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A cervical biopsy is “pinching off” a piece of mucous membrane from a suspicious part of the cervix. A biopsy of any organ is the most reliable way to make a definitive diagnosis, because pathological tissue is examined directly, and in this case a unique way to clarify the type of disease and, most importantly, to detect cancer lesions at an early stage. It does not require cutting the abdomen or chest. The procedure is carried out fairly quickly and often does not require hospitalization.

From anatomy

It would seem that the very phrase "cervix" suggests that the cervix is ​​a part of something. Historically, that is, there is a body of the uterus and neck. But with many years of observation, treatment of various pathologies, and observation of pregnant women, the opinion began to emerge that the cervix is ​​still a very special organ with its own structure of structure and specific diseases.

The length of the cervix is ​​normally about 3-4 cm, width is about 2.5-3 cm. Its shape is cylindrical, the external pharynx opens into the vagina, and the internal one into the uterine cavity.

We pay attention to this aspect, because cervical diseases are now not uncommon even in young and non-pregnant women.

And it is all the more alarming, because the cervix is ​​a visually accessible organ. And by all standards, the patient should visit the gynecologist once a year. And on this visit, she should take a smear on the flora (it turns out that there is no inflammation, vaginal dysbiosis, etc.) and a cytological examination from the cervix (scraping cancer cells from the cervix), and the doctor also examines the cervix in the mirrors.

Cervical dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia is atypical (pathological) changes in the tissues of the vaginal part of the cervix. Unlike erosion, dysplasia penetrates deeper, has three stages and threatens the development of a pathological process up to cancer. In these cases, instrumental and laboratory diagnostics play a key role, because a woman may not be disturbed by anything until the severe stage of the disease. There is no pain, no unusual discharge, or irregular menstruation. When performing a biopsy, the accuracy of diagnosis is almost one hundred percent, which means that we will be able to make a decision on treatment / surgery / observation as quickly as possible.

Cervical ectopia

Ectopia of the cervix - this is a condition where the tissue, which is normally located in the cervical canal (inside the cervix), as if "creeps" out and we find it on the outer throat of the cervix. In itself, this state is not dangerous, but in order to calm down and just be observed in a planned manner 1 time per year, it is necessary to exclude more formidable diagnoses.

Leukoplakia necks

Leukoplakia is the formation of "white plaques" on the cervical mucosa. The word “leukoplakia” itself means “white plaque”. On the cervix, areas are formed that have a denser structure and are unevenly stained during colposcopy. When conducting a biopsy, the crucial issue is solved - it is a simple leukoplakia and it is observed, or it is an atypical leukoplakia (a precancerous condition) that should be actively treated. Treatment in this case may involve a very wide range of interventions, from destruction (by electric current, laser) to the removal of part or all of the neck.

Cervical Polyps

Cervical polyps are outgrowths of the mucous membranes that resemble warts and have a diverse and often mixed origin (hormonal disruption, genital infections, mechanical injuries during abortions and diagnostic curettage, age-related changes).

Polyps may not manifest themselves, and then, on examination by a gynecologist, this becomes a godsend. And it may happen that a woman comes with complaints of bleeding after sexual intercourse, pain and other manifestations. In any case, polyps should be removed and examined histologically. And in this case, we are also most afraid of cervical cancer.

Genital warts

Genital warts or anogenital warts are formations on the mucous membranes (including the neck) and skin. This disease is caused by the human papillomavirus and also threatens to degenerate into cancer. During a biopsy, it is determined at what stage, at the moment the disease is and whether it is not necessary to take more active actions than observation and drug treatment (antiviral drugs).

Questionable or pathological Pap test result (Pap test)

A pap test or the usual “cytology” from the cervix is ​​a screening test, that is, an examination that is carried out to all women who apply to at least once a year. This is necessary in order to identify suspicion of oncology. If cancer cells are suspected to be scraped from the cervix, you should not hesitate and perform a biopsy.

Changes detected during colposcopy

A colposcopy is an examination of the cervix under a microscope, while the cervix is ​​treated with iodine and acetoacetic acid solutions. There are standards for how the neck should look normal and after treatment with solutions. If the colposcopic picture is not correct, then the diagnosis should be deepened and in some cases a biopsy should be performed.

Detection of HPV infection

HPV (Human Papillomavirus) is an oncogenic virus that is sexually transmitted and can trigger cervical cancer. HPV has a number of strains (types of virus) that are dangerous in different ways and cause different types of lesions (from papillomas and anogenital warts to cancer). If the examination revealed the presence of high oncogenic risk in HPV scrapings (16, 18, 31, 33, 39), then it is advisable to follow up on the maximum. Cervical cancer detected at an early stage, especially cancer in situ, is perfectly treatable and rarely recurs.

In situ cancer is literally “cancer in place”, that is, a small accumulation of cancer cells that have not yet spread and there is a chance to recover completely.

I and III trimesters of pregnancy

In the first trimester, manipulation of the cervix can provoke the risk of miscarriage. This is due to the mechanical effect on the cervical tissue, pain and the risk of inflammation.

In the second trimester, the situation is in many respects the most stable, the child is already growing, it is tightly attached (unlike the first trimester), but not so large in size.

In the third trimester of pregnancy, the baby is already large, the cervix is ​​shortened in vivo, and if we add our intervention, we can provoke premature birth. In this case, diagnostic manipulations should be postponed to “after delivery”. After childbirth, a woman should come to the local gynecologist (or the gynecologist who had a pregnancy) a couple of days after discharge from the maternity hospital, and then after 1.5-2 months. During the second visit, the question should be decided whether an in-depth survey is necessary. By this time, the tissues of the birth canal have almost recovered, and the diagnosis will be reliable.

Blood clotting disorder

Disorder of blood coagulation is expressed in varying degrees. For severe coagulation disorders, frequent bleeding, spontaneous formation of bruises of different sizes, you should first choose all possible minimally invasive (non-traumatic) research methods, and resort to biopsy, as a last resort.

If the coagulation disorder is non-critical, then the procedure should be performed under the cover of drugs for blood coagulation. The names and the regimen of medication you will appoint a therapist or hematologist (specialist in blood diseases).

This also includes patients who take blood-thinning drugs. We must remember that patients are sick not only of those who came to us. It is possible that a woman in the past had a stroke, myocardial infarction and venous thrombosis, and she takes aspirin, warfarin, xarelto, or other blood thinning drugs. If we prescribe a biopsy procedure, we must clarify which drugs the patient is taking. When clarifying such facts, the patient must visit a general practitioner / cardiologist / vascular surgeon to clarify whether the drug should be canceled and how long before the biopsy should be done. And also when to resume taking, in order to avoid bleeding from the genital tract and not to provoke the formation of blood clots.

Examination before biopsy

  1. Complete blood count (primarily interested in the presence of inflammation and the number of coagulation elements - platelets)
  2. Hemostasiogram (blood clotting test)
  3. Vaginal smear on flora + gonococci, Trichomonas
  4. Cytological smear (Pap test)
  5. Colposcopy (examination of the cervix under a microscope)
  6. A blood test for STIs (chlamydia, mycoplasma) by PCR
  7. Blood test for HIV and hepatitis B and C by ELISA
  8. RMP (microprecipitation reaction to syphilis)

How is a biopsy done? Does it hurt?

A biopsy is usually scheduled for 5-6 days after menstruation, that is, approximately 9-13 days of the cycle (should be considered from 1 day of menstruation). If a woman is in menopause and there are no monthly periods, then on any given day given the above contraindications.

A cervical biopsy can be done in several ways. The type of intervention depends on the age of the patient, on whether she gave birth or not, on preliminary diagnosis and complaints. Almost after all types of biopsy, the patient feels some pain during the procedure (it is very short in time) and 5-6 days after.

Target biopsy

A colposcope is used for targeted biopsy. A colposcope is a special microscope for examining the cervix and vagina. This allows you to minimize the risk of inaccurate diagnosis and get a reliable result. Therefore, this type of research is considered the simplest and at the same time accurate and is mentioned first.

The patient lies on a chair, a gynecologist inserts mirrors into the vagina and adjusts the colposcope to obtain the clearest picture.

When the gynecologist determines for himself the most suspicious areas, he applies iodine solution to them. This allows you to make them even more clear and mark the boundaries.

Further tactics may vary. There is a conchotomic and aspiration biopsy.

In the first case, a slice of mucous is taken from each suspicious area with a special instrument - a conchotome (similar to scissors with a pointed end), approximately 3 × 5 mm.

In the second, a special needle is used, and then a puncture is taken from each desired area (a needle is sucked into the needle). If there are many plots, then each piece is placed in a separate container and labeled accordingly.

The biopsy sites are then processed and the patient is allowed to go home. If there are complaints of heavy bleeding, fever, then a referral to a gynecological hospital is possible.

Normally, after a biopsy, the patient for 5-6 days marked bleeding from moderate to scarce, as well as discomfort and moderately painful sensations in the perineum.

Radio wave

In this case, the Surgitron apparatus is used to take a biopsy. The essence of the procedure is that the biopsy (a piece of tissue) is captured with the help of a loop through which a radio wave charge is passed. The positive aspects of this method are that:

  • the tissue does not heat up, and histology results are not distorted,
  • This method can be used on nonparty, since scars are not formed, and the neck is not deformed,
  • there is no risk of bleeding, since the vessels are sealed after exposure,
  • no risk of infection.

This type of biopsy is already carried out in the hospital (day or round-the-clock) and is a more extensive intervention than previous methods.

It is necessary to prepare, pass on smears for flora and, if necessary, treat inflammation. If necessary, you will have to pass tests for genital infections. Untreated inflammation, against the background of which a knife intervention was carried out, can lead to the spread of infection throughout the pelvis and will have to do an open operation. These are completely undesirable complications and it is better to prevent them.

A woman is warned that for 2 days you should not live sexually, put candles / tablets and tampons into the vagina, you should not douche.

On the day of surgery in the morning you can not drink and eat, you can not smoke.

The procedure is performed under anesthesia, the type of anesthesia is chosen individually. Short-term intravenous anesthesia is most commonly used. The same anesthesia is used in the case of medical abortions, medical-diagnostic curettage and hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus with video equipment). Local anesthesia can also be used.

Further, the technique is similar to the aiming biopsy: the cervix is ​​removed in the mirrors, adjust the colposcope and process the mucous membrane with iodine solution. The suspicious area is excised completely, the resulting tissue is placed in a stabilizing solution (formalin 10%).

In this case, the circle of the mucous membrane is surgically removed from the external pharynx of the cervix. This type of intervention combines diagnostic and therapeutic measures.

Cervical curettage

In this case, the material is taken not only from the outer throat of the cervix. Scraping of the cervical canal is also performed. Histological material is also packaged in separate containers. This is necessary in order to determine the localization of the pathological process and determine the method of treatment.

What can be learned after a biopsy

According to the results of the biopsy, we make a final diagnosis, which determines the further tactics of treatment.

The result of a biopsy excludes cancer or confirms it. With the exclusion of cancer, the histological conclusion should confirm another diagnosis: polyp, condyloma, leukoplakia, erosion, and others.

Depending on the conclusion, treatment tactics can vary considerably. From local erosion treatment to surgery.

Lower abdominal pain

Usually pains are cramping or pulling in nature, intensity from mild to moderate. With severe pain, accompanied by fever, bleeding, the appearance of discharge with an unpleasant odor, lower blood pressure (weakness, dizziness, nausea) - you must contact the duty gynecology.

Normally, there may be mild or moderate pain over the womb up to 5 days.

Monthly after cervical biopsy

After the biopsy procedure, menstrual irregularities may occur. In most cases, periods come as usual, but can become more painful in the first 1-2 cycles.

Earlier arrival of menstruation due to hormonal disruption, infectious complications after the procedure. Spotting within 1 week after diagnosis should not be considered monthly, it is healing the mucous membrane. Normal menstruation should be accompanied by your usual sensations. Someone before the monthly swelling of the chest, someone notices swelling or excessive emotionality and irritability. If the bleeding has begun, but you are not sure that this is normal menstruation, then it is better to consult a doctor again.

The delay of menstruation after a biopsy is also not uncommon and is most often associated with psycho-emotional stress experienced by a woman going to the procedure for the first time. If menstruation does not occur within normal periods, make sure that there is no pregnancy (test strips for chorionic gonadotropin in the urine or a well-known pregnancy test). A delay of no more than 1 cycle should not greatly frighten the patient. If the next cycle of monthly came, as usual, then additional examination and treatment is not needed. If you do not come, then you should go to the gynecologist.

Inflammation

As a rule, this is a consequence of an undertreated, latent infection or a violation of the regimen (below we will tell you what not to do after the biopsy procedure). With the appearance of unusual discharge, itching and burning in the perineum, increased urination, it is urgent to contact a gynecologist at the place of residence.

Where can I perform a cervical biopsy. Price of the procedure

A biopsy of the cervix is ​​performed in day clinics for antenatal clinics, in cervical pathology rooms, 24-hour gynecological inpatient facilities and equipped private clinics.

In the direction of the LCD and the appointment of a local obstetrician-gynecologist in public clinics biopsy is performed free of charge.

In private clinics, the cost of biopsy ranges from 2,000 to 12,000 rubles.

Conclusion: in this way, cervical biopsy is an accessible, informative and safe (with all the rules), a method for diagnosing cancer and other diseases of the cervix. Если вам предлагают выполнить биопсию, то не следует бояться. Следите за собой и будьте здоровы!

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More about the procedure

Cervical biopsy procedure

Biopsy is the taking of parts of the modified tissues of the reproductive organs (cervix, endometrium) for further study with the aim of making a diagnosis. With its help, you can identify any changes that have occurred with them, including at the cell level.

A biopsy is performed in several ways, using different tools, depending on the capabilities of the clinic and the existing need. But in any case, one of the results of the manipulation is tissue damage.

Hence, there is a high probability that the monthly ones that come after the biopsy will look different. And the timing of their offensive, too, may change.

The effect on menstruation time

Regular replacement of the mucous membrane of the uterus is very easy to break. It depends on many factors that are associated with the work of the nervous system, endocrine and, of course, sexual.

There is no doubt whether the biopsy can affect the period of menstruation. There are several explanations for this:

  • Biopsy as a whole is a low-impact procedure, but it is not done every day, so the bravest and most calm woman will inevitably experience anxiety associated with her. And stress can shift menstruation for a long time. In some of its forms, intravenous administration of anesthetics is prescribed, which makes it easy to transfer the procedure, but it may interfere with the normalization of the cycle. Without anesthesia, the distancing of menstruation is promoted by postponed discomfort.
  • Delayed menstruation after a biopsy of the cervix may also occur due to some traumatization of its epithelium. When menstruation goes the mucous cavity of the body. It would not be a mistake to assume that the biopsy affects the uterus itself. Mechanical trauma requires tissue healing, and reproductive system resources are directed to it. Menstruation is receding into the background.
  • A biopsy of the cervix of the cervix is ​​not always guilty in its absence; the delay in menstruation may occur due to a disease that forced the procedure to be carried out. These include erosions, dysplasias, carcinomas, and cancer.
  • Delayed menstruation after a biopsy can be caused by complications that have arisen. This is probably due to the negligence of the doctor, but more often it is the fault of the patient when she does not comply with the regime and hygiene. During the healing period, they are very important, as there is a wound in the site of tissue collection that is easily susceptible to the occurrence of infection.
  • Sometimes, if menstruation does not begin after a biopsy, it makes sense to check for pregnancy. Before the procedure, specialists do a lot of tests, but the patient can take the word for her absence. And women sometimes make mistakes in this regard.

Early menstruation

Some women celebrate not a delay, but a faster arrival of critical days. In this regard, they are interested in: can the monthly after biopsy begin prematurely? This happens due to hormonal disruption caused by stress, when estrogen and progesterone levels decrease, as well as hemoglobin levels in the blood.

It is important to monitor not only the consistency of the discharge and volume, but also the attendant sensations. During menstruation, symptoms are noted in the mammary glands in the form of engorgement, drowsiness or irritability is felt.

If there is nothing of this, and the bleeding goes, is supplemented with an elevated temperature, gradually acquires an unpleasant smell, it means that a complication has happened after the manipulation. A doctor should come with him before the prescribed appointment. An infection is likely to have to be treated before the main disease can be dealt with.

Sometimes it seems to a woman that her period after a biopsy began earlier. In fact, it may be a selection resulting from the healing of wounds on the mucous membrane. Usually they are watery, but with inclusions of blood, so they are similar to premenstrual daubs.

It can not be for 2 weeks or more (it depends on the level of tissue damage during biopsy):

  • Lug heavy
  • Syringe,
  • Have sex
  • Use vaginal tampons for any purpose,
  • To take a bath,
  • Steam bath.

Manipulation

When the need for a procedure arises, the time for this is chosen based on:

  • The availability of taking the necessary for the study of tissue,
  • Informative research,
  • Possibilities of the subsequent healing of tissues.

Many women do not understand whether it is possible to do a biopsy during menstruation. After all, the selection can interfere with the analysis and distort its results. On the other hand, in this period the neck is softened and expanded, access to the altered tissues is open.

Given this, biopsy during menstruation is performed most frequently, but should be due to completion, when the discharge comes out at a minimum, but the cervical canal is still ajar. This period is also chosen by a specialist because one can be sure that the patient is not pregnant. In this state, it is undesirable to carry out the manipulation.

Biopsy for menstruation is also justified by the fact that at this stage it is physiological. During the healing process, nothing will prevent him, since it takes 10-14 days and will take just a non-menstrual period.

We recommend reading the article about the amount of blood secreted in the normal during menstruation. You will learn about the volume of discharge and their composition, as well as what can be caused by heavy or scanty menstruation.

Before menstruation

A biopsy of the cervix before menstruation is also possible. Often it is made in the diagnosis of "erosion", the treatment of which is carried out just in the last of the critical days. If changes in the epithelium are found on the external surface of the organ, and the internal remains clean, the time of manipulation in the cycle does not matter much.

A biopsy of the cervix before menstruation can be scheduled and when the study needs to be done urgently, and the results can be obtained quickly. In this case, in addition to the usual tests for infection, flora and cytology, blood is also donated to hCG to exclude pregnancy.

A biopsy before the menstruation is performed if the endometrium is to be examined. With infertility, its tissues will give more information when they are taken on the 17-23 day of the cycle, with heavy menstrual flow by 10, and suspicions of cancer and uterine bleeding do not imply a certain period in the cycle.

Changes in the nature of menstruation

Monthly after a biopsy of the cervix can maintain their usual parameters. If the intervention was minimal, went well, completely painless and without anesthesia, the woman had no reason for fear, menstruation had no reason to change.

But this is not the case in all cases. The volume of tissue for research is sometimes required considerable, they are taken in several places, that is, the epithelium is damaged seriously. And in complex cases, several layers are studied, for which a wedge-shaped piece of tissue is needed. Then do not worry that after a biopsy came monthly:

  • A lot. The main reason for this is hormonal failure and tissue trauma. The cervix produces mucus in normal mode, and damage to the epithelium increases its number due to the need for healing. Abundant menstruation after a biopsy, there are also when blood clotting is insufficient, which may contraindicate the manipulation. But if the doctor deems it necessary, he will do the research, and the patient's menstruation will be intense.

  • In a smaller number in comparison with the average. After a biopsy, scanty periods can be caused both by a nervous breakdown, which affects the balance of hormones in the direction of a decrease, and by a disease that triggered the need for examination. Sometimes for menstruation, women take the discharge resulting from the healing of wounds on the epithelium.
  • Durable in time. After a cervical biopsy, menstruation takes a long time, if it was performed in the second phase of the cycle. At this stage, the endometrium is as fat and loose as possible. Intervention can prevent it from thinning, and also disrupts hormonal balance. Allocations are long and uneven. The duration of the process is provoked by injury to the epithelium. To the menstrual flow are added watery, characteristic of the healing of mucous membranes.

Implications for the cycle

Endometrial examination is a more complicated and traumatic procedure. In addition, the part of the organ that is replaced during menstruation is directly affected. Accordingly, the monthly after endometrial biopsy may present more surprises. Not always the woman understands, postoperative is bleeding or full menstruation. But it is important that:

  • The amount of discharge did not go beyond the usual monthly. The appearance of small clots,
  • There was not much pain. Slight abating in the abdominal region is normal,
  • There was no foul odor and temperature.

In order not to provoke cycle difficulties and complications, the regime after manipulation with the endometrium is the same as when taking material from the cervical epithelium.

The problem that may arise with such a study is that there is no menstrual period after the biopsy pipel. This method is the least expensive in terms of pain and time of manipulation. But with it, you can take on the study of the layers of the endometrium from different parts of the uterus, which provokes a longer wait for critical days.

Peipel biopsy done when:

  • Endometriosis,
  • Infertility
  • Mezhmenstrualnye bleeding, which themselves can cause a delay.

Monthly post-biopsy should be monitored more carefully than ever.

The manipulation itself is in principle safe, carried out and helps in the diagnosis for more than a decade. The wrong behavior of the woman after her can lead to negative consequences, as well as possible medical errors.

At the same time, you should not be afraid of the irreparable, the body will survive stress, and everything will be fine. But all doubts should be discussed in the doctor’s office and resolved there.

Biopsy during menstruation

Many women are wondering which day of the cycle it is better to take an aspirate from the uterus. Medical specialists are confident that the most favorable days when it is necessary to carry out a diagnostic event are 8-13 days of the menstrual cycle (its beginning falls on the first day of the regulation). Then the affected tissues and wounds will have time to recover until the next arrival of critical days.

But sometimes there are emergency situations when physicians do a biopsy of the cervix or the internal cavity of the uterine body during menstruation. This event is not aesthetic, but quite acceptable and possible.

No discharge

Often in women who have recently undergone endometrial or cervical biopsy, there is a delayed menstruation.

The main cause of this phenomenon is considered damage to the inner, protective membrane of the uterine body (endometrium). It was she who, during the Regul period, is rejected and removed from the female body. But in the event that the integrity of the epithelial tissue is broken, the body will direct all forces to the healing of the wound, which will lead to the absence of menstruation.

In addition to the above reasons, the delay can be provoked not by a diagnostic procedure, but by a disease leading to it. Most often it is:

  • Erosion,
  • Dysplasia,
  • Carcinoma,
  • Oncological diseases,
  • Benign lesions (fibroids, polyps, cysts).

Also, the absence of critical days may indicate inappropriate biopsy by a doctor or improper hygiene. After such a diagnostic event, it is very important to follow all the recommendations of the doctor, monitor the cleanliness of the genitals and limit yourself from certain activities (sexual intercourse, weight lifting, intensive exercise).

Early periods

After the patient takes an aspirate for a study, menstruation may not only be absent, but also come too soon.

This phenomenon can also occur due to hormonal imbalance. But it is very important for a woman to understand whether the discharge after a biopsy is monthly. If the hemorrhage from the vagina is accompanied by an increase in breast volume, drowsiness, irritability and nagging sensations in the lower abdomen, then you should not worry. However, if such symptoms of PMS (premenstrual syndrome) are absent, then you should immediately consult a qualified gynecologist for a consultation. Sometimes this phenomenon is a uterine bleeding, as a result of which serious and life-threatening consequences can develop.

Also indicate the presence of a pathological process can increased body temperature and fetid odor excreted bloody secretion. Most likely, these signs indicate the ingestion of a woman of infectious micronutrients. It is very important to visit the doctor in time and get proper medical care.

How menstruation changes

Sometimes menstrual periods after a biopsy of the cervix or its cavity may noticeably change its character. This happens if during the procedure a woman was given some types of pharmacological drugs, a diagnostic exercise was performed by an inexperienced doctor, there was serious damage to the internal epithelium or a sample affected by pathology, soft tissues were taken at several places. Then it is not surprising that the amount, duration or type of menstrual flow may vary. The most common changes are:

  • Overly abundant regulyla - result from a serious hormonal imbalance and a significant damage to the internal tissues. The uterine cervix produces a secretory fluid, and with an injury to the mucous membranes, the synthesis of secretions increases significantly, which provokes more intense periods. Also, this phenomenon is observed in the case when a woman has a worsened blood clotting (often a contraindication for biopsy),
  • Scanty bleeding - the cause of this phenomenon, as a rule, is stress or the progression of the disease, for the detection of which the aspiration of the pelvic organs was prescribed. Also, girls are often mistaken for scanty menstrual flow with blood particles that appear during the healing of the wound formed during the procedure,
  • Prolonged critical days are most often observed if an internal study was carried out during the second phase of the cycle. It is at this point that the protective layer of the uterus - the endometrium is the most loose, strong and thick. Intervention in the uterine cavity can trigger a worsened process, the thinning of this layer and the change in the level of hormones. That is why a woman will observe a prolonged discharge of menstrual blood with a large amount of watery secretory fluid.

Impact on the arrival of monthly

During the biopsy, the endometrium is damaged. Therefore, in the first days after the procedure, the woman has spotting. They end in 2-3 days. The arrival of the following menstruation depends on which day of the cycle the biopsy was performed. Typically, menstruation begins 21-28 days after surgery, as it is customary to do in the first half of the cycle.

Content

To diagnose some serious gynecological diseases, it is not enough to examine and examine a smear taken from the vagina. Doctors, suspecting the presence of a serious illness, prescribe a biopsy of the cervix. What is this procedure? How is a cervical biopsy performed? Do painful effects occur when a doctor performs the necessary manipulations? In these questions we have to figure it out.

Informative and simple procedure

The cervix is ​​the canal that connects the vagina and the genital organ. Довольно часто гинекологи при осмотре женщин обнаруживают изменения эпителия, который выстилает шейку матки. Под маской воспаления могут скрываться различные серьезные заболевания. Для того чтобы убедиться, что это не онкология, назначается биопсия. Процедура позволяет выявить не только рак, но и предраковые состояния, различные аномалии.

Endocervical (cervical biopsy) - mucus is scraped from the cervix (from the endocervix) using anesthesia.

Puncture - when using a special hollow needle (removal of tissue fragments).

Laser - areas are removed (biopsy of the cervix) with a laser knife, the procedure is performed in the hospital under short-term general anesthesia.

Incisional - excision of a piece of tissue or organ with a scalpel.

Puncture is performed by puncturing the cannula of the studied formation (biopsy of tumors of the lymph nodes, bones, pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, liver, lungs).

If pathology is found in the cervix, it is necessary to investigate its character at the cellular and tissue levels. A biopsy is performed to detect condyloma, leukoplakia, epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma, endocervicitis, and other pathological processes.

Usually, a biopsy is prescribed only if suspected that erosion is a symptom of a malignant tumor.

Conclusion

A biopsy is considered an absolutely safe operation. Despite this, a small risk of developing complications is present. To avoid them, a woman must adhere to the recommendations of the doctor and monitor the hygiene of the genitals. Any changes in the nature of menstruation must be reported to the gynecologist. It is especially important to pay attention to the accompanying symptoms - the degree of pain, body temperature, well-being, etc. With the right approach, biopsy helps to diagnose a gynecological disease in time.

Preparing and conducting a cervical biopsy

A vaginal speculum is inserted into the vagina, and the cervix is ​​fixed with bullet forceps. A cervical biopsy can be performed in several ways:

  • with a scalpel followed by suturing of the cervix, with a curette (spoon) for the cervical canal, with special biopsy forceps (a piece of mucous is pinched off)
  • using an electrocautery, laser (coagulation of the excised tissue occurs) Then the cervix is ​​treated with a solution of silver nitrate or potassium permanganate.

Preparation for cervical biopsy

  1. Pinch method. With the help of special forceps pinch off pieces (piece) of tissue. A wound on the surface of the neck heals in 4-5 days.
  2. Loopback tip (painless radio wave method) of the special apparatus "Surgitron" without further rehabilitation.
  3. Method of cervix cervix: excision of the cone-shaped fragment in order to diagnose and treat pathological areas through their removal. Carried out using the apparatus FOTEK E80M or "Surgitron".

Preparatory period before biopsy

Before performing a biopsy of the cervix:

But this is not the case in all cases. The volume of tissue for research is sometimes required considerable, they are taken in several places, that is, the epithelium is damaged seriously. And in complex cases, several layers are studied, for which a wedge-shaped piece of tissue is needed. Then do not worry that after a biopsy came monthly:

  • A lot. The main reason for this is hormonal failure and tissue trauma. The cervix produces mucus in normal mode, and damage to the epithelium increases its number due to the need for healing. Abundant menstruation after a biopsy, there are also when blood clotting is insufficient, which may contraindicate the manipulation. But if the doctor deems it necessary, he will do the research, and the patient's menstruation will be intense.

  • In a smaller number in comparison with the average. After a biopsy, scanty periods can be caused both by a nervous breakdown, which affects the balance of hormones in the direction of a decrease, and by a disease that triggered the need for examination. Sometimes for menstruation, women take the discharge resulting from the healing of wounds on the epithelium.
  • Durable in time. After a cervical biopsy, menstruation takes a long time, if it was performed in the second phase of the cycle. At this stage, the endometrium is as fat and loose as possible. Intervention can prevent it from thinning, and also disrupts hormonal balance. Allocations are long and uneven. The duration of the process is provoked by injury to the epithelium. To the menstrual flow are added watery, characteristic of the healing of mucous membranes.

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