Hormones during menstruation - a number of chemical elements in the female body, the development of which is necessary for the normal for the successful occurrence of pregnancy and full-term vagancy. The duration of the menstrual cycle is 28 days, fluctuations from 21 to 35 days are possible. It is the duration of menstruation that affects the level of hormones, in girls it can reach up to 45 days.
The processes taking place during the menstrual cycle
A cycle is a period from the last day of the month to the first day of the next month. At the beginning of the cycle, the level of an important hormone for women, estrogen, increases, thanks to which the endometrium grows and thickens, pelvic bones strengthen, Endometrium lined around the uterus feeds the embryo, which is very important at the initial stage of pregnancy.
In addition to the endometrium, begins to grow a bubble with follicles and an egg inside. The release of the egg falls just in the middle of the cycle of 13–14 day, then its promotion towards spermatozoa and into the uterine cavity. If hormone levels are high, then the process of ovulation and embryo implantation takes place in the uterus. The highest probability of conception in 3-4 days of onset of ovulation with intercourse taking place. Fertilization of the egg by sperm occurs. Otherwise, the inner layer of the uterus is rejected, the egg is killed, hormones are lowered and the next timely arrival of the monthly.
Phases of the menstrual cycle
The cycle consists of several phases, replacing one another at certain intervals of time: follicular, ovulation, luteal.
- Follicular phase. It starts the first day of ovulation, the release of a hormone to stimulate the follicle in the ovaries of a woman. For the formation of the physiology of the female body and genital organs, estrogen is released due to another hormone - luteinizing. The peak increase in estrogen falls in the middle of the cycle and contributes to this pituitary gland. Luteinizing hormone increases in quantity. Further, it begins to gradually decline and returns to normal.
Ovulation phase. It falls on the middle of the cycle. Differs excess concentration of LH. Under these conditions, the follicles begin to burst. From them comes the egg, fertilization of the ovum and the transformation of the follicle into the corpus luteum.
- Luteal phase. It comes after ovulation immediately after turning the follicle into the corpus luteum. Production of another hormone, the steroid, begins. When exceeding the norm, the production of the pituitary hormone is blocked. In the absence of fertilization, the corpus luteum is destroyed. In this case, there is a decrease in the level of steroids hormones, the release of the follicle-stimulating hormone by the pituitary gland and the onset of the newly follicular phase. Comes new menstrual cycle. When the pituitary is conceived, a different hormone is released - choriogonin (hCG), which shows a reaction when testing pregnancy.
If ovulation has occurred, then after about 14 days, gonadotropin secretion begins, and also stimulation of the further development of the corpus luteum. Under the influence of this body, progesterone is produced, which, in turn, prepares the uterus in pregnancy and further fetus bearing. During pregnancy, steroid hormones increase significantly in their level.
How do hormones affect ovulation and pregnancy?
These two very important processes for each woman, ovulation and conception, involve the hormones luteinizing, extradiol, prolactin, progesterone, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone.
- FSH, follicle-stimulating is necessary for stimulation of ovulation, egg growth, regulation of the amount of estrogen. Excess FSH occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle.
- Prolactin, is needed for the proper development of the egg, production in the right amount of breast milk. Under the influence of prolactin, FSH levels are suppressed, follicle maturation during ovogenesis and fertilization, respectively.
Estradiol, in the development of which three hormones are involved at once: prolactin, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating, necessary for the preparation of the uterine mucosa for the attachment of the ovum as a result of fertilization of the egg. A sharp increase in estrogen is observed one day before the onset of ovulation, then there is a rapid decrease in it.
- Progesterone, is involved in increasing the basal temperature, the consistency of the corpus luteum. When basal values are exceeded, the egg cell can be considered mature and ready for fertilization.
All hormones in a complex are necessary for the woman for normal conception and approach of pregnancy. Women when planning pregnancy is recommended to check your hormones. If necessary, use drugs to increase (decrease) the level of certain hormones, also explore the venous blood, its condition, if desired, to have a baby. To calculate the amount of each of the described hormones, there are certain days when it is necessary to take their rate into account when planning a pregnancy.
Follicle-stimulating hormone prepares the woman's body for pregnancy. An important hormone is produced by the pituitary, hypothalamus and endocrine glands.
FSH is normally important in the first phase of the cycle, at the time of the maturation of the egg in the ovarian follicles. Activation and impact on the follicles of gonadotropic hormone occurs before the beginning of menstruation and in the first days. After 2–3 days, hormone growth stops, stimulation of the dominant follicle begins, inside which the egg cell is located.
The mature follicle, in turn, begins to produce estrogens, the number of steroids in the woman’s blood increases. The uterus responds quickly to excess estrogen levels. The epithelium lining the inner layer of the mucous begins to become thicker. With a layer thickness of 1 cm, the fertilized egg attaches to the wall of the uterus.
In addition to FSH, the luteinizing hormone begins production, prepares the body for conception. As a result of ovulation, when the egg cell matures and estradiol reaches its maximum level in the blood, the next stage to conception begins.
Increased production of LH and FSH under the influence of the pituitary gland occurs in a matter of hours. The mature follicle is torn, the egg cell is released, it moves towards the uterus. The corpus luteum, formed at the follicle site, begins to produce progesterone. FSH lowers its values. Preparing the body for pregnancy continues LH.
FSH is the most unstable hormone. During the day it can change values several times, especially in the follicular phase. The menstrual cycle in girls, before the onset of puberty, has a great influence on the indicators. The indicators are the most stable - 0.11–1.6 IU ml.
In the reproductive age, indicators are influenced by many different factors: the day of the cycle, age, lifestyle, nutrition, chronic diseases.
Sample hormone values during the menstrual cycle
follicular 1.9–11.2 mIU,
- ovulation 4.8 –21 mIU,
- luteal 1,2–9 mIU,
- menopause -21–153 mIU.
In menopause, the ovaries stop responding to FSH and LH, although their pituitary gland production continues. This explains the sharp increase in FSH levels, it becomes more gonadotropic hormones. At this time, women feel unwell, their habitual rhythm of life is disturbed.
FSH is deficient or abundant
An irregular cycle suggests that FSH in the blood is not normalized. When the hormone does not match, ovulation may not occur normally, spotting is scanty or, on the contrary, strong. This is not a period that women often confuse when they expect pregnancy. With the deficiency of the hormone FSH, sexual desire dramatically decreases, the genitals and mammary glands atrophy. Pregnancy, as a rule, is absent, and even at conception miscarriages are not uncommon. With an increase (decrease) of FSH, the hypothalamus may be suffering, the tumor develops. Drugs can also affect hormone jumps in the blood. The cause of elevated levels of the hormone FSH is often obesity, polycystic ovary.
The cause of low hormone values:
- inflammation in the genitals
- cyst in the uterus,
- dysfunctions in the gonads,
- alcohol abuse, smoking,
- kidney disease.
All causes lead to a decrease in the probability of conception, normal fetal bearing. Raising (lowering) FSH severely undermines women's health. Even with the onset of pregnancy, the uterus is simply not ready and miscarriages in the early stages are obvious. It is important to timely eliminate the causes that led to the failure of FSH.
If the hormone deviates from the norm due to X-ray, no special actions need to be taken. The level will return to normal approximately one year after irradiation.
It is important to give up alcohol, dramatically exceeding the level of gonadotropin in women. Tumors also require removal at the initial stage of development. Usually appointed surgery.
It is the luteinizing hormone that affects the menstrual cycle and forms the sex hormones in a woman’s body. In girls, the LH level is low. Enhancement begins during puberty, secretes gonadotropins necessary for stimulation of the sex glands. Women need hormone to stimulate the synthesis of estrogen, to regulate the secretion of progesterone and the formation of the yellow body.
Changes in the concentration of LH are observed throughout the entire menstrual cycle. The peak of rise is in the middle of the cycle. LH becomes higher than FSH, mass release occurs during the period of ovulation, a yellow body is formed, progesterone is produced. When pregnancy occurs, the level of LH decreases, the concentration of estrogen increases.
The analysis on LH is shown to assignment at:
- amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea,
- sexual infantilism,
- decreased libido,
- carrying eco.
Diseases that lead to menstrual disorders
Delays in menstruation, untimely arrival, or even their absence, clearly, talk about ailments, sometimes very serious in the body. These are diseases of the thyroid gland, a pituitary tumor, problems with the adrenal glands, ovaries. Perhaps the development of polycystic, cysts, chronic inflammation. All this leads to a violation of hormonal functions, increase (decrease) the level of those or other hormones. As a result, to the absence of pregnancy, diseases of the uterus, secondary infertility.
Ovulation does not occur with the remaining follicle in the ovary. The level of estrogen is not reduced. The endometrium begins to grow in the uterus. Sometimes there is no death of the body, which should be according to the physiological features of the female body. Progesterone continues to produce, the rejection of the endometrium occurs with a delay.
Hormonal imbalance contributes to stress, especially if they occur at the time of the menstrual cycle. The suppressed state in women occurs not only against the background of psychological changes, but also biochemical processes that are triggered before the arrival of menstruation, causing an imbalance of hormones. A woman increases tearfulness, irritability, fatigue excessive.
Often, amid stress, a woman begins to gain weight. The level of sugar in the blood decreases, the hormone estradiol decreases, but energy does not increase. After taking the sweet or chocolate, the metabolism begins to break down, the woman quickly gets fat. All this speaks of hormonal disorders. Stress and mood swings during menstruation are caused precisely by this factor. The body in defense of stress begins to produce the hormone cortisol, accumulating fat at the waist in reserve. When the duration of an increased level of the so-called stress hormone, the hormonal balance begins to collapse. Women need an appeal to an endocrinologist, the solution to problems with excess weight and treatment to stabilize the level of hormones in the blood.
Usually tests are taken after the intended ovulation, taking into account the menstrual cycle. If the discharge is smeared, then it is necessary to pass a study on the level of FSH, progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, lutropin, androstenedione.
A blood test to determine the level of hormones in the blood is given in the morning on an empty stomach. Physical activity a few days before the analysis should be excluded.
LH level is determined on day 6–7 of the cycle
Progesterone - on day 23
Estradiol - on any day of the cycle.
The female body is fragile and care about it should be from early childhood. A girl's mother should tell about what a reproductive system is, why it is needed, how it works and what could be the result of her failure. Also, hygiene is important for well-being, successful conception, childbirth and the birth of children in the future.
The body undergoes changes with age, and with it, as the ovarian function diminishes, the level of hormones begins to change as the ovarian functions decline. As a result, the production of FSH, LH, testosterone stops. The endocrine system fails, begins to produce hormones in small quantities.
Closer to 47 years of age, the reproductive function begins to slowly fade, the menopause sometimes occurs in women much earlier. Planning a pregnancy is extremely important for women of reproductive age, as well as examining hormone levels, tracking their condition at each stage of the menstrual cycle.
With an increase or decrease in the concentration of hormones, it is important to contact an endocrinologist, to promptly correct the state of hormones, on which the conception and bearing capacity of the baby directly depends.
If symptoms of failure appear, it is necessary to take a blood test for hormones. It is important to normalize the level of hormones to eliminate the causes that led to its failure. The hormonal background is restored difficultly and is long, months and even years leave. To stimulate their production, the attending physician will prescribe a drug treatment.
In order to prevent medical examinations and testing for hormones should be regular. If untreated, malignant breast cancer, infertility, obesity, and other serious consequences develop on the background of failure. Every woman, if she wants to have children, maintains normal hormones.
The functions of hormones in the female body
Special substances that regulate the work of all systems are hormones. They provide the correct biochemical metabolism, participate in the growth of tissues and the development of organs, as well as support reproductive function. Substances are produced by the endocrine gland, and violations in their work can lead to unpredictable consequences.
Female sex hormones are produced by the ovaries and affect changes in appearance, namely the development of secondary sexual characteristics, and also normalize the cycle of monthly secretions and prepare the body for childbirth.
The substance is formed from several of its predecessors: testosterone, androsterone and dihydrotestosterone. The transition process is controlled by a special enzyme. Sometimes, due to a pathological or hereditary defect in the female body, a syndrome develops, in which the male hormones become more than necessary.
Estrogens are responsible for the following processes:
- the formation of the mammary glands, the proper development of the uterus and ovaries in the first half of puberty, the production of luteinizing hormone, ovulation and the arrival of menstruation in the second,
- growth of follicles and support of the menstrual cycle in older women.
The fall in the level of this substance, especially in the menopausal period, is characterized by a decrease in sexual desire, depression, mood swings and other disorders.
This is an important hormone from the steroid group that has a significant effect on the body. It is synthesized by two organs: the corpus luteum, which, thanks to the formation of new vessels, makes the uterus mucous membrane ready for fertilization, and the adrenal glands. The placenta formed during pregnancy is also related to the synthesis of the hormone.
The main functions include the following:
- Reproductive system: prepares the uterus for conception, helps the body not to reject the embryo. In the postpartum period, due to a decrease in its synthesis, a woman has milk to feed her baby.
- Hormonal: participates in the formation of sex and corticosteroid hormones.
- Leather: a decrease in the level of its synthesis affects the elasticity of the integument, which contributes to the appearance of wrinkles.
- Nervous system: its production is important for the formation of neurosteroids that affect brain activity.
In the presence of high levels of progesterone, acne, excessive hair growth and rapid weight gain appear, fatigue increases, problems with the menstrual cycle are noted.
Follicle-stimulating hormone produced in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and released into the blood of women impulsively. One jump is equal to 15 minutes, and the interval can last up to four hours. It is a gonadotropic hormone that affects the conversion of testosterones to estrogens, as well as the growth and maturation of follicles.
Normally, the level of this substance rises before the onset of ovulation. Именно такой скачок и провоцирует выход яйцеклетки. Нарушение нормальной работы продуцирования вещества может привести к серьезным проблемам в репродуктивной системе организма.
Sometimes a sharp jump indicates the development of an endometrioid cyst or pathology of the kidneys.. At the same time, a decrease in the level may occur with obesity, frequent use of starvation diets or indicate toxic lead poisoning.
Like all previous hormones, luteinizing is also involved in the work of childbearing function. With its high values in the blood ovulation occurs. The concentration of a substance depends on the age and varies depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle.
By the time the follicle matures and the luteinizing hormone is released, the egg is released, and its remnants are transformed into a corpus luteum, which produces progesterone to prepare the endometrium for the possibility of fertilization. The secretion of LH is controlled by the hypothalamus.
How hormone levels change during menstruation
Typically, the menstrual cycle lasts 27-34 days, and the release of blood takes from 3 to 7 days. The approximate amount of bleeding is 35 ml. All this is an indicator of the norm, and a deviation in the direction of increasing or irregularity indicates pathology.
Full menstruation occurs due to the interaction of the pituitary, ovaries and hypothalamus. The whole cycle is divided into four phases, each of which has its own purpose, length and concentration of the substance in the blood. For example, at the stage of ovulation, the amount of estradiol should not exceed 35-420 ng / l, and in menopause - 5-50 ng / l.
The purpose of this period is to ensure the formation of at least one mature follicle and the release of the egg. With the required amount of FSH in mature cells, substances are transferred to luteinizing hormones. The duration of the process varies from 7 to 20 days and depends on the individual characteristics of the female body.
The onset of the phase is characterized by the end of bleeding. At this time there is an intensive production of substances that have the necessary effect on the ovaries. The main one is FSH, which causes active growth of a small number of follicles. The appendages are busy with their work - they synthesize estrogen. The whole process takes about 14 days and usually ends at the time when the release of substances that suppress the activity of follicle-stimulating hormone into the blood. Next comes the next stage.
Stage of ovulation
The phase begins at the moment when LH is at its peak - in the middle of the cycle. This chemical substance not only promotes the release of a ripe egg cell from the follicle, but also affects the mucous membranes of the cervix, creating a favorable environment for the passage of male germ cells.
The finished gamete rises into the fallopian tube and continues to move slowly into the uterus - this is ovulation. It is there that fertilization takes place. Next, the zygote is attached to the wall of the body.
Sometimes it happens that ovulation is absent. This can happen for the following reasons:
- disruption of the blood supply system of the brain,
- severe stress
- overweight or underweight,
- the presence of inflammatory processes, injuries or chronic diseases of the pelvic organs,
- early menopause,
- endocrine ailments
- uncontrolled hormonal contraceptive use.
Since conception occurs during ovulation, in the absence of it, a woman cannot become pregnant.
It is the final stage of the monthly cycle, which lasts about 15 days. LH ceases to be produced, and this contributes to the fact that uterine mucus becomes a barrier to the advancement of sperm.
Under the influence of progesterone, the corpus luteum becomes active. Preparing the endometrium of the uterus to attach a fertilized egg. If conception did not happen, then begin monthly. Normally, PH is 1.1–8.9 IU / ml.
Why is hormone testing needed
Determining the level of substances allows you to identify those violations that were triggered by hormonal imbalances. Pathology is primary (when the work of the sex glands is impaired) and secondary (problems in the functioning of the hypothalamus or pituitary are revealed). A blood test for hormones is needed to achieve the following goals:
- cure infertility
- determine the period of the menstrual cycle or menopause,
- identify diseases of the genital organs,
- control the process of puberty,
- monitor the effectiveness of hormone therapy,
- time to recognize diseases of the pituitary gland,
- understand the causes of irregular menstruation.
As a rule, blood tests are prescribed when there are complaints about cycle failures, in the presence of abundant or, on the contrary, scanty secretions, in case of involuntary miscarriages, and for full carrying of the fetus.
Blood tests that are not recommended for menstruation.
Since during the menstruation the chemical composition of the plasma changes, gynecologists do not advise carrying out:
- General blood analysis. The onset of critical days has an effect on red blood cells: they increase, which may indicate the presence of inflammatory processes and affect the correct diagnosis.
- Markers for oncology. The result may be false positive.
- PCR diagnostics. The method is based on the detection of a particular DNA molecule, among many others.
- Analysis for sexually transmitted infections.
- Allergy tests since there may be an unreliable result.
- Test to determine the level of glucose.
- Immunological study.
It must be remembered that sometimes the analysis can put additional stress on the body systems and lead to a deterioration of the general condition.
What is recommended to do during menstruation
During the month of reliable results will show tests to identify the level of the following hormones:
It is worth paying special attention to the fact that the study on PH should be carried out for 3-5 days of the cycle, and to determine the level of testosterone - 8-10. Progesterone test is recommended to take for 21-22 day.
On the eve of the survey, in the absence of specific instructions from the attending physician, it is necessary to refuse to take any medications that could affect the results or distort them. It is recommended to adhere to the general rules of preparation: conduct an examination on an empty stomach, do not consume alcoholic beverages a day before the test.
As evidenced by non-compliance
Deviation from the allowable values indicates that pathological processes occur in the body. For example, if the level of follicle-stimulating hormone differs from normal values, this indicates the development of the following diseases:
- tumor processes in the brain,
- dysfunction of the ovaries,
If the results are below normal, then the analysis must be retaken, since the release of this hormone may be impulsive, and a single deviation is considered unreliable.
Violations in the production of estrogen, responsible for the normal course of pregnancy, may be a sign:
- fibroids or fibroids,
- ovarian cancer
- adrenal gland diseases
- the onset of the postmenopausal period,
- cirrhosis of the liver.
Female sex hormones
The hormonal system of a woman is quite complicated. Violation of one of its sections negatively affects the functioning of the whole organism. The endocrine glands promote the ingress of chemicals into the blood.
The functioning of the reproductive system is affected by the levels of estrogen and progesterone. Female reproductive function is directly dependent on the level of hormones during menstruation.
Estrogen is the main hormone that is produced by the ovaries, controls the monthly cycle. As for progesterone, it is considered a male hormone, produced after the egg leaves the follicle.
Women also secrete hormones such as testosterone, LH, FSH, and prolactin.
Hormone levels during the menstrual cycle
During menstruation, hormonal changes occur. It fluctuates throughout the entire monthly cycle:
- 1st day - the amount of progesterone and estrogen is significantly reduced. This is due to the onset of uterine rejection of the endometrium. The onset of menstruation inhibits the production of progesterone. But the concentration of prostaglandins from the first day of the cycle, on the contrary, increases. There are severe cramps, nausea, dizzy and other unpleasant symptoms,
- 2nd - the level of discomfort becomes less noticeable. During this period, many women experience painful cramps,
- 3rd - the risk of vaginal infection increases. To reduce it, it is recommended to give up sex and to follow the rules of personal hygiene,
- 4-6th - uncomfortable feelings completely pass. Weakened by blood loss, the body needs vitamin C and iron. The end of menstruation leads to an acceleration of metabolism,
- 7th — at the follicular gestation stage, the egg produces a large amount of estrogen. Also during this period, the amount of testosterone, which stimulates memorization and resistance to stress, increases.
- 8th - the amount of estrogen in the blood increases significantly,
- 9–11th - the chance of successful fertilization of the egg increases,
- 12th - the maximum amount of estrogen is concentrated in the blood. This leads to increased excitability of female erogenous zones and the desire to have sex,
- 13th, 14th - the middle of the monthly cycle. Estrogen actively interacts with luteinizing substance. Grows follicle growth. In some women, the onset of ovulation is accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen. This is due to the release of the egg from the ovary,
- 15th - the luteal phase of the monthly cycle begins, the bursting follicle in the ovary is replaced by the corpus luteum, the cells of which contribute to the development of progesterone, a pregnancy hormone. It will be produced regardless of whether the egg has been fertilized,
- 16th - the level of female hormones increases, which stimulates the uterus. During this period, the appetite increases significantly.
- 17th - progesterone concentration increases. This adversely affects intestinal peristalsis. The tone of the smooth muscles decreases, resulting in bloating,
- 18th, 19th - slows down the process of metabolism and fat splitting. Increased blood cholesterol adversely affects the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system,
- 20th - the egg actively goes to the uterus. There is a maximum concentration of progesterone. The chances of getting pregnant during this period are minimal,
- 21st, 22nd - the level of estradiol falls due to the development of the corpus luteum in the ovary. There is an active production of estrogen and progesterone,
- 23–25th - estrogen concentration is higher than progesterone. This provokes an imbalance, resulting in a risk of constipation,
- 26–28th, women experience PMS premenstrual syndrome.
How does the hormonal system
Hormones enter the blood through the endocrine glands. It is worth saying that the balance of these active substances depends on the woman’s age, stage of the menstrual cycle, and general health criteria. The background picture of a teenage girl should normally be different from that of 45-year-olds.
The reproductive function of a woman is provided by a system that includes the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. Its first part is located in the brain and produces hormones designed to control the endocrine glands. The hypothalamus is located in close proximity to the pituitary gland and already controls its functioning, producing liberins and statins. The first ones stimulate the production of the necessary hormones, the second ones inhibit it when necessary. But the hypothalamus does not release liberins and statins arbitrarily, to maintain a balance between stimulating and restraining the production of active substances, it receives information from all parts of the body.
The above makes the hormone system very difficult. Violations on any of its sites responds to the functioning of all others. And failure in work, for example, thyroid will entail the same in the female reproductive system.
Hormones throughout the cycle
Hormone levels and menstruation are directly related. The main ones are follicle-stimulating and luteinizing. Both are produced by the pituitary gland, causing the ovaries to produce other substances — estrogen and progesterone. The latter push the uterus and mammary glands to prepare for probable fertilization and the subsequent development of the embryo.
The menstrual cycle is divided into three stages:
- Follicular, which exists before the release of the egg,
- Ovulatory, characterized by its aging,
- Luteal, taking place after the release of the egg.
It is calculated from the first day of menstruation. It is at this point in time that the uterine cavity is released from the upper layer of the endometrium and the selection of the dominant follicle. At the beginning of the stage, the uterine lining is full of blood vessels and nutrients for the embryo. Female hormones in menstruation at this stage determine the growth of the endometrium, thickening and elimination. By this time, estrogen and progesterone are reduced to lower values, due to which rejection of its upper layer occurs.
At the same time, the level of follicle-stimulating hormone rises. With full health, the number and size of the cavity in which the egg cell matures later increase throughout the initial phase of the cycle. The greatest value and size of FSH and follicle acquire two weeks from the first day of menstruation. The latter produces a large amount of estrogen, which spurs the development of cells in the new layer of the endometrium. Follicular stage is the longest in the cycle. In short, it becomes a woman approaching menopausal age.
Despite the increased size of the follicle, it still does not exit the ovary. In order for this to happen, the luteinizing hormone must enter the process.
The maturation of the egg is accompanied by elevated levels of LH. It is he who drives the divergence of the follicle shell and its output. By the time ovulation takes from 16 to 32 hours and ends with the release of the egg. Even after that, in the course of 12-24 hours, the number of LH is greater than ever. It makes fertilization more likely in the presence of a spermatozoon. This effect of hormones on menstruation ensures childbearing.
His countdown is calculated after ovulation, the stage lasts about 14 days. The final is the last before the next menstruation. At the beginning of the luteal period, the burst follicle is closed, thus forming a yellow body, that is, a set of cells that give out progesterone. The task of these hormones during menstruation is to prepare the uterus for the probable attachment of the ovum to its wall. It is he who causes the growth of the endometrium, the accumulation of nutrients. Thanks to him, the figure rises basal temperature, if conception happened. Progesterone and estrogen also prepare the breast for future infant feeding, expanding the ducts of the mammary glands. From this before menstruation, it becomes more sensitive to pain.
In the absence of fertilization, the corpus luteum disappears after 13-14 days after ovulation. That is, the hormones before the monthly decrease in quantity. So the body approaches another menstrual cycle, saving resources, preparing for a new probable attempt at fertilization of the egg.
If conception happened, another hormone comes into play - human chorionic gonadotropin. He is the undoubted criterion of pregnancy, because only the fetal membrane is capable of producing it.
Why do analyzes
If you know what an important role is played by active substances in a woman's body, it will be logical to assume that the analysis of hormones is very informative. On it you can identify such ailments as:
For any difficulties with childbirth, this study is prescribed one of the first. Many diseases not related to the sexual sphere can also be diagnosed by the amount of hormones.
It is necessary to know their healthy concentration at different time intervals of the cycle in order to carry out diagnostics. Of course, it is up to the specialist to evaluate and choose treatment, but it would not be harmful for any woman to figure out which hormones during menstruation and in addition to them should decrease and increase, as evidenced by violations, when and how to pass the material in order to have an appropriate reality.
Hormones are very sensitive to external influences. Stress, physical activity, hypothermia, diet can distort the picture. Therefore, it is necessary to take this analysis away from infections and other listed circumstances. There are some more details of the preparation for the manipulation:
- It is necessary to take on an empty stomach, that is, in the morning. Food can distort the picture
- The day before the procedure alcohol, smoking and sex are excluded,
- Taking into account the use of drugs, and not only containing hormones.
Time to analyze
If you need to find out the concentration of female active substances, then the stage of the menstrual cycle is important. Кровь на гормоны во время месячных допускается к анализу, когда необходимо выяснить уровень:
Анализы на перечисленные вещества будут точными, если делать их на 2-5 сутки менструации.
Женщин интересует также, какие гормоны сдавать после месячных, так как подобное тоже возможно и иногда даже необходимо. К таким исследованиям специалисты относят:
- FSH. It is also determined on the 19-21th day of the cycle,
- LH. The same timeframe as FSH
- Progesterone. Its quantity can also be detected on days 21-22 of the cycle or 6-8 days after ovulation,
- Prolactin. The length of time for testing is similar to progesterone.
Testosterone, DEA sulfate, DHA-S is permissible to align on any segment of the menstrual cycle. Many other hormones affect the woman’s health, which do not have a direct effect on the menses, but have an effect on other organs. This feature may affect the ability of women to bear children, so the analysis examines them too. It's about
Their values are important if the plans are pregnant.
They are determined by the day on which menstruation takes hormones, because their number, as already mentioned, should normally be unequal at different stages of the cycle. In full health, the indicators look like this:
- FSH. In the follicular phase, the index reaches 4-10 U / l, with ovulation - 10-25 U / l, in the luteal period 2-8. In women who survived menopause, FSH is 18-150 U / l,
- LH. In the follicular period is 1.1-11.6 mU / ml, with ovulation - 17-77, in luteal the maximum value is 14.7. When using oral contraceptives, the value is 8 mU / ml and less, and after menopause 11.3-39.8,
- Progesterone. This indicator in the follicular segment has a value of 0.3-1.6 μg / l, with ovulation - 0.7-1.6, in the luteal period - 4.7-8 μg / l. After menopause - 0.06-1.3. In pregnancy, this figure increases from 8 weeks
- Prolactin. The usual value ranges from 4.5-33 ng / ml in the follicular period, during ovulation it is 6.3-49, in the luteal phase - from 4.9 to 40 ng / ml. After conception and for the entire period of lactation, prolactin rises from 500 to 10,000 mIU / L,
- Estrogen These hormones in the normal follicular part range from 5 to 53 pg / ml, in the ovulatory part - 90-299, in the luteal part - 11-116 pg / ml. With menopause, it decreases to 5-46,
- Testosterone. The numbers of the free indicator differ not by the stages of the menstrual cycle, but by the age criterion. However, there is total testosterone, which is 0.26-1.3 pg / ml,
- DHA-S. The indicator ranges from 2.5 to 11.6 μmol per day,
- DEA sulfate. The normal level in women should not rise above 80-560 mcg / dl.
What does it mean a violation of hormone levels and what leads to
As a rule, a noticeable difference in performance from the norm indicates a problem in the body. If the hormones affecting the menses are calculated, then it relates mostly to the reproductive sphere:
- FSH increases with cancer of the pituitary gland, ovarian function failure. The reason for this can also be alcoholism. The hormone decreases with sclerocytosis of the ovaries and overweight,
- LH. Potential problems with pituitary, obesity are able to reduce the volume. Rise threatens those who have changes in the structure of the ovaries or a brain tumor,
- Prolactin. Affects the synthesis of yellow body progesterone, suppresses FSH during pregnancy, is involved in metabolic processes. Prolactin also supports milk production. When the hormone is exceeded or deficient, follicle development is impaired, which prevents ovulation. An excess of prolactin is observed in tumors, hypothyroidism, disorders of the ovaries or pituitary (he is the culprit of the deficit), autoimmune distress,
- Estrogen Outside of pregnancy, estradiol plays a major role in the cycle. Estriol is responsible for the “interesting position.” The first is produced by the follicle, the corpus luteum to regulate the cycle, the maturation of the egg. Elevated estrogen levels indicate ovarian or adrenal tumors. It is observed in obese women, since adipose tissue is also capable of producing them. Decreased estrogen does not allow ovulation, therefore it is the cause of cycle failure, infertility,
- Progesterone. Its elevated values occur in neoplasms of the ovaries or adrenal glands. A decrease in the rate is provoked by persistent inflammation of the reproductive organs, and this entails scanty periods, not the onset of ovulation, problems while waiting for the infant or infertility,
- Testosterone. Another male element, the excess of which causes an early spontaneous abortion. When menstruation in overestimated amounts, these hormones disrupt ovulation. This is a consequence of diseases of the adrenal glands or ovaries,
- Androgens. These are male hormones, and their excess provokes disruption of the ovaries, excess body hair, infertility. Too low a level reduces sexual appetite.
What to do if there is no menstruation
The absence of menstruation happens not only due to the “fault” of pregnancy, but also in pathological conditions that do not manifest themselves otherwise. The most innocuous cause of this is the long-term use of birth control pills. In this case, the menstruation is acceptable to wait up to six months.
If this reason is excluded, you will have to find out the real with a specialist. A woman may have a question: how to donate hormones correctly if there are no monthly periods? Indeed, many of them need to be done at a certain stage of the cycle. The specialist will recommend the analysis regardless of this, that is, at any convenient day for the patient. He will need to know the level:
Excessive hair in a woman, excess weight, stretch marks on the skin or a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome make it advisable to also count
- Free testosterone,
And yet, when a problem arises, how to donate hormones if there are no monthly periods, the first analysis should be on HCG. It is likely that the cause of their absence is pregnancy.
How to return menstruation hormones
It is advisable to use drugs if you know exactly what substances are not enough to restore a full cycle. Hormones during the delay of menstruation cause the body to consistently reproduce all its stages, if selected correctly. Therefore, before proceeding to treatment, it is worth waiting for the results of the analysis. After all, if there is an excess of progesterone, then its additional doses will aggravate the situation. The cycle is not so much the amount of hormones, as the ratio. Therefore, preparations based on them should be selected by the gynecologist on the basis of the decoding analysis.
The menstruating hormones are available in the following medications:
- Duphaston. This drug contains progesterone. An artificially synthesized substance is similar to what is produced by the female body, but despite this it can cause allergies. It has some contraindications
- Norcolut. It is based on estrogen and progestin. Arbitrary use is fraught with severe bleeding. The drug also has many contraindications, may cause intolerance,
- Utrozhestan. The active ingredient is progesterone. The tool also does not tolerate uncontrolled use, because it can cause the growth of breast tumors, allergies, asthma attack,
- Klostilbegit (Puregon, Menogon). These drugs stimulate the secretion of FSH and LH. They are used not just to restore the cycle, but to get pregnant. Their independent use can trigger ovarian fatigue and excessive growth of the endometrium.
To call the menstruation suitable contraceptive orally used means, but it is also under the guidance of a specialist.
The value of the work of hormones in menstruation is difficult to overestimate. And yet, sometimes, to normalize their balance, it is enough not to worry about nonsense, eat normally, rest on time and be regularly shown to the gynecologist.
Before using any drugs, you should consult with a physician specialist, there are contraindications.
Hormones blame all troubles - but what are they?
Hormones are chemicals produced by the glands in our body. They play an important role in the activation of processes such as puberty and the menstrual cycle, that is, they are useful. They ensure the development and proper functioning of the body. But there is a downside.
Mood changes, irritability, sadness - all this can be attributed to nasty hormonal changes. This is due to the fact that during a short period of your life, hormones and brain substances do not work in sync, so you experience increased emotionality and mood swings. Hormonal changes can also cause such undesirable effects as acne, an increase in the amount of hair on the body, and an increase in odor. Therefore, they are called "nasty": they both help you grow up, and bring significant changes, besides, they make emotions uncontrollable, and the body is alien and unaccustomed.
Hormones also play an important role in the menstrual cycle. They take part in every stage of it. Throughout the cycle, the pituitary gland (a pea-sized gland at the base of the brain) produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones stimulate ovulation (when the ovaries release a mature egg) and stimulate the ovaries to produce more hormones, especially estrogen and progesterone . Estrogen and progesterone help the uterus to prepare for a possible pregnancy , but they can also affect external signs.
For example, by increasing estrogen levels during ovulation, you become more energetic and active. An increase in progesterone levels during the luteal phase (after ovulation and prior to the beginning of menstruation) can cause anxiety and cravings for sweets. The transition between these two phases of the cycle, when the level of estrogen begins to decline, and that of progesterone increases, causes PMS (premenstrual syndrome), which usually brings with it anxiety, mood swings and pain. "Nasty" is the right word.
If you are tired of emotional drops, do not worry - they are absolutely normal, and you are not the only one.
Stress and hormonal changes
Stress causes fluctuations in hormones and, as a result, hormonal imbalances, even if it seems to us that the experiences have passed without a trace. In addition, having survived the stress, we can still be depressed for a long time afterwards and think that the whole thing is only in psychological changes. In fact, most often the culprits are biochemical processes that affect the change of our mood and well-being.
What are these biochemical processes? The fact is that the state of anxiety and anxiety during the experience of life's troubles causes the same imbalance of hormones as the so-called premenstrual syndrome. A woman may feel irritable, she has increased tearfulness, fatigue, anxiety and anxiety during stress and during the menstrual cycle.
The culprits are the same. This is a significant decrease in the hormone estradiol and low blood sugar levels. Even after you have been fed with chocolate or candy, the level of sugar in the blood does not rise, there is no additional energy. The metabolism is disturbed (it slows down) and the woman can start to gain weight dramatically.
Let us emphasize that the reason that you are recovering sharply can be stress due to life problems and mood fluctuations during the monthly cycle caused by the same hormonal disorders.
Read more about the process of hormonal imbalance and weight gain.
When you are experiencing, the level of cortisol, a hormone that is produced during stress, rises. Then the body includes a mechanism of self-defense. It is expressed very strangely - the body, protecting itself from stress, accumulates fats in reserve. First of all, these fats are deposited in the waist.
This is due to the fact that an increased level of the stress hormone cortisol causes insulin to reject the body, causing excess fat to accumulate. In addition, the male hormone testosterone is activated, which also affects weight gain.
If stress lasts a long time, it destroys the hormonal balance associated with increased adrenaline activity. Then the following symptoms are observed:
- The pressure rises sharply
- There may be unmotivated attacks of aggression, anger or vice versa, tearfulness and irritability
- Renal colic may appear.
- Strong muscle tension
- Increased fatigue
If you have these symptoms or most of them, consult an endocrinologist for a hormonal examination. This can solve problems with the level of hormones in the blood, and with weight fluctuations.
How do hormonal fluctuations affect immunity?
When a woman is in a state of prolonged stress, her immunity says goodbye. The immune system weakens considerably or, on the contrary, begins to aggressively. In the first case - the weakening of immune functions - you may have fatigue, weakness, irritability, you can constantly pick up somewhere flu, then a cold. Well, what a bad luck, you will breathe and you will not even think that all this is connected with hormonal changes that undercut immunity at the root.
The second - the hyperactivity of the immune system - is manifested by asthmatic reactions: rash, shortness of breath, irritability, palpitations. If you cut or scratch, the wound heals slowly and reluctantly.
They can be plagued by infections like the fungus on the feet or trichomoniasis. Lupus erythematosus or an unpleasant disease such as thyroiditis, may also be due to hormonal disruption and immune disorders. And blame stress and related changes in the body. Negative, unfortunately.
How stress affects the work of the ovaries
Their work under the influence of persistent disorders is suppressed. This means that the ovaries are no longer actively producing sex hormones. That is, the sex hormones in the body will be a disadvantage. The thyroid gland suffers from this first of all, becoming weak and also producing hormones reluctantly and little.
Stress, estradiol and sad consequences
The hormone estradiol, which the ovaries produce, affects your overall well-being. It is a hormone capable of inhibiting the production of other hormones (serotonin - the hormone of happiness, noreelineprin, aetylcholine, dopamine) at low levels in the body. Such a not very good union of weak hormone levels can cause general weakness in the form of insomnia or other sleep disorders, poor appetite, memory lapses, and mood swings.
Consider: if your body has a low level of estradiol, it will be much more difficult to cope with stresses and other loads (including workers) than with normal levels of estradiol. Therefore, it is worth checking the hormonal balance of the body and getting estradiol in the form of oral medications, if it is not enough.
When is estradiol not enough?
Estradiol levels can be progressively lower over the years. Know that it can inhibit the work of the brain, and then those around you see us tired and lethargic. With these symptoms, you should definitely consult an endocrinologist for consultation and examination.
Under what conditions does the estradiol level decrease and inhibit the work of the whole organism? Who is most at risk and in what periods of life?
- Premenstrual syndrome (pain in the head, back, abdomen, dizziness, irritability)
- Depression after childbirth
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
- Sharp weight fluctuations
- Constant and severe fatigue
- Frequent stress
- Period to menopause and during it
At this time, a hormonal imbalance may occur in the body: estradiol is produced little, and the level of stress hormones - cortisol and androgens - constantly fluctuates. This picture also adds the effect of estrogen on the fact that a woman begins to actively recover.
What else affects the dramatic weight gain
When the level of estrogen and estradiol hormones changes and their ratio changes accordingly. These are hormones that are secreted by the ovaries.
- The levels of DHEA, estradiol and testosterone are sharply reduced, and their ratio (balance) changes too.
- Progesterone in the body is much more than estrogen
- Androgen in the body is much higher than normal, the level of cortisol (stress hormone) is overwhelming, suppressing the level of estradiol
- A small amount of estradiol, which contributes to too powerful production of insulin (most often it happens in middle and old age)
- The thyroid gland produces less hormones, which slows down the metabolic processes in the body and leads to weight gain
Know that such a hormonal imbalance in combination with stress greatly inhibits all metabolic processes in the body. This contributes to the deposition of fat, especially on the sides and waist. Muscle mass at the same time - do not flatter yourself! - quickly lost. This is affected by the loss of hormones estradiol and testosterone, increased appetite and as a result - chronic fatigue and helplessness before stress.
What should be done?
So that you have everything in order with hormonal balance and weight, despite age and psychological problems, it is necessary to coordinate the level of testosterone, estradiol, thyroid hormones, DHEA, as well as insulin and cortisol. If you do not do this, with age your body will begin to change, accumulating fat on the sides and waist, as well as on the hips.
In due time consult with the endocrinologist and do not deprive yourself of well-being just because you are too lazy to take care of your health.
Hormones with monthly
Большинство реакций в организме идут с участием гормонов. Не является исключением и менструальный цикл. Объем данных веществ в крови неодинаков на каждом из его этапов, но обязан иметь определенные значения. Control over them is important, because hormones in menstruation have an impact not only on reproductive capabilities, but also the general condition of the female genital sphere, as well as psychological. The imbalance of these substances can cause many diseases of various organs and systems.
Critical days and hormones
Hormones have a major effect on the health, mood, appearance and appetite of women. Critical days are also a consequence of hormonal rhythms.
Before finding the relationship between critical days and hormones, you need to remember three main "regulators" of the female body:
1) Estrogen - The most female hormones that are produced by the ovaries from the onset of puberty to menopause. Estrogen begins to be produced in women in the womb, but in very small quantities. During puberty, the amount of estrogen produced is greatly increased, as evidenced by an increase in the sex glands and swelling of the nipples. Also these hormones responsible for the course of the menstrual cycle, help prevent atherosclerosis, are responsible for the action of the sebaceous glands, water-salt metabolism and bone strength.
2) Progesterone - pregnancy hormones. They affect the formation of a woman's body, hair growth, the development of genital organs, prepare the body for the birth of a child. During pregnancy, the level of progesterone increases greatly, and immediately after the birth of the child - drops sharply, this contributes to the formation of milk.
3) Testosterone - male sex hormones, which are also present in the body of a woman (10 times less). Thanks to their presence, the skeleton and the follicle develop, the bone marrow and sebaceous glands function normally, and the mood rises. Increased or increased testosterone levels lead to the development of diseases. Low content: uterine fibroids, osteoporosis, breast cancer, endometriosis. Increased content: violation menstrual cycle or the complete absence of ovulation, excessive hair growth and male body proportions, infertility.
The menstrual cycle is the period from the beginning of some menstrual periods to the beginning of others and, on average, lasts 28-30 days.
The entire menstrual cycle is divided into two phases:
1 phase - from the beginning of menstruation to the middle of the cycle (favorable),
2 phase - from the middle of the cycle and the beginning of the following menstruation (critical days).
It is in the second phase that most women feel not the best way. Aggressiveness, irritability, fatigue and tearfulness, sleep disturbances and headaches, acne, swelling of the legs and high blood pressure - these are critical days, the state of the body in which is determined by increasing or decreasing the level of the three main hormones. Estrogen deficiency leads to deterioration of appearance and well-being. With a reduced level of progesterone, critical days are painful, often changing mood.
Hormones have a great influence on the regularity and profusion of menstruation. In the first two years after the onset of menstruation, their irregularity and soreness is common. If the cycle is not regular and in a more adult age, the problem is a lack of progesterone and specialist advice is needed here. After 40 years, the cycle may be irregular due to the onset of the premenopausal period, hormone levels at this time are no longer indications.
Conclusion: hormones have a direct effect on critical days, so if the cycle is irregular, severe pains and heavy bleeding, you should contact a gynecologist and endocrinologist.
Changes in the hormonal background of the female body - a detailed description of each day of the month with recommendations from a general practitioner.
What makes a woman beautiful and easy, does not allow her to grow old? What allows a woman to be a mother? These are hormones, whose fluctuations in the level of our mood, attractiveness, desire, and performance sometimes depend.
The hormonal background of men does not have sharp fluctuations. From here their purposefulness, reliability, constancy and maximalism.
In women, everything is different: every day of the menstrual cycle, hormone production changes. From here our inconstancy, windiness and suddenness.
Probably almost every one of us is a “fury” a couple of days a month. However, mood swings are not the only “natural disaster” that can be foreseen, knowing how cyclical fluctuations of hormonal levels affect our lifestyle.
1 day cycle
The first day of the cycle is usually considered the day of the onset of menstrual bleeding. Against the background of a decrease in the concentration of the main "female" hormones (progesterone and estrogen), rejection of the endometrium begins - a thick layer of uterine mucosa, "feather beds", prepared by the body in case of a possible pregnancy.
The concentration of prostaglandins increases - mediators of pain, stimulants of uterine contractility. It is good for the body - the uterus contracts, throwing out the old endometrium and squeezing the bleeding vessels. And for us - one disorder: pain and heaviness in the lower abdomen.
Spasmolytics will help to relieve discomfort: No-shpa, Belastezin, Papaverin, Buscopan. But it is advisable not to take Aspirin, as this may increase blood loss.
In the ovaries, the most "advanced" follicle begins to develop, bearing the egg cell. Sometimes "advanced" is more than one, and then after successful fertilization, several babies can be born at once.
2 day cycle
So you want to be beautiful, but today the hormones are working against us. As a result of low estrogen production, the activity of the sweat and sebaceous glands increases. You have to spend half a day in the shower, devote more time to your face and more often correct makeup.
Hair changes its chemical structure and is less amenable to styling. The perm made during menstruation keeps less, so do not plan to visit the hairdresser these days.
Sensitivity to pain is still high. In order to avoid "thrills" it is better to postpone a visit to the dentist, epilation and other unpleasant manipulations for 4-5 days.
30-50 g of mulled wine from good red wine will help relieve stress and possible pain in the lower abdomen. However, a large amount of alcohol on these days is contraindicated: it can lengthen the flow of blood and increase blood loss.
3 day cycle
Particularly relevant phrase: "Clean - the guarantee of health!" In the uterus after rejection of the mucous forms a wound surface. And the cervix on these days is as open as possible, and therefore is the entrance gate for infection.
It is advisable to abstain from sex. However, if "you can not, but really want", then be sure to use barrier contraception. Remember that a condom will reduce the likelihood of infections, as well as prevent pregnancy, which is possible even these days.
4 day cycle
Critical days are coming to an end. The mood improves, and we feel a surge of strength and energy. However, do not overestimate yourself.
At this time, sports feats, repairs, furniture rearrangement and other activities associated with heavy physical exertion are contraindicated. But morning exercises will help reduce the duration of menstruation and blood loss.
5 day cycle
The healing process in the uterus ends. During normal menstruation, a woman usually loses about 100 ml of blood. Such blood loss stimulates the body's defenses, activates the metabolism, while being the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia in women from 13 to 50 years.
Therefore, it is useful to include iron-containing products in the diet - beef, liver, seafood, buckwheat, pomegranates, apples, dried apricots. As well as products rich in vitamin C: meat, leafy greens, currants, gooseberries, apples, citrus fruits, broth hips, juices, etc.
6 day cycle
If you want to lose weight, improve your body shape or achieve sports victories, start doing it today.
In the body, which was renewed after menstruation, the metabolism is accelerated - which means that extra calories burn faster, fat splits, muscle protein is synthesized more actively, the body's overall tone, strength and endurance increase.
7 day cycle
The "advanced" follicle in the ovaries, which is growing every day, forms more and more estrogens. At the same time, testosterone levels begin to grow, which in the female body is responsible for the qualities usually attributed to men: high performance, a sharp mind, a broad outlook, excellent memory and an ability to concentrate.
Therefore, this day is simply created for study and career growth. Estrogen and testosterone together drive off habitual drowsiness, give vivacity and freshness of thoughts better than the most expensive coffee. In the day if there appears an extra 25th hour - use!
8 day cycle
It's time to make yourself a beauty plan for the next week. Every day the concentration of estrogen in the blood increases - the main hormone of beauty and femininity. This means that the skin, hair, nails and body become the most susceptible to all kinds of cosmetic procedures and simply shine with health.
After the depilation performed on these days, the skin remains smooth and tender longer than usual. And the reason for that is not at all the newest formula of the cream after depilation, but a change in the hormonal background.
9, 10, 11 days of the cycle
A few days before ovulation. Usually days from the 9th are considered dangerous in terms of conceiving a child. However, if you are dreaming about the birth of a girl, your time has come!
There is a theory that sperm with the X chromosome (determining the female sex of the baby) longer than others can "expect" the release of an egg from the ovary in the female genital tract. Therefore, you have about 4-5 days left. And on the day of ovulation and immediately after it increases the opportunity to conceive a boy.
12 day cycle
To this day, thoughts about work and everyday difficulties are becoming increasingly distant, and about love, passion and tenderness - literally absorb all of your consciousness! The main hormones responsible for female sexuality and libido, occupy a leading position.
The woman increases the excitability, the sensitivity of erogenous zones, and even there is a special smell that can attract male attention, like pheromones. Therefore, some experts believe that the use of perfume in these days may even somewhat weaken our attractiveness for the stronger sex.
13 day cycle
The body accumulates the maximum amount of estrogen. This serves as a signal for the production of another hormone - luteinizing, which very quickly reaches its peak concentration and stops the growth of the follicle.
Now it contains a mature egg ready for ovulation and fertilization.
14 day cycle
Under the action of estrogen and luteinizing hormone, the wall of the mature follicle bursts, and the egg cell enters the abdominal cavity. At the same time a small amount of blood is poured into the abdominal cavity.
Some women may even feel soreness in the lower abdomen to the right or left (depending on the ovary in which the ovulation occurred).
Once in the abdominal cavity, the egg is immediately captured by the fallopian tube and embarks on a journey towards the "male".
On the day of ovulation, a woman has the highest libido and is able to experience the most vivid sensations of intimacy with a loved one. Sexologists argue that if a woman regularly abstains from sex on the days of ovulation (fearing an unwanted pregnancy) and does not experience an orgasm, then her libido can steadily decline with time.
To make it easier for spermatozoa to reach the egg, cervical mucus (the mucous membrane of the stopper, which closes the entrance to the uterus, protecting against infection) occurs. Therefore, casual sex on the day of ovulation is fraught with not only an unwanted pregnancy, but also a high risk of getting an STD.
On this day, the probability of conceiving twins. If during ovulation a woman leaves several eggs at once (there is usually a genetic predisposition for this), then with lucky circumstances all of them can be fertilized.
15 day cycle
In the ovary in place of the bursting follicle a yellow body begins to form. This is a special education, which, regardless of whether fertilization has occurred or not, will diligently prepare the body for pregnancy within 7-8 days.
The corpus luteum begins to produce the hormone progesterone, the main hormone of pregnancy. His goal is to turn an active and carefree girl into a future mother, carefully preserving her pregnancy.
16 day cycle
Progesterone begins the preparation of the uterine mucosa (endometrium) for implantation of the egg, each day the concentration of this hormone increases.
In this phase of the cycle, appetite increases, weight gain occurs most quickly. Be especially careful with carbohydrates. As a result of complex hormonal relationships, the body begins to demand more sweets and put them "in reserve" in the form of fat.
17 day cycle
Under the action of progesterone there is a decrease in the smooth muscle tone. As a result, peristalsis (undulating movement) of the intestine slows down. This can lead to bloating and constipation.
Therefore, try to enrich the diet with coarse fiber, dairy products.
18 day cycle
In case of a possible hunger strike, the body is fully stocked with nutrients for future use, as a result of which the fat metabolism also changes. There is an increase in cholesterol and harmful (atherogenic) fats. And their excess not only spoils the figure, but also creates an extra burden on the heart and blood vessels.
Therefore, try in this phase of the cycle to increase the proportion of vegetable fats in the daily diet and avoid gastronomic feats. In addition, it is useful to eat garlic and red fish, it helps reduce cholesterol.
19 day cycle
Despite the fact that ovulation has already occurred, during the second phase of the cycle, the body still has a fairly high level of testosterone, which increases our libido. Especially its production is enhanced in the morning.
This can be used to fill the dawn hours with passion and tenderness.
20 day cycle
To this day is the flowering of the yellow body. The concentration of progesterone in the blood reaches a peak value. The ovum, traveling through the fallopian tube, approaches the uterus. By this time, she is practically incapable of fertilization.
It is believed that from this day begin relatively safe days for fertilization.
21 day cycle
The concentration of luteinizing hormone decreases and the reverse development of the corpus luteum in the ovary begins. The concentration of estrogen and progesterone gradually decreases.
However, the level of progesterone and all its effects will be sufficiently pronounced until the beginning of the next cycle.
22 day cycle
The metabolism slows down, which is typical for the entire second phase of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone acts as an antidepressant: has a calming effect, relieves tension, anxiety, relaxes.
These days we are becoming "impenetrable" for reprimands from the boss, troubles and other stressful situations.
23 day cycle
Lowering levels of estrogen and elevated progesterone, potential bowel problems, carbohydrate abuse these days - all this is reflected on the face, especially if there is a predisposition to acne.
The activity of the sebaceous glands increases, the pores expand, the process of keratinization in the skin intensifies. Therefore, these days you need to pay more attention to diet and proper cleaning of the face.
24 day cycle
Under the action of progesterone, changes in the structure of the connective tissue occur: the ligaments become more extensible, hyper-mobility appears in the joints. There may be nagging pains in the spine and large joints.
The greatest number of injuries, especially those related to sports, women get exactly these days. One awkward movement can lead to stretching or dislocation, so be careful with yoga, gymnastics and other physical activities.
25 day cycle
Scientists have shown that these days a woman has a special smell that makes it clear to a man that there is a forced period of abstinence ahead.
Perhaps it is this fact that is the reason for the synchronization of the cycles of several women living for a long time together.
26, 27, 28 days of the cycle
Often the most difficult days for women and her loved ones. As a result of fluctuations in the level of hormones, a woman becomes sensitive and vulnerable, at which time she needs sensitive support.
The level of prostaglandins increases in the blood, the pain threshold decreases, the mammary glands become painful, the headache, constant daytime sleepiness, anxiety, apathy and irritability complement the picture. Is this not enough to spoil the mood?
Experts believe that sex and chocolate can be a wonderful medicine these days. However, with sex things are more complicated than with chocolate. Before menstruation, the level of all hormones that arouse passion in a woman decreases. According to doctors, in the premenstrual days the woman’s libido tends to zero.
But at the end of the cycle, some representatives of the fair sex, on the contrary, passion and desire wake up, sensitivity and sharpness of sensations increase. An explanation found by psychologists. They believe that these days women are not afraid of the thought of a possible pregnancy, which is why their sexual fantasies are becoming bolder, and their feelings brighter.
Конечно, у каждой женщины "гормональные часы" идут по-разному: у кого-то чуть спешат, укорачивая цикл до 20-21 дня, у других слегка замедляют ход — до 30-32 дней. 28-дневный цикл является лишь наиболее распространенным, поэтому составить точный и универсальный гормональный календарь невозможно. Every woman will have to adapt it for themselves.
However, the general patterns of fluctuations in hormonal levels and the associated changes in the body persist. Not knowing these features, we sometimes start to fight with our own hormones: we sit on the strictest diet, when the body tries to do everything in store, forget about the face, when it needs the most intense care, or scold ourselves for being too cold with your loved one our sensuality is on "forced vacation".
Having made some changes in the usual way of life, you can make the hormones work with double force, making us more attractive, vigorous, cheerful and desirable!
What will tell hormones
The study of the hormonal profile is necessary for women who have some gynecological diseases for the selection of treatment and prevention of complications that may be associated with this. The main reasons for research on hormones are:
- violation of the menstrual cycle,
- infertility in couples
- polycystic ovarian change,
- acne and acne that are not amenable to conventional treatment,
- a statement of menopause or premature ovarian exhaustion,
- during pregnancy with the threat of interruption,
- juvenile bleeding in girls, amenorrhea or other disorders.
Most often, a hormonal profile is needed to identify the causes of infertility. The survey is the most complete.
Studying the hormonal profile of a woman will make it possible to identify whether the first and second phases are complete, whether ovulation occurs, whether estrogen and progesterone levels are sufficient to prepare the endometrium for implantation of the ovum, whether there is an excess of male sex hormones, prolactin, thyroid gland disorders may affect ovulation.