What happens in a woman's body during menstruation?


Let's talk about the time when a woman begins her period. For many women, the appearance of cramps and bloating, a bad mood is just the tip of the iceberg in talking about the side effects of this physiological phenomenon. It turns out that the monthly cycle can force the body of women to serious changes, and some of them they do not even suspect.

Next, we list only some changes in the body that occur at this time.

Your voice changes

Recent studies have shown that women who do not use any form of hormonal contraception may experience certain minor fluctuations in the voice timbre (it becomes slightly lower than usual). And surely some professional singers notice that their ability to play high notes varies in different periods of the menstrual cycle.

According to experts, this is due to changes in the level of sex hormones, which naturally fluctuates during the appearance of menstruation in a woman. This is a normal phenomenon, and do not worry.

You may have problems with your teeth or your mouth.

But experts say that hormonal changes that occur in the body due to the menstrual cycle can also lead to problems such as gingival inflammation or increased tooth sensitivity.

It may even spread to the entire jaw. Although in our time there is little research on this issue, but women suffering from TMJ (dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint), oddly enough, say that the pain in the affected area is aggravated during menstruation.

Headache - companion of menstruation

Headache and migraines are frequent on critical days. Unfortunately, the causes of this unpleasant symptom are still not fully understood. Some researchers argue that the cause of vascular disorders, aggravated during this period, because the load on the vessels increases markedly.

In addition, toxins can also cause headaches, which during menstruation are released into the blood by various organs. The blood also dumps these substances into the intestines. But in the case when it is clogged with various sediments, toxins, instead of getting rid of the body along with feces, are again absorbed into the blood. By the way, therefore, women during menstruation often feel not only a headache, but also aches throughout the body.

Bath banned?

Probably, it is not a secret to anyone that the habit of soaking in a hot bath is prohibited during menstruation. Doctors do not recommend women to get involved in this, as high water temperatures can cause increased bleeding.

In addition, during menstruation, the cervix is ​​slightly ajar, due to which there is a risk of getting an infection that can trigger gynecological diseases. This is especially true of those who like to swim in small ponds and pools.

You may look a little awkward.

If you do not need to demonstrate super-sharpness, then this point should not strain you. The fact is that, according to doctors, the menstrual cycle can make a woman a little more prone to accidents. This is most often associated with increased fatigue, as well as a delay in the body fluid that can affect the brain (which, in turn, can cause some impairment of coordination).

Observed sleep disorders

Good night rest can also be a problem when you have menstruation. This may be due to a number of unpleasant symptoms that have arisen on critical days, such as cramps, headache, nausea and irritability, which usually bother a woman during this period.

Judging by the data of the National Sleep Foundation, it was found that 23% of women begin to experience these irregularities a week before the onset of menstruation, and 30% reported experiencing this problem throughout their periods.

What happens in the body during menstruation?

Shortly before the end of the cycle, the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the uterus is ready to receive a fertilized egg. But if fertilization does not occur, the level of hormones in the blood drops sharply, and this entails a whole chain of processes. As a result, the mucosa begins to decay and exfoliate, subsequently exiting along with the blood.

These phenomena do not occur immediately over the entire mucosal surface, but gradually. Flowing blood is a result of individual small bleeding, which lasts no more than an hour, until the endometrial particles are completely rejected from the entire surface.

The normal duration of menstruation is on average from three to five days. But it is not considered an anomaly as long periods up to 8 days, and short two days. As a rule, the duration of menstruation is increased if the woman uses a spiral, and reduced if the pill is taken.

How much blood is lost per month?

From 50 to 100 grams. Such losses are very quickly compensated by the female body. The statement that menstruation can lead to anemia is fundamentally wrong. It may occur if the monthly are too very often or they are very abundant.

The duration of menstruation, as well as the amount of blood secreted from each woman are individual and may vary from cycle to cycle. The profusion and duration of menstruation is directly dependent on the density of the mucous.

Where does blood flow from during menstruation?

It flows out of the uterus through the opening of the cervix, lingering briefly in the vagina, and then out through the opening in the hymen. There are cases when there is no hole in the pleve. Fortunately, they are very rare and easily recognized. The accumulation of blood in the vagina causes acute pain, but a small surgical incision will solve this problem.

Where does menstrual odor come from?

Discharges during menstruation are sterile, despite their brown color. They come from the womb, and not at all infectious, and not dirty. They get their smell when they are in the vagina, they are always germs. If you do not like the smell, try to change the gaskets more often and sometimes do syringing the vagina with warm water.

Phases of the menstrual cycle

All the representatives of the weaker sex have had menstruation every month since puberty - bleeding, sometimes accompanied by weakness and painful sensations in the genital area.

Gynecologists, answering the question of how menstruation occurs, explain this regular phenomenon by the peculiarities of the hormonal system of women, and according to the processes occurring in the body, they divide the whole cycle into phases.


Experts identify 2 phases of the regulation cycle:

  1. Ovarian, associated with the maturation of the egg and consisting of 3 stages: follicular, ovulatory and luteal.
  2. Uterine, dependent on processes in the body during menstruation (they all occur in the uterus under the influence of hormones secreted by the ovaries). Consists of desquamation, regeneration and proliferation.

Desquamation is the first of the three stages of change in the mucous membrane of the uterus (endometrium), which happens once a month, if fertilization has not occurred. At this time, the production of female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, is declining, which worsens the nutrition of the functional layer of tissues.

As a result of this process, dead cells appear. Their rejection and exit from the body in the form of bleeding is what normally happens during menstruation. These cells completely come out on the 3-4th day of menstruation.


Proliferation is the third stage, which occurs approximately on the 5th day after the beginning of menstruation and is characterized by the fact that they are formed:

  • new epithelial cells with tubular glands by dividing existing,
  • blood vessels that feed the glands and epithelium.

This stage lasts up to 2 weeks. During this time, the thickness of the functional layer of the appeared tissue reaches 8 mm.

Normal menstrual cycle

The time interval between the first day of every month for girls is called the menstrual cycle.

The normal cycle duration is from 21 to 35 days. Such a frequency is improving with the onset of a period of regular menses, that is, several months after the first discharge. They begin normally at 11-15 years, a more accurate age depends on the characteristics of the girl's body.

There is no exact indicator of how much monthly the girls should go. Their duration and intensity are individual. The averaged values ​​range from 3 to 7 days with the release of 40–50 ml of blood from the dead uterus of the endometrium through the cervical canal.

Monthly should have almost uniform structure and color. And the first days they are burgundy, dark red - the next. At the end of the menstruation, the blood may be scarlet, and a few days later, scanty brown discharges are considered normal.

Changes in the cycle can occur for physiological and pathological reasons and are always associated with the number and ratio of hormones produced by different organs.

The reason to contact a gynecologist woman of childbearing age are considered monthly, which are:

  • last less than 3 and more than 7 days,
  • too scarce or abundant
  • come more often 1 time in 3 weeks or less than once a month,
  • have a heterogeneous consistency and contain large blood clots,
  • smell unpleasantly
  • accompanied by severe pain in the lower abdomen and pelvis.

What does a woman feel during critical days

How each woman’s menstruation takes place is influenced by the following factors:

  • genetics - some of the weaker sex inherit pain or, on the contrary, their absence,
  • lifestyle - stressful situations and the lack of regular sexual life can aggravate a woman’s condition on critical days,
  • current state of health - if the body is weakened by diseases, then it is very likely that the menstruation process will be accompanied by a general deterioration of well-being.

When menstruation in the body of a woman hormonal changes occur, which affect her well-being. Sensations are different depending on the day of blood discharge:

  1. When menstruation begins, and the discharge is abundant, the girl may experience aching pain in the lower abdomen. They appear as a result of contractions of the uterus, pushing out the dead endometrial cells. The first days of menstruation also affect the cardiovascular, nervous and digestive systems. Vessels are constricted, blood pressure can drop, especially if a woman has a tendency to hypotension. The emotional state is unstable due to hormonal surges. Many people notice indigestion in their body - the active substances of prostaglandins secreted at this time reduce the intestinal tone.
  2. From the 3rd to the 6th day, the amount of blood discharge decreases, the mental and physical condition returns to normal. Occasionally, a woman feels pain and other symptoms of menstruation at this time.
  3. After the end of the critical days, the body is renewed, the state of health improves, the libido increases.

Gynecologists recommend to refrain from sexual activity from the 1st to the 3rd day of menstruation. During this period, when an unnecessary layer of tissue is torn away, the surface of the uterus looks like a wound and is very sensitive to infections. In addition, aching pain and general discomfort affect feelings during sex.


Any girl is obliged to know what is monthly and what changes occur in the uterus during menstruation. Such knowledge helps control your body, identify the symptoms of various diseases that cause a cycle failure, and prevent unwanted pregnancies.

In our article you can read about why the uterus hurts during menstruation, how menstruation goes during lactation and while taking contraceptive drugs, as well as why you can not sing during menstruation and actively engage in sports.

Uterus during menstruation

Monthly - is the process of detachment of the endometrium and its subsequent removal together with blood from the uterus. As a rule, this process in women of child-bearing age occurs monthly.

The first day of the monthly cycle is the first day of the onset of menstrual bleeding. The menstrual cycle is the time period from the first day of the beginning of the menstruation until the beginning of the next one. Normally, the monthly cycle is 21-38 days. If you have any deviations from the norm, you must immediately inform your doctor.

The unstable cycle of menstruation is usually inherent in young girls after the onset of the first menstruation, called menarche. But from year to year it becomes more stable and eventually normalizes completely. During menstruation, the uterus gets rid of the endometrium, which, after ovulation, is prepared to attach a fertilized egg. But when this does not happen, the endometrium begins to flake off. With a regular cycle, ovulation during menstruation is almost impossible. But if a woman’s cycle is irregular, for example, if her monthly periods appear several times a month or are absent for a long time, then ovulation can still occur during her periods. With a cycle duration of 28 days, ovulation, as a rule, happens 14 days after the onset of menstruation.

The cervix is ​​slightly ajar during menstruation. This fact, and the presence of blood secretions create beneficial conditions for the reproduction of dangerous pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, it is imperative to carefully observe individual hygiene, since the uterus is especially vulnerable during menstruation. It should be at least twice a day to wash and do not forget to systematically change tampons and sanitary pads. Sex during menstruation is desirable to stop for the same reason.

Pain during menstruation

Pain during menstruation occurs in many women. This is due to the fact that the uterus during menstruation is rhythmically reduced. Small pains are not a deviation from the norm and disappear at the end of the period.

The cause of too heavy, long and painful menstruation may be an overabundance of the hormone estrogen in the blood. With hormonal jumps, women can simultaneously suffer from algomenorrhea and PMS.

The occurrence of pain is often associated with an increase in the level of prostaglandins in the blood. These are special chemicals that play an important role in the occurrence of a variety of symptoms associated with discomfort during menstruation. They are produced by the tissue of the uterus and provoke its contraction. The higher the content of prostaglandins in the body, the more intense the muscle tissue of the uterus contracts and, consequently, the pain increases. Excess prostaglandins can also cause nausea, vomiting, headaches, chills, sweating, tachycardia.

In addition, the factors causing pain during menstruation may include:

  • intrauterine device,
  • Uterus bend,
  • endometriosis,
  • cysts, fibromatous nodes,
  • sexually transmitted diseases,
  • blood calcium deficiency,
  • genital inflammation,
  • thyroid dysfunction,
  • hormone imbalance
  • stresses.

Therefore, women who have a stomachache during menstruation should be examined by a specialist, as gynecological diseases often cause infertility.

Girls should also monitor the profusion of menstrual bleeding. Blood loss should not exceed 80 ml. If you have to change the pads every 2-3 hours, it means that the bleeding is severe. It can be caused by poor blood clotting, endometriosis disease, various tumors in the uterus, etc. If you have a severe bleeding, accompanied by pain and high temperature, then a gynecologist's examination during your period is absolutely necessary for you.

Menstruation during lactation

Monthly during lactation - a fairly common phenomenon. In the first two months after the birth of a child, postpartum discharge may continue in women, which are completely unrelated to menstruation. They are cleansing.

If a woman breastfeeds her baby, then her periods appear after 6-12 months after delivery. If the baby is on artificial feeding, the menstruation in a woman appears much earlier, approximately 6-8 weeks after the birth of the baby. But in rare cases, menstruation in a nursing woman occurs only 1.5-2 months after delivery, and this depends on the individual characteristics of the organism.

Monthly while taking contraceptive drugs

Contraceptive drugs, if taken correctly, do not allow pregnancy to occur in almost 100% of cases. Starting to drink contraceptives during menstruation should be on the first day of the menstrual cycle, only then the drugs act. Таблетки принимаются раз в день в течение 21 дня, после чего делается перерыв на 7 дней, и затем продолжается прием таблеток из новой упаковки.

In addition, the use of these drugs regulates the monthly cycle, eliminates many women from heavy menstrual bleeding and pain during menstruation. Modern contraceptives help to avoid the symptoms of menopausal and premenstrual periods, reduce the risk of developing cancer, prevent acne and stop unwanted hair growth on the face.

But it should be noted that contraceptives have some side effects. For example, when receiving these funds may appear bleeding, having both a breakthrough and smearing character. Superficial swelling appears in the first few months of birth control pills. Most often they are observed when taking funds with a small amount of hormones and occur because the meager doses of hormones contained in the pill do not have time to accumulate in the body in that amount to delay the menses. This phenomenon is not a deviation from the norm, therefore, in case of lung discharge, it is not necessary to stop taking contraceptive drugs. In addition, monthly during the intake of contraceptive drugs may occur a little earlier or later than expected, it all depends on the individual characteristics of the female body. You should not worry about this, the cycle is normalized when the body is fully adapted.

If, within 6 months after discontinuation of the use of contraceptive drugs, the cycle of menstruation has not returned to normal, consult a doctor.

Thrush during menstruation

Many women have thrush during their periods. The cause of candidiasis (thrush) during menstruation is the formation of beneficial conditions for the spread of this fungus. Menstruation is only one of the provoking factors for the exacerbation of candidiasis. This disease can also appear during pregnancy, during ovulation, when taking contraceptive drugs and antibiotics. The following symptoms may indicate the presence of this disease:

  • itch
  • redness of the genitals
  • cheesy discharge.

If thrush appeared during menstruation, a woman may experience pain during menstruation, and discharge will have an unpleasant odor. If these symptoms occur, you should see a doctor. He will conduct the necessary examinations and prescribe treatment. To avoid the occurrence of thrush during menstruation, personal hygiene should be very carefully monitored.

Should I use candles during menstruation?

Often, instructions for use of vaginal suppositories indicate that they should not be used during menstruation. The fact is that all the healing substances that are contained in the candles, with menstrual bleeding come out with secretions. And this happens because many vaginal suppositories in their composition have a base that is washed off with menstrual blood, especially during heavy menstruation.

Gynecologists advise not to use for the treatment of suppositories during menstruation, even if the instruction allows it, since it is unlikely to be effective. It is best to start treatment after the end of menstruation.

Is it possible to donate blood during menstruation

Many women, taking tests during menstruation, do not assume that their results may be distorted. For example, deciding to donate blood during menstruation, you should be prepared for the fact that the level of hemoglobin in these days may be somewhat reduced due to abundant blood loss. In addition, to pass an analysis aimed at the study of blood clotting, also does not make sense. Since to prevent bleeding during menstruation, blood clotting increases.

And although the other characteristics of blood do not have any particular effect on menstruation, it is still better to pass tests only five days after the end of menstruation. Of course, if the results are urgently needed, then menstruation cannot be a contraindication.

Monthly sports

Sports during menstruation can be very useful. Moderate athletic activity can relieve you from both general weakness and abdominal pain. During workouts, blood circulation in the pelvis improves, tension in the lower back disappears and endorphins, the “hormones of happiness,” that help to cope with stress and bad mood, are produced.

To postpone fitness classes during the period should be if your doctor has forbidden them. You should also not go in for sports if you have severe pains, heavy bleeding, dizziness during your period. And remember that the load should not be too intense.

Why not to sing during menstruation

During menstruation, small edemas of some organs, including the vocal cords and larynx, are traced in the woman's body. The capillary mesh on the vocal cords becomes more pronounced due to a stronger than usual rush of blood. The consequence of blood flow inevitably becomes the puffiness of the vocal cords and, as a result, their poor mobility. This, when singing, can cause damage to the ligaments (the smallest breaks, knots or even hemorrhages in the vocal muscle).

For this reason, singing should be stopped until the period ends.

What to do with pain during menstruation?

If you experience severe pain, you should immediately consult a doctor, especially if they are accompanied by fever, heavy bleeding and dizziness. To diagnose the causes of a violation of the cycle, you may be assigned: MRI, ultrasound, blood tests, smears, urine, etc. After diagnosis, the doctor prescribes the necessary treatment. When an imbalance of hormones is carried out, hormone therapy is carried out, with bleeding often curettage is prescribed, with various infections and inflammations - antibiotics, if pain is associated with stress - sedatives, etc.

If your doctor has not identified any abnormalities or pains caused by natural causes, he may prescribe pain medications for you, such as Celecoxib or Meloxicam. Tiamin, Magne B6, Omega-3, Calcium, Vitamin A supplements will help restore the cycle.

Pain can be reduced if you eat right, avoid all sorts of stressful situations, exercise regularly, give up bad habits.

For any irregularities in the cycle of menstruation, you should immediately consult a doctor. Failure to identify the causes of failures in the cycle can lead to serious consequences, such as infertility.

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