active, is depressed,
- decrease in sexual desire. Often the girl no longer wants to make love with his chosen one. They cease to initiate intimate affection,
- intense hair loss.
With regard to the causes of imbalance, it is customary to attribute to them:
- menopause. Menopausal women face after 40 years. During this period, the body's work is completely rebuilt,
- puberty. The imbalance of key elements often appears in adolescence, when the formation of reproductive functions occurs,
- pregnancy and childbirth,
- experiences, frequent stress. This is due to the influence of the nervous system on the endocrine,
- wrong lifestyle. We are talking about a downed daily routine, chronic sleep deprivation, excessive fatigue, loss of strength, smoking and the abuse of strong alcoholic beverages,
- poor nutrition,
- excess weight,
- gynecological pathology,
- ARI and ARVI,
- great physical exertion.
The possibility of ovulation
Does ovulation happen with hormonal failure? Inadequate body work affects fertility. There are also anovulatory cycles.
It so happens that a woman has no menstruation at all. Thus, it is very difficult to start the countdown of the new MC. To understand whether the follicular capsule matures with the egg, passing ultrasound will help. According to his results, the specialist will assess the condition of the internal organs and prescribe an effective treatment.
Does ovulation fail? It is believed that the egg is able to mature independently, even in case of violations. To track this process, you must not forget to measure the basal temperature. By improving performance, you can understand which day is favorable for conceiving a baby. It is likely that due to impaired hormonal levels, ovulation will fail. There is a place to be early and late ovulation, as well as ovulation during menstruation.
Is pregnancy possible?
Violation of hormone production leads to all these problems, may cause the development of various gynecological diseases. Can I get pregnant with hormonal failure? To secure the embryo in the endometrium in the presence of problems is quite problematic. However, future mothers should not despair. Medicine is constantly evolving, so there are plenty of ways to fix the situation.
Conducted research has long allowed to remove the barrier that prevents the occurrence of pregnancy. The use of special drugs, proper nutrition and daily regimen will help to achieve a positive result.
The consequences of hormonal failure are recorded the most negative - from breast cancer to infertility. The most common is polycystic ovary. Then the production of male hormones occurs, weight grows, hair grows on the body, body weight increases.
There are other diseases, for example, the performance of the thyroid gland is reduced. In particular, there is fatigue, depression, increased cholesterol levels.
In general, the effect on the body is negative. This issue must be taken very seriously. Overeating, dieting, stress and lack of sleep are prerequisites for the internal processes to start to flow incorrectly.
If the above symptoms are noticed, then going to a medical facility is inevitable. And it is necessary to address both the therapist and the gynecologist. To identify the pathology, you will need to pass the analysis of hormones and blood.
Treatment is prescribed only by a doctor. These or other drugs are prescribed on the basis of the overall clinical picture and test results. The very same therapy is desirable to carry out in two stages: eliminate the causes of the disease and fill the level of missing substances.
The duration of treatment depends on the nature of the problem found.
To prevent hormonal failure, it is recommended to constantly undergo a medical examination. In addition, you should not forget to try to exclude factors that can lead to incorrect work of internal organs.
At the first symptoms, you should immediately go to the hospital so that the consequences do not become more serious. Also recommended:
- eat right,
- observe normal sleep and rest,
- exercise should be moderate
- avoid stress
- do not drink alcohol
- Do not smoke,
- have a permanent sexual partner.
Thus, ovulation with hormonal failure often moves or does not occur at all. As a result, the chances of successful conception are markedly reduced. Only a specialist is engaged in diagnostics and treatment; you cannot prescribe any drugs for yourself. To determine ovulation, it is better to go to an ultrasound or continue to measure the basal temperature. These methods are most effective for hormonal failure.